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1986 Berlin discotheque bombing?
The April 5, 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing was a terrorist attack on the West Berlin La Belle discotheque that was frequented by U.S. soldiers. A bomb placed under a table near the DJ booth exploded at the club, killing a Turkish woman and two U.S. servicemen and injuring 230 people, including more than 50 American servicemen. Libya was blamed for the bombing after telex messages had been intercepted from Libya's East Berlin embassy, and the then-U.S. President Ronald Reagan retaliated by ordering airstrikes against the Libyan capital of Tripoli and city of Benghazi—see Operation El Dorado Canyon. At least 15 people died in the U.S. airstrikes on Libya – including a 15-month-old girl said to have been adopted by leader Colonel Gaddafi – and more than 100 were injured.
30 years war?
It was fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive.
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
Absolute Monarchy
where the king or queen has absolute power over all aspects of his/her subjects' lives
absolution
The theory popular in France and other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks. (p. 452)
According to Ram Mohun Roy, in order to successfully move towards independence, Indians had to...?
change some of their cultural and religious practices
Acheh Sultanate
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641. (p. 541)
acllas
Women selected by Inca authorities to serve in religious centers as weavers and ritual participants. (p. 318)
Aden
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times. (p. 385)
Adolf Eichmann
Nazi architect of holocaust. Escaped after WWII to Argentina, but Israel hunted him down.
Age of enlightenment?
A trend in the 18th century in European philosophy, often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. The term also more specifically refers to a historical intellectual movement, "The Enlightenment." This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge. The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as courageous and elite, and regarded their purpose as leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny (which they believed began during a historical period they called the "Dark Ages"). This movement also provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, the Latin American independence movement, and the Polish Constitution of May 3, and also led to the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism.
agricultural revolution (18th Century)
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
Agricultural Revolution (ancient)
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. (p. 17)
Agriculture
Domestication of plants. Because agriculture required great effort and organization, it encouraged closer social ties and formation of long-lasting settlements.
Ahisma
A Jainism principle: the non violence towards all living things.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. (p. 536)
Akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)
Aleandria
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum-a center for leading scientific and literary figures. (138)
Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)
Alexander Nevski
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde. (p. 339)
Alexander the Great
Macedonia. He conquered Persia and ruled over Greece, allowing Greek culture to prosper.
Alfred Dreyfus
Highest ranking jewish officer in the french army around 1894. Falsly accused of being a spy.
Alhambra Palace
The palace was in Granada, Spain and it reflects Islamic-Spanish civilization
All-India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan (813)
Amon
Egyptian god related to the creator god.
Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (1000-1300 C.E.). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, the Anasazi culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas. (pg 308)
Andrei Sakharov
Developed soviet H-bomb. Later became critic of Soviets, exiled and awarded Nobel.
Appeal of June 18?
A speech on June 18th, 1940 by Charles de Gaulle, calling on the French to resist Germany.
aqueduct
A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization. (p. 156)
Arawak
Amerindian peoples who inhabited the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean at the time of Columbus. (p. 423)
Aristophanes
a comedic writer, was the author of The Clouds
Aristotle
established The Lyceum, pupil of Plato, wrote The Politics
Armenia
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. (p. 221)
As a result of the defeat of the Spanish Armada...?
Spain decreased as a European power
Asante
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. 1902 (736)
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate. (p. 365)
Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. (p. 184)
Ashur
Chief deity of the Assyrians, he stood behind the king and brought victory in war. Also the name of an important Assyrian religious and political center. (p. 94)
Asian Tigers
Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s. (p. 861)
Asiatic Huns
200-600CE. Lead to decline of all 3 classical civilizations
Assyrians
"WorldÂ's first true empire (large state created by conquest of neighbors)
Atahualpa
Last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish. (p. 438)
Atlantic System
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. (p. 497)
Augustine
wrote City of God, it showed there was order in history
australopithecines
Genus of extinct hominids that lived in Africa from the early Pliocene Epoch (beginning about 5.3 million years ago) to the beginning of the Pleistocene (about 1.6 million years ago), and believe to be ancestral to modern human beings. The australopithecines were distinguished from early apes by their upright posture and bipedal gait.
Austronesean
The earliest inhabitants of New Guinea that led seafaring lives. In 3000BCE established themselves on many islands.
autocracy
The theory justifying strong, centralized rule, such as by the tsar in Russia or Haile Selassie in Ethiopia. The autocrat did not rely on the aristocracy or the clergy for his or her legitimacy. (p. 553)
Axum
A great Christian kingdom of Ethiopia about 400CE with a prominent sea port known for trade.
ayllu
Andean lineage group or kin-based community. (p. 312)
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)
Balkanization
dividing up of territory into different states
Bands or tribes
Social group which resulted from clans becoming larger and mixing with neighboring groups
Bannermen
Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. (p. 684)
Bantu
An African people who migrated throughout Africa (2000-1000BCE) spreading agriculture while displacing hunter gatherers.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)
Batavi
Fort established ca.1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta. (p. 543)
Battle of Hastings
When William the Conqueror of Normandy takes the English Crown
Battle of Manzikert
Celtic Turks defeated the Byzantines, the Byzantine Empire was lost
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II. (p. 795)
Battle of Omdurman
British victory over the Mahdi in the Sudan in 1898. General Kitchener led a mixed force of British and Egyptian troops armed with rapid-firing rifles and machine guns. (p. 730)
Battle of Trafalgar
Major british naval victory over Napolean.
