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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who established the comparison microscope as a valuable tool?
Goddard
Who undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints for personal identification?
Galton
Who has the biggest crime lab in the world?
FBI
What scientist determined blood grouping and applied it to criminal investigations?
Latte
Which forensic unit is responsible for processing bodily fluids and organs for drugs and poisons?
Toxicology
Who is the father of forensic toxicology?
Orphilia
What issues fall under civil litigations?
Civil in nature-divorce, liability, wills, realestate
How should the different types of physical evidence be collected?
Blood:
Small objects:
Arson materials:
Blood-paper bag
Small- druggist fold
Arson- glass jar
Which amendment applies to the removal of evidence from a person or scene?
4th amendment
What determines the success of a criminal investigation?
The collection of evidence and its preservation
What Supreme Court case dealt with warrantless collection of evidence at a homicide scene?
Mincey vs. Arizona
What should the first responding officer do at a crime scene (after providing or obtaining medical assistance if needed)?
Secure the scene
The recognition and collection of evidence is determined by
Skill of investigators
What is the correct manner of taking notes?
Everyone takes notes as you go, sketch and notes
What are the most basic methods of recording a crime scene?
Notes, pictures, sketches
How does physical evidence exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion?
Did not match DNA evidence
What is the likelihood of finding class evidence vs. the likelihood of finding individual evidence?
Greater than
What information is pieced together to reconstruct the crime scene?
Everything recorded
Who is involved in the crime scene reconstruction?
Everyone but judge
Which mortis may show tampering with body position?
Livor Mortis
What is the value of physical evidence vs. the value of eyewitness testimony?
Greater than
If evidence is corroborative, what does it do?
Supports/ agrees with
What evidence is traceable to a common origin? (individual vs. class)
Class
What is the effect of gravity on the weight an object vs. the effect of gravity on the mass of the same object?
The same
Which temperature scale is used by scientists?
Celsius
How does the birefringence of sodium chloride compare to the birefringence of calcite?
Less than
How does the shape of a bullet hole in glass tell us the direction of travel?
Wider on the exit side
Where is tempered glass used?
Back and side windows
What will an object do if it is placed in a fluid that is higher in density?
Float
How does the density of water change with temperature?
Less dense when colder
Which chromatographic process is the simplest and smallest?
TLC
How do elements and compounds compare?
Elements are smaller (1 atom), compounds (2 or more)
How does one improve a GC?
Hook up to an MS
Which spectral analysis gives the “fingerprint” of a substance?
Infrared
How does the volume of organic compounds compare to the volume of inorganic compounds received by crime labs for analysis?
Greater than
What chromatographic process is used for analyzing paint chips, plastics, and fibers?
Pyrolosis
What is the periodic table?
Table of elements
What are isotopes?
Same atomic number, but different atomic masses
What is in the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and neutrons
What forms of radiation are given off by radioactive decay?
Gamma, beta, alpha (not X-ray)
How does one excite a sample for emission spectroscopy?
Electricity added
What determines the frequency of light a sample will absorb?
Energy levels
What is emitted during neutron activation analysis?
Gamma radiation
What is the relative orientation of the polarizer and analyzer in a polarizing microscope?
Set to 90 degrees parallel
How does the field of view change when the magnification is changed in a compound microscope?
Smaller
What would one adjust to better focus a compound microscope?
Fine adjustment knob
How does a compound microscope change the orientation of an object under magnification?
Upside down and opposite L -> 7
Which microscope does not change orientation of the image under view?
Stereoscopic
Which microscope provides the highest resolution?
SEM- Scanning Electron Microscope
Which monomers are joined to make proteins?
Amino acids
Which fibers are synthetic?
Acetate, polyester, nylon
If you wanted to do DNA typing on a hair, what stage of growth would be best?
Anagenic
What evidence would one expect from a hit-and-run accident?
Hair, fibers, paint, blood
In what instances is paint encountered as a physical evidence
Burglary, car accident
Why is the visible light microspectorphotometer a convenient tool for fiber analysis?
Non destructive, allows for manipulation of sample (all of the above)
What substances are common diluents of heroin?
Starch, procaine, quinine
What are the effects of a low does of alcohol?
Judgment, reaction times, social controls
What drug classification is given to cocaine?
Stimulant
What does Scott Test solutions indicate?
Cocaine
What drug classification is given to methamphetamine?
Stimulant
What is the Reinsch used to detect?
Arsenic
Why is carbon monoxide toxic?
Bonds to hemoglobin and is carried throughout the body
Which country has the lowest BAC levels for detecting intoxication?
