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38 Cards in this Set

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Formative Period
Parkman case (1840-1938)
• 1st use of analysis of skeleton remains
• Thomas Dwight – Father of Forensic Anthropology
• Hamann-Todd collection
• Terry Collection
 Problems with Collections: low socio-economic status (poor nutrition), Poor health, not representative of entire population, secular changes
Consolidation Period (1939-1971)
• Krogman’s guide (guide to identifying remains)
- Human skeleton in Forensic Medicine
• WWII ID’s – CILHI in Hawaii (all young white males)
• Korean War ID’s – young, w & b males
Modern Period (1972-1999)
• AAFS – physical anthro section formed
• ABFA established (only 88 granted since then)
• Beginning of formal training in forensic anthro
• T.Dale Stewart
 Curator of Physical Anthropology at Smithsonian
• William R. Maples – founded C.A Pound Human ID Lab at UF
• William Bass – U of TN
 Initiated research into time since death
 Bass Collection – modern known indv
 Human Osteology – Field guide
Superior/Inferior
up vs down
Anterior/Posterior
front vs back
Cranial/Caudal
head vs tail
Ventral/Dorsal
chest vs back
Medial/Lateral
towards or away from the midline
Proximal/Distal
deals with arms or legs, towards or away from midline (hand is distal to elbow, shoulder is proximal to my elbow)
Sagittal
directly down the middle, 2 = halves of body, R and L, presumably equal
Coronal
front and back halves of the body, but not equal halves.
Transverse
superior and inferior half of the body, sliced through horizontally is a transverse section
Axial
skull, spine, sacrum, ribs, cocksix (think head and spine, core line of skeleton)
Appendicular
everything else; appendages (clavical is appendicular)
Intramembranous
mostly skull bones, form between two layers of connective tissue.
Endochondral
forms in cartilaginous model. Cartilage ossifies
Metric Analysis tools
spreading calibers, sliding calibers, osteometric board
Length of skull
glabella (most anterior spot on the brow bone) to opsthocranion (furthest point from glabella) (g to op),
Height of skull
Basion to Bregma
Width of skull
euryon to euryon (on side of parietals)
Coroner duties
Identifying body, notify next of kin, collecting belongings, signing the death certificate
ME duties
Determine time, cause and manner of death. Review medical history, review witness statements, scene examination, autopsy examination.
Clinical autopsy
determine cause of death, i.e. pathology, standard in hospitals
Forensic Autopsy
take all organs out, vitreous humor, unnatural death, medico-legal purposes.
Gunshot could be d/t:
homicide, suicide, accident
Cerebral hemmhorage could be d/t:
natural, homicide, accident
Myocardial infarction d/t
natural… unless
Pnuemonia d/t
natural, accident, suicide
Thomas Dwight
Formative Period - Father of Forensic Anthropology
Invasive methods
o Pentrometer – poky stick
o Soil Coring Probe
o Test Pit – dig
Triangulation
large areas that are open (square into triangle)
Baseline
cartesian system, small areas (xy coordinate)
Polar Coordinates
large areas; limited in small areas (30 degrees north – distance, angle and depth measurment)
Livor Mortis
o Reddish purple to purple coloration in dependent areas of the body (pooling of blood)
o Dependent areas/blanching
•Usually evident w/in ½ to 1 hour after death
•Maximum coloration or “fixed” at 8-12 hours
Rigor Mortis
•Stiffening of the body
o Loss of ATP from muscle
•Usually 2-4 hours after death, fully develops in 12-16 hours
•Usually gone after 36 hours
•Can be affected by temp: warm = faster: cold = slower
•Starts in smaller muscles like hand, feet, and face muscles
•Body temp can affect rigor mortis
Algor Mortis
•Body temp
•Body cools at appros 1½ ° F per hr for the first 12 hours
o Then 1° for the next 12-18 hrs
•98° temp/1.5 = # of hours since death
•skin sloughing : after a while outer skin peels off
Adipocere
fatty tissues break down into waxy/putty
Rodent gnawing causes:
• Parallel “u” marks around edge of bone, often mistaken for saw marks