Battle of Waterloo?
The Battle of Waterloo, fought on June 18, 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. After his exile to Elba, he had reinstalled himself on the throne of France for a Hundred Days. During this time, the forces of the rest of Europe converged on him, commanded by the United Kingdom's Duke of Wellington, and Prussia's Gebhard von Blücher.The battlefield is in present day Belgium, about 12 km (7.5 miles) SSE of Brussels, and 2 km (1.2 miles) from the town of Waterloo. As far back as 13 March, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw; four days later the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule. Napoleon knew that, once his attempts at dissuading one or more of the allies from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the Allies put together an overwhelming force. If he could destroy the existing Allied forces in Belgium before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. He failed, and died in exile 6 years later.
Battle of Zama
When Marcipial beat Hannabal in Africa
Bedouin
Nomadic tribes originally from Northern Arabia who became important traders after the domestication of the camel during the first millennium. Early Converts to Islam, their values and practitioners included Bernini, Rubens, Handel, and Bach.
Beism
the concept of god during the scientific revolution. The role of divinity was limited to setting natural laws of motion.
Belisarius
The general who reconquered the Western Roman Empire.
Bengal
Region of northeastern India. It was the first part of India to be conquered by the British in the eighteenth century and remained the political and economic center of British India throughout the nineteenth century.(812)
Benjamin Disraeli
British PM who expanded rule over colonies.
Benjamin Franklin
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution. (p. 577)
Berlin Conference
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium. (See also Bismarck, Otto von.) (p. 732)
Between 1934 & 1939, the great purge was a campaign to eliminate?
opposition to Stalin's power
Bhakti
An Indian movement that sought to erase the distinction between Hinduism and Islam.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons. (p. 397)
Blaise Diagne
Senegalese political leader. He was the first African elected to the French National Assembly. During World War I, in exchange for promises to give French citizenship to Senegalese, he helped recruit Africans to serve in the French army. (809)
Boer Wars
Dutch people fighting independence of boer republic. British won. (1899-1902)
Boers
Dutch and other European settlers 19th century, British occupations
Bombing of the Panay?
The Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the United States Navy gunboat Panay while she was anchored in the Yangtze River outside of Nanjing on December 12, 1937, immediately preceeding the Rape of Nanking. Japan and the United States were not at war at the time. The Japanese claimed that they did not see the United States flags painted on the deck of the gunboat, apologized and paid an indemnity. Nevertheless, the attack and reports of the Nanking Massacre caused US opinion to turn sharply against the Japanese. In spite of this outrage, American isolationism kept them out of war, even when it was clear that the act was intentional.
Borobodur
A massive stone monument on the Indonesian island of Java, erected by the Sailendra kings around 800 C.E. The winding ascent through ten levels, decorated with rich relief carving, is a Buddhist allegory for the progressive stages of enlightenment. (193)
Bourbons
Ruling family of France until the French Revolution.
bourgeoisie
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. (p. 459)
Boxer Rebellion
Kick out foriegners, defeated but gave more control to europeans
Boyar
The Russian Nobility
breech loading rifle
Gun into which the projectiles had to be individually inserted. Later guns had magazines, a compartment holding multiple projectiles that could be fed rapidly into the firing chamber. (p. 681)
British raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government. (p. 659)
Bronze Age
3500 to 1200 BCE - mixture of copper and tin to create bronze - developed in China and Middle East between 4000 and 3000 BCE - better quality and adaptibility than stone - signals end of Stone Age
Brutus
Roman politician who assassinated Caesar.
bubonic plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. High mortality rate and hard to contain. Disastrous. (280)
Burlingame Treaty?
The Burlingame Treaty, between the United States and China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin and established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China Most Favored Nation status. It was ratified in 1868. Importantly, Chinese immigration to the United States was encouraged. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.
By 1812, Napoleon had conquered most of Europe except
England
By 1849, most of Europe was under the control of the ?
Conservatives
By 1935, the only eastern European country that was still a democracy was
Czechoslovakia
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Caesaropapism
The idea that a king's rule has an aura of divinity and is sanctioned by God.
Caligula
Insane Roman emperor. Nominated his horse to the Senate.
caliphate
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire. (See also Abbasid Caliphate; Sokoto Caliphate; Umayyad Caliphate.) (p. 232)
capitalism
The economic system of large financial institutions-banks, stock exchanges, investment companies-that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy. (506)
Captain James Cook
English explorer of Australia, New Zealand Hawaii, antarctica and West Coast of North America.
Captain William Kidd
Famous English pirate in 17th-18th century.
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
Caribbean Sea
Sea that is point of connection between North and South America, resource rich, and first territories reached by European settlers in 15th and 16th centuries
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
Cassaks
Peasant adventures with agricultural and military skills, recruited to concur and settle newly settled lands in southeast Russia and Siberia.