Sweden
What are factors in determining the rate of alcohol absorption into the bloodstream?
How much food is in the stomach, the concentration of the alcohol, quantity
What is the first focus in a fire investigation?
Where it started
What instrument is sensitive and reliable for detecting and characterizing flammable?
Gas chromotography
What are high explosives?
TNT, dynamite
What solvent can be used for rinsing explosive debris?
Acetone
What is the rarest blood type in the US?
AB
Which blood phenotype tells the blood genotype?
0, AB
What is EMIT?
Enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique- adding antibodies to a subject’s urine antibodies that will bind to the drug being tested
What “defect” causes sickle-cell anemia?
Misshapen red blood cells
What determines the rate at which DNA fragments move through the gel?
Size of fragments
Galton’s work was built on which scientist’s work?
Henry Fauld
What treatment will turn the latent fingerprint white?
Superglue fuming
What are the best brushes to use when dusting for fingerprints?
Any Brush
What can be substituted for Ninhydrin?
Iodine
How would one collect/process tools or tool marks at a scene?
Take pictures, make casting
How can shoe and tire marks be best preserved?
Take pictures, make casting
What is the relationship between the gauge of a shotgun and the diameter of the barrel?
Indirect
What factors can make the comparison of two bullets difficult?
Made of led, very soft
Barrel is being used over time and wares away
Variation due to age
What have the courts ruled regarding handwriting as evidence?
Can not self incriminate
Is it easier to find difference in a document from a typewriter or a document from a computer?
Typewriter
What are the class characteristics that show up in questioned documents?
Paper
What makes an expert witness?
Shows knowledge in their field and can explain
Who created Sherlock Holmes?
Doyle
What are the search patterns and how many people would be needed for each?
Spiral, grid, line, zone (more than one)
What blood born pathogens are a potential hazard for crime scene personnel?
AIDS, Hep C
What is the role of the crime scene photographer?
Depicts evidence and injuries
What is the first thing done in soil analysis?
Dry and examine
How does the heat intensity of water at 100 degrees Celsius compare to the heat intensity of water at 212 degree F?
The same
What are the mineral characteristics that are useful for identification?
Luster, streak, hardness
What is the element that is the focus of organic chemistry?
Carbon
How do the details of the IR compare to the UV?
Greater than
What is electrophoresis used for?
A technique for the separation of molecules through their migration on a support medium while under the influence of an electrical potential.
Characterizes blood
What are the parts of a monochrometer?
Prism and diffraction grating and slit
What is X-ray diffraction?
An analytical technique for identifying crystalline materials
Detects how the elements are combined into compounds
NOT TRUE: it is sensitive
Which microscopy technique will give a “fingerprint” of the substance?
Infrared
Which of the drugs discussed in class or mentioned in the book is least likely to cause psychological dependence?
Coedine
What does the presence of carbon monoxide in the blood of a victim found in a suspicious fire mean?
Perished after the fire started
During the period of absorption, how does the concentration of alcohol in arterial blood compare to venous blood?
Greater than
Is it more likely to have spontaneous combustion with unsaturated oils or lubricating oils?
Unsaturated Oils
Who has the oldest forensic laboratory?
LAPD
What is emitted by the sample when processed in the SEM?
Electrons from elements of the upper layer of the specimen and X-rays from the target
What are the opium derivatives?
Narcotics: Heroin, Codine
What is the relationship between BAC and the alcohol content in alveolar breath?
Direct relationship
What are the characteristics of primary explosives?
Unstable, unpredictable
Why does a reference sample need to be taken?
To reconstruct the crime scene accurately
How does the density of a liquid compare to the density of a gas?
Liquid has a higher density
Which part of the hair is most resistant to chemical decomposition?
Cuticle
Which drug discussed in class or mentioned in the text will not lead to physical dependence?
Cocaine
What are taggants?
Tags or strips that are indestructible, found in explosives, help to track the explosive back.
How many nitrogenous bases are needed to code for a specific amino acid?
3
What is the relationship between BAC and the alcohol content in alveolar breath?
Direct relationship
What are the characteristics of primary explosives?
Unstable, unpredictable
Why does a reference sample need to be taken?
To reconstruct the crime scene accurately
How does the density of a liquid compare to the density of a gas?
Liquid has a higher density
Which part of the hair is most resistant to chemical decomposition?
Cuticle
Which drug discussed in class or mentioned in the text will not lead to physical dependence?
Cocaine
What are taggants?
Tags or strips that are indestructible, found in explosives, help to track the explosive back.
How many nitrogenous bases are needed to code for a specific amino acid?
3