Caste System
System of rigid social hierarchy. Birthed into specific “ranks”
Cathars
Encountered Byzantine ideas in long distance trade. Adopted an ascetic heretic lifestyle.
Catherine the Great
German born, Russian Zarina. Combined ideas with a strong policy. Converted nobility to a service aristocracy by granting them the power over the peasants.
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. (p. 447)
Cato
Roman politician bent on destruction of Carthage.
cavalry warfare
"New skill of warfare developed by Assyrians.
Cecil Rhodes Asante
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him. (p. 736)
Celts
Peoples sharing a common language and culture that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. After 500 B.C.E. they spread as far as Anatolia in the east, Spain and the British Isles in the west, onquered by Romans (90)
Central Powers
Germany and its allies in WWI.
Champa
A state formerly located in what is now southern Vietnam. It was hostile to Annam and was annexed by Annam and destroyed as an independent entity in 1500. (p. 366)
Champa Rice
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state. (See also tributary system.) (p. 295)
Chan Buddhism
Called “Zen” , meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty, popular among the rich.
Chandragupta Maurya
A king who reigned (322-298BCE) who starved himself to death after becoming a Jainist monk.
Chang'an
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire. >(p. 164)
Charlemagne?
Also known as Charles the Great, he was king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. He was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III and is therefore regarded as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire, a reincarnation of the ancient Western Roman Empire. Through military conquest and defence, he solidified and expanded his realm to cover most of Western Europe and is today regarded as the founding father of both France and Germany and sometimes as the Father of Europe. His was the first truly imperial power in the West since the fall of Rome.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Charles Martel
Charles "The Hammer" Martel this Frank established the Carolingian Empire and defeated the Gaul's in the Battle of Tours.
chartered Company
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies. (p. 498)
Chav?n
The first major urban civilization in South America (900-250 B.C.E.). Its capital, Chav?n de Hu?ntar, was located high in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Chav?n became politically and economically dominant in a densely populated region. (89)
Chiang Kai-Shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
chiefdom
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links. (p. 311)
Chimu
Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465. (p. 314)
chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. (p. 301)
Chivalry
A code of conduct among nobles which held a high ethical standard of individuals to become examples of behavior in society.
Cicero
historian, wrote On The Republic
city
protection and defense for large numbers of people; points of trade and economic activity; exchange of ideas, information, religious beliefs and cultural values; specialization of labor
city-state
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy. (p. 32)
civilization
"complex forms of social and political organization; practice of agriculture; advanced tool use; and the rise of cities
Clans
Groups of extended families which tended to cluster together, bound together by ties of kinship
classical antiquity
Greek and Roman times
clipper ship
Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late nineteenth century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts. (p. 666)
Clovis
The Frankish warlord who conquered much of Gaul in 486 who converted to Roman Christianity.
Collapse of Communism
1989-91. EE countries facing resistance. Gorbachev did not send troops. Lost Pland to Solidarity in 1989. Berlin wall fell. Failed communist Coup against Gorbechev marked end.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. (p. 472)
Commonwealth
1649 brief Republic established between Britain and Ireland. Later say resoration of the Monarchy.
Confederation of 1867
Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.(p. 627)
Confucianism
Doctrine that focused on morally superior individuals which took a broad view of political affairs but emphasized social activism.
Confucius
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.(p. 62)
Congress of Vienna
Drew boundaries of Europe after defeat of Napolean. Lead to peace in Europe for next 40 years.
Congress party
Political party of Ghandi and Nehru during Indian independence.
conquistadors
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (See Cort?s, Hern?n; Pizarro, Francisco.) (p. 436)
Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. (p.159)
Constantinople
Set up by ruler Constantine. 312-337CE. Se up his capital city to regulate Eastern Roman Empire
Constitutional Convention
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States. (p. 583)
constitutionalism
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks. (p. 452)
contract of indenture
A voluntary agreement binding a person to work for a specified period of years in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most indentured servants were Europeans; after 1800 most indentured laborers were Asians. (p. 670)
Cortez?
A spanish explorer who conquered the Aztecs.
Cossaks
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 552)
cottage industries
Weaving, sewing, carving, and other small-scale industries that can be done in the home. The laborers, frequently women, are usually independent. (p. 353)
cotton
The plant that produces fibers from which cotton textiles are woven. Native to India, cotton spread throughout Asia and then to the New World. It has been a major cash crop in various places, including early Islamic Iran, Yi Korea, Egypt, & US (363)
Council of the Indes
The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities. (p. 476)
coureurs de bois
(runners of the woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America. (p. 489)
creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. (p. 482)
Crimean war?
The Crimean War lasted from 28 March 1854 until 1856 and was fought between Imperial Russia on one side and an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, The Piedmont-Sardinia, and (to some extent) the Ottoman Empire on the other. The majority of the conflict took place on the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea. Cigarettes were invented during the war. First war to have tactical use of railways. First war to have live reporting (via telegraph). Russia lost.
Cro-Magnon
Existed 40,000 years ago and is a homo sapien. They were highly reflective in art and existed in Europe.
Crusades
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. (p. 270)
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority. (p. 894)
Cuneiform
earliest known forms of writing in ancient Sumer
Cyrus
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
Dag Hammarskjold
UN Secretary General during Cold War and oversaw decolonization.
Dante Alighieri
wrote Divine Comedy (1313-1321), it describes the poets journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven
Danube River
Second longest river in Europe after the Volga, which rises in the Black Forest mountains of western Germany and flows for some 1,770 miles to its mouth on the Black Sea. Along its course, it passes through nine countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.
Daoism
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.
Darius
Persian King who led first invasion of Greece, expanded Persia and built a canal from the Red Sea to the Meditteranian
Dates of the Ottoman Empire?
1299-1922. Capital was Istanbul.
David Lloyd George
PM of Britain at end of WWI. Wanted to punish Germany in Treaty of Versailles.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
Delhi Sulatanate
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders. (p. 374)
Delian League
military alliance led by Athens to resist Persian Imperialism
Demak
on the north coast of central Java province, on the island of java, Indonesia
Demographic Transition
A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)
Despite its unification as a nation, Italy suffered from which of the following problems?
tension between industrial N and agricultural south
devshirme
'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.(p. 526)
Dharma
Set of laws
dhow
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull. (p. 382)
Dienbienphu
Where Vietnamese defeated French in 1954, lead to French withdrawal.
Diocletian
An emperor, reigned (284-305CE) divided the empire into two administrative districts. He was a skillful administrator.
Dirty War
War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1982) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military. (p. 857)
divination
Techniques for ascertaining the future or the will of the gods by interpreting natural phenomena such as, in early China, the cracks on oracle bones or, in ancient Greece, the flight of birds through sectors of the sky. (p. 59)
division of labor
Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, increasing productivity, (603)
Domesday Book
a comprehensive survey of the lands of england
Domino Theory
the belief that if the communist succeed in vietnam other countries is SE and E asia would also fall to communism
Dreyfus Affair?
The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. It involved the wrongful conviction of Jewish military officer Alfred Dreyfus for treason. The Dreyfus Affair split France into Dreyfusards and anti-Dreyfusards. The sometimes-violent quarrel involved controversial issues in a heated political climate. To some extent, the division was between right-wing anti-Dreyfusards supportive of a return to monarchy and clericalism (the involvement of the Roman Catholic Church in public policy) and left-wing Dreyfusards supportive of the Republic and angry with the Church. However, some right-wingers supported Dreyfus for his courage and some left-wingers opposed him for his bourgeois background. The factions in the Dreyfus affair remained in place for decades afterwards. The far right remained a potent force, as did the moderate liberals. The liberal victory played an important role in pushing the far right to the fringes of French politics. It also prompted legislation such as a 1905 enactment separating church and state.
driver
A privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation. (p. 503)
Druids
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples. They provided education, mediated disputes between kinship groups, and were suppressed by the Romans as potential resistance. (92)
Dumbarton Oaks Conference?
The Dumbarton Oaks Conference (or Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization), held beginning in August 1944 in a Washington, DC mansion (Dumbarton Oaks), was where the United Nations was formulated and negotiated. Discussions on the make-up of the UN included which states would be invited as members. The conference was attended by representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the Republic of China. Discussions included the formation of the Security Council and the right of veto that would be given to its permanent members. The conference was followed up by a San Francisco Conference, where the Security Council veto powers were established.
durbar
An elaborate display of political power and wealth in British India in the nineteenth century, ostensibly in imitation of the pageantry of the Mughal Empire. (p. 661)
During Spain's civil war, Franco was the leader of ?
Spanish rebel groups
During the 19th century, what happened in Europe? (3)
Conflict between conservative and liberal movements, the resurgence of conservatives over liberals, and the decline of established empires
During the cold war, who was India mainly allied with?
The USSR.
During the cold war, who was pakistan mainly allied with?
The US.
During the global depression, war debts caused great suffereing in?
Germany
During the mid 1800's, count Camillo di Cavour expanded the Piedmont-Sardinia's power and also..?
Unified Italy
During the rule of Frederick II, Prussia ...?
rejected pragmatic sanction against division of Hasburg land
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa. (p. 498)
early China (Yellow River)
"Also known as Huang Ho River.
Edict of Milan?
It was a policy under Constantine the great under the Roman empire to end persecution of the christians in the eastern Roman empire, which became the Byzantine empire after Constantine's death.
Edmund Burke
English politician who supported American revolutionary war, but opposed French Revolution.
Edward 1
English monarch, issued the Statues of Realm (1301), it set a precedent for changing law by legislation rather than administrative decision
Edwardian period
In England prior to WWI, known for its extravagance and unpreparedness for the 20th Century.
Egypt (the Nile River)
"Agricultural settlement emerged 5500 bce.
Egyptian religion and Egyptian Book of the Dead
"Part of elaborate religion in which chief god was Re, the sun god.
El Alamein
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the 'Desert Fox') in 1942-1943. (p. 793)
Eleanor of Aquitane
(1122-1204) liberally supported romantic poets & entertainers. The most celebrated woman of her time supporting chivalry, good manners, refinement, and romantic love.
electric telegraph
A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s and replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores. (609)
electricity
A form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s. (p. 702)
Elizabeth I
16th-17th century queen of England during Renaissance. Shakespere and defeat of the Spanish Armada.
Emilano Zapata
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately assassinated. 819
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Emperor Menelik
. Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1889-1911). He enlarged Ethiopia to its present dimensions and defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa (1896). (p. 737)
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. (p. 721)
encomienda
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians. (479)
England's Glorious Revolution?
The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a conspiracy between some parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. The event is sometimes referred to as the Bloodless Revolution but this name is a misnomer as there was much fighting, with loss of life, in Ireland and to a lesser degree in Scotland. The Glorious Revolution was one of the most important events in the long evolution of powers possessed by Parliament and by the Crown in England. With the passage of the Bill of Rights, it stamped out any final possibility of a Catholic monarchy, and ended moves towards monarchical absolutism in the British Isles by circumscribing the monarch's powers. The King's powers were greatly restricted; he could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission. Since 1689, England, and later the United Kingdom, has been governed under a system of constitutional monarchy, which has been uninterrupted. Since then, Parliament has gained more and more power, and the Crown has progressively lost it.
English Bill of Rights?
(1689): It is one of the basic documents of English constitutional law, alongside Magna Carta, the Act of Settlement and the Parliament Acts.
English Civil War?
A series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between English Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. The first (1642 - 1645) and the second (1648) Unlike other civil wars in England which focused on who ruled, this war also concerned itself with the manner of governing the British isles. Accordingly, historians also refer to the English Civil War as the English Revolution. Oliver Cromwell was leader of the Parlimentarians.
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics. (pp. 468, 574)
Epic of Gilgamesh
Sometime before 2000 BCE in Sumeria. Tells story of a king's quest to achieve immortality.
Epicureanism
A philosophy that identified pleasure as the greatest good.
equites
In ancient Italy, landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counterbalance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the equites to staff the imperial civil service (152)
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Ethiopia
Borded by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the east. CHRISTIAN
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia (883)
Ethnocentrism
judging foreigners by standards of ones own group
Euripides
the author of Medea and other tragedies
European Community
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1967 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993. (p. 834)
Eva Peron
Wife of Juan Per?n and champion of the poor in Argentina. She was a gifted speaker and popular political leader who campaigned to improve the life of the urban poor by founding schools and hospitals and providing other social benefits. (p. 824)
extraterritoriality
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. (682)
Faisal
Arab prince, leader of the Arab Revolt in World War I. The British made him king of Iraq in 1921, and he reigned under British protection until 1933. (p. 760)
Fall of Rome
Collapse of Roman empire in 5th Century. Plundered by the Vandals, then finally abdication of the last Roman emperor, romulus Augustulus, 476
Family unit
Social unit resulting from ability to choose sexual partners, emotional bonding, and length of time needed to raise human offspring.
Fascism?
Form of government characterized by militarism, extreme nationalism, and a oneparty dictatorship.
Fascist Party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943. (See also Mussolini, Benito.) (p. 786)
Features of civilization
(1) Economic system able to make basic goods and services available; (2)Form of political organization capable of governing, creating social institutions, enforcing laws, and protecting people from outside threats, (3) Moral code in the form of a shared religion, and (4) Intellectual tradition that includes a written language and encourages the pursuit of knowledge, science and the arts.
Features of the "city"
protection and defense for large numbers of people; points of trade and economic activity; enable exchange of ideas, information, religious beliefs, and cultural values
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. (p. 431)
Fertile Crescent (Tigris-Euphrates river system)
Settlement began as early as 8000 BCE. Large scale agriculture by 5000 BCE. Sumerian-Babylonian civilizations
Feudalism
Relationship among military elite during middle ages. Greater lords provided protection for lesser lords in return for military service
fidel Castro
Overthew Batista in 1959. Turned to communism.
First geneva convention? The last?
1864. 1949. These conventions set norms for international law.
First Temple
A monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues. (102)
Five Pillars
The obligatory religious duties for all Muslims: Confession of faith, Prayer, Fasting during Mamadan, Zakat, Hajj
Five prophets of Islam
1)Noah 2)Abraham 3)Moses 4)Jesus 5)Mohammad(last and greatest prophet)
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)
Footbinding
Male imposed practice to mutilate women’s feet in order to reduce size, produce pain, and restrict movement. Confined women to household
Forbidden City
The walled section of Beijing where emperors lived between 1121 and 1924. A portion is now a residence for leaders of the People's Republic of China. (p. 355)
Fourth Lateran Council
Identified the 7 sacraments and reaffirmed that they are essential to salvation
Fracis Xavier
Missionary who worked in India during 1540. Worked among outcast and lower cast groups. Later worked in Japan
Francis Bacon
Renaissance leader in England.
Francisco Franco
Facist dictator of Spain, Head of state for life. Died in 1975
Francisco Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. (819)
Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French. (p. 593)
Francois Toussanit Loveture
Leader of slave rebellion on french island of St. Dominique. Created independent republic of Haiti 1804
Fransisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531-1533. (p. 438)
Fredrick Nietesche
Athiest German philosopher, known as a existentialist
Free French?
During WWII, the French who refused the legitimacy of the Vichy Regime. Headed by Charles De Gaulle, they eventually took part in normandy and liberated Paris.
free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics. (744)
French revolution
1789 - 1799
fresco
A technique of painting on walls covered with moist plaster. It was used to decorate Minoan and Mycenaean palaces and Roman villas, and became an important medium during the Italian Renaissance. (p. 73)
From the 1200's to the early 1700's, Russia can best be described as...?
isolated
Funan
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Egyptian leader who took Suez Canal in 1956. Also launched unsuccessful 6 day war against Israel.
Gaul
the modern day nation of France
Gender division of labor
Feature of Stone Age society. Due to basic physical differences, various food-gathering tasks and everyday activities tended to be assigned by sex. Did not necessarily mean men's roles were superior to women. Over time, gender division of labor led to inequality of sexes, despite technological advances that have made physical differences less important.
gens de couleur
Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution. (See also L'Ouverture, Fran?ois Dominique Toussaint.) (p. 593)
gentry
In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. (166)
George Keenan "Containment"
US diplomat who advocated to keep communism where it was and not to let it spread
Georges Clemenceau
French leader at end of WWI. Wanted to punish Germany in Treaty of Versailles and compenate France.
Georges Danton
French revolutionary who called for execution of the king and others. Later considered not radical enough and was himself killed by other revolutionaries.
Getulio Vargas
Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo ('New State'), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization. (823)
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. (p. 215)
Gilgamesh
legendary king who was half man and half god. He went on a journey to find eternal youth with his friend Eucles. He died in the end.
Giovanni Boccacio
wrote the Decameron, recounts how a group of young Florentines fled during the Black Death
Gold Coast
Region of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe from the 1470s onward. (p. 428)
Golden Horde
A group of Mongols that overran Russia, Poland, and Hungary. (1237-1242).
Gothic
Architectural developed in the Middle age in Western Europe/ Flying Buttress
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows. (p. 405)
Grand Canal
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
Great Canal
canal system began by Yangdi Sui Dynasty around 600, joined yellow and yantze river.
Great Circuit
The network of Atlantic Ocean trade routes between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay theAtlantic system. (p. 508)
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state. (p. 385)
Greek City States
Polis. Has a government. A city that has its own country. Has Council.
Greek fire
Greek fire (also called Byzantine fire, wildfire and liquid fire, Greek Υγρό Πυρ, igró pir) was a weapon used by the Byzantine Empire, said to have been invented by a Syrian Christian refugee named Kallinikos (Callinicus) of Heliopolis (Syria), probably about 673. Some people believe that he acquired this knowledge from the chemists of Alexandria. It was capable of discharging a stream of burning fluid, and was very effective both on sea and land. However, it was used primarily at sea. It is rumored that the key to Greek fire's effectiveness was that it could continue burning under almost any conditions, even under water. It was known to the Byzantines' enemies as a "wet, dark, sticky fire" because it stuck to the unfortunate object it hit and was impossible to extinguish. Enemy ships were often afraid to come too near to the Byzantine fleet, because, once within range, the fire gave the Byzantines a strong military advantage. The last testimony of Greek Fire usage was in the Siege of Constantinople, where the secret itself was destroyed in the flames of the Ottoman torches.
Grigori Rasputin
Healer for czar Nicolas during WWI, gave advice on how to run the government. Later killed by jealous noblemen.
Gueranica
town in spain; used by hitler for target practice; used first ariel bombing against unarmed citizens
guild
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests. (403)
Guilds
Organizations of artisans in the Middle Ages
Gujarat
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabitants are called Gujarati. (p. 380)
gunpowder
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. (p. 289)
Guomindang
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement. (p. 769)
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)
Guptas
Large Indian empire. Lasted 200 years. Gave classical India its greatest period of political stability
Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)
hadith
A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law. (p. 241)
Hafaz Assad
President of Syria 1971 to 2000. Hard-liner against Israel and Islamic fundamentalism.
Hagia Sophia
church rebuilt by Justinian. The model for churches all over the empire
Hague Conventions?
1899 and 1907 conventions were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law.
Haile Selassie
Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1930-1974) and symbol of African independence. He fought the Italian invasion of his country in 1935 and regained his throne during World War II, when British forces expelled the Italians. He ruled Ethiopia as an autocrat. (809)
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Han
A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. (p. 164)
Han Dynasty
(200BCE- 200CE) Strong centralized govt. Spread borders. Not as violent.
Hannibal
A Carthage military commander. Marched troops through the alps and defeated many Roman armies. Returned to Carthage and failed as an administrator. Voluntary exiled himself to the Seleucid Court where he was a military adviser.
Hansaetic League
Trade network in the Baltic and North Sea which embraced many cities. This encouraged economic, social, and banking growth.
Hapsburgs
Lead Austrian empire 13th - 20th century
Harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials. (p. 48)
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Hebrew Bible
A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. (99)
Heinrich Himmler
Head of SS and Gestapo. Also supervised holocaust.
Hellenistic
literally “To imitate the Greeks” The era after the death of Alexander the Great when Greek culture spread into the near east and blended with the cultures of that region.
Hellenistic Age
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until spread of islam. (137)
Helsinki Accords
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
Henan Curfs
Led to Expeditions to Mexico in 1519 defeated Aztec Empire and established Spanish colonial rule.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Henry VIII
English king who made himself head of the Church of England when Pope would not recognize his divorce. Since then, England has been Protestant.
Herding societies
Social groups that domesticated animals, but not plants. Had to move from place to place on constant basis, in order to obtain grass or fodder. Herding societies were less likely to develop into civilized societies.
Hermann Goering
Head of luftwaffe during Battle of Britain.
Hernando Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain. (p. 437)
Herodotus
Greek scholar, nickname was the "father of history", wrote "The Histories" (about Persian War vs. Greek city states)
Hidden Imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time. (p. 532)
high culture
Canons of artistic and literary masterworks recognized by dominant economic classes. (p. 897)
Hijra
Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Yathrib
Hinduism
Term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. Hinduism has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices. Spread along trade routes (181)
Hippocrates
Medicine in the 5th century BC greek empire.
Hirohito
Emperor of Japan during WWII. Remained emperor after WWII but just figure head not really in charge
history v. prehistory
"History goes back to a little more than 5000 years ago. Prehistory refers to the vast expanse of time that precedes the birth of civilized societies"
Hitlers main method for achieving lebensraum was to ?
conquer other countries
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Holocaust
Nazis' program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others. (p. 800)
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
Homer
poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Homo erectus
Extinct species of early hominid that is thought to be the direct ancestor of modern Homo sapiens. Flourished from the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch to sometime in the Middle Pleistocene, about 1,600,000 to 250,000 years ago. Fossil remains of H.erectus were first found in the 1890s. Stone axes, basic wooden tools, clothing of skin and furs, and larger brain than H. erectus
Homo habilis
Extinct species of early hominid that inhabited parts of sub-Saharan Africa about 2 million to 1.5 million years ago, and generally accepted as the earliest member of the genus Homo, following Australopithecus and preceding H. erectus. Remains of H. habilis were first discovered in 1959 and 1960 at Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania. Name, by Leakey, refers to able or "handy" man.
Homo sapiens - Neanderthal
Early form of Homo sapiens that inhabited much of Europe and the Mediterranean lands during the late Pleistocene Epoch, about 100,000 to 30,000 years ago. Neanderthal remains have also been found in the Middle East, North Africa, and western Central Asia. Name derives from the discovery in 1856 of the first remains of the type in a cave above the Neander Valley in Germany, not far from Düsseldorf. Advanced tools, clothing, semi or permanent dwellings and social groups.
Homo sapiens sapiens
Genus and species to which all modern human beings (Homo sapiens sapiens) belong and to which are attributable fossil remains of humans 100,000 to 200,000, and perhaps as much as 400,000 years old.
hoplite
Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces 128
horse collar
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles. (p. 269)
House of Burgesses
Elected assembly in colonial Virginia, created in 1618. (p. 486)
House of Hanover
Series of English kings and queens who strengthened parliament.
How are Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle related?
Plato was Socrates' student. Aristotle was Plato's student. The three worked with the rationalizing and linearalizing of thought and ideas.
How did Admiral Nelson defeat the French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar?
divided French fleet into small groups and attacked
How did Cardinal Richelieu work to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy?
Moved against the Huguenots and weakened the power of the nobles
How did civilians join the war effort?
Scrap metal drives, working in war industries, rationing
How did Europeans use paternalism to govern people in colonies?
they provided for colonial peoples' needs but did not give them full rights
How did indirect control compare to direct control?
Indirect control allowed limited self-rule
How did Kristallnacht demonstrate Nazi persecution of Jews?
Nazi troops attacked Jewish homes, business and synagogues
How did life change for Russians after the sucess of the Bolshevik revolution?
Russia was organized into several self-governing republics
How did Menelik II keep colonial interests of Ethiopia?
he exploited European rivalries and built a modern army
How did the Allies respond to Wilson's vision for peace? (3)
Briatin and France showed little sign of agreeing to Wilson's plan, B & F were concerned with strengthening their own security, B & F wanted to strip Germany of its war-making power
How did the French govern the people of French Indochina?
Direct Colonial Control
How did the Japanese try to build a pacific empire?
by taking over US British and French territories
How did the Lend-Lease act benefit the US?
it enriched the US economy through selling arms to the Allies
How did the Puritans finally win the English Civil War?
Cromwells army defeated the ROyalists and the Puritans held the King Prisoner
How did the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II help pave the way for revolution?
They both upheld an autocratic government without reforms
How did the Treaty of Versailles affect postwar Germany?
it left a legacy of bitterness in the hearts of the German people
How did the United Provinces of the Netherlands differ from the neighboring states?
elect governments whose power depends on landowners and merchants
How did zoroastrianism influence judaism and christianity?
It introduced the concepts of angels, satan, ressurection, and afterlife.
How were France and Russia similar during the 1800's?
Both had policies that encouraged industrialization
How were Muhammad Ali's policies and European colonial policies similar?
Peasants were forced to grow cash crops instead of food
How were the books Les Miserables and Frankenstein different?
Both were written by British authors
How were the Holocaust and Hitler's final solution related?
Holocaust is the term for genocide that resulted form the plan called the "final solution"
How were the unifications of Italy and Germany similar?
Both use military to unify territories
Huguenots
French protestants of the 16th-17th century persecuted by Roman Catholic Church. Louis XIV banned them, and many fled to America.
humanism?
It came from the rennaissance. It places emphasis on the individual's potential to reach greatness in any realm - art, science, spirituality, etc...
humanists (renaissance)
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. (p. 408)
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413) (1337-1453) France vs. England, France won, lasted 116 yrs-a series of conflicts
Huns
Tribe from Western Asia who conquered much of Europe during the 5th century.
Hunting and gathering societies
Also called foraging societies. Living off resources that could be taken directly from land. When resources grew scarce, they moved on to another area.
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. (p. 373)
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)
Ibn;Rushdi
Iberian Muslim philosopher. Helped to make works done by Plato and Aristotle become well known.
Iconoclasm
Breaking of images; Religious controversy of the 8th century. Byzantine Empire attempted but failed to suppress icon veneration
Il Duce was the title of which of the following leaders?
Benito Mussolini
Il-Khan
A 'secondary' or 'peripheral' khan based in Persia. The Il-khans' khanate was founded by H?leg?, a grandson of Genghis Khan, was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It controlled much of Iran and Iraq. (p. 333)
Ilkhanate of Persia
Brother of Khubilai Khan who took over Baghdad in 1258.
Imperialism
the policy of extending one countries power over onother by conquest of by establishing direct enviorment, economy, or culture over another
imperium
consuls could take military power and authority
in 1588, the Spanish Armada met defeat at the hands of?
the English
In 1907, Russia and Britain agreed to Spheres of Influence in..?
Persia
in 1920, a dictatorship ruled
Russia
In the 1860's, the expansion of Prussia was achieved under the leadership of who?
Otto von Bismark
In the early 19th century Europe, one political goal that liberals had was?
Give more power to elected parliaments
In the first falf of the 1800's, a political liberal was most likely to be
middle class merchant
In the first practical process of making photographs, on what were photographs printed?
Metal
In the late 1800's, who competed for industrial domination of Europe?
Great Britain and Germany
In what way did the Bourgeoisie differ from other members of the Third Estate?
believed in enlightenment ideas
Inca
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco. (p. 316)
Inca Socialism
Interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia. Organized in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Incas?
An empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. Over that period, the Inca used conquest and peaceful assimilation to incorporate in their empire a large portion of western South America, centred on the Andean mountain ranges, and including parts of Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. The Spanish conquered them in 1533.
indentured servant
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years. (p. 486)
Indian Civil Service
The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians. (p. 661)
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, it appealed to the poor (812)
Indian Ocean Maritime System
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 207)
Indira Ghandi
Daughter of Nehru, PM from 1966 to 1977, later 1980-84. Focused on helping poor and independence of Bangladesh. Assassinated by her own bodyguards.
Indo-Europeans
People from India/Europe: referring to Hitties who migrated to the central plain of Anatolia and imposed their rule and language on the people.
Indulgence
Church selling freedom from purgatory. Attack by Martin Luther of this practice began the reformation.
Indus
An Indian River whose source is the Himalayas an is known for its wildness.
Indus valley civilization (Indus River)
"Arose around 2600 bce.
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, transit, and communications (599
Inquisition
Court established by Catholic Church to try people for Heresy. Most active in Spain.
investiture (feudal)
ceremony where the lord gave his vassal a clod of earth or sprig of leaves as a symbol of the land the vassal was receiving
investiture (popes)
controversy Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands. (p. 261)
Irish potato famine
19th century famine due to failure of potato crop. Lead to mass migration to the US
Iron Age
After the bronze age, used iron to make tools around 2000 BC
Iroquois Confederacy
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)
Islam
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. (231)
Israel
In antiquity, the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948. (p. 98)
Ivan the Terrible
Russian czar of 16th century, who battled with his nobles and was known for his cruelty.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. (See also Robespierre, Maximilien.) (p. 588)
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him. (p. 607)
Janissaries
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme. (p. 526, 675)
Japanese Instrument of Surrender?
The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of Japan, US, China, UK, USSR, Australia, Canada, France, Netherlands, and New Zealand on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945, and which thereby ended the Pacific War and with it World War II.
Jawaharial Nehru
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964). (p. 815)
Jean Calvin
French Protestant who stress the doctrine of free destination. Establish Central of group in Geneva Switzerland
Jean-Paul Marat
Leader of Jacobins in French Revolution
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. (p. 548)
Johann Gutenberg
Invented the first typewriter. Gutenberg bible first book printed from it.
Johannes Gutenburg
introduced movable type to W Europe in the 15th century
joint-stock company
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors. (p. 460)
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814. (See also Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel.) (p. 626)
Joseph Brant
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution. (p. 581)
Josiah Wedgwood
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods. (p. 603)
Juan Peron
President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Per?n, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. (823
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish conquistador of 15th-16th century, who conquered Puerto Rico and Florida.
junk
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel. (p. 288)
Justinian
: period when paganism finally lost its long struggle to survive and when the schism in Christianity between the monophy site east and the chalcedonia west became insurmountable.
Kaiser
German word for emperor.
Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan's decentralized military governments. (1185-1333). (p. 294)
Kangxi
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
keiretsu
Alliances of corporations and banks that dominate the Japanese economy. (p. 861)
khipu
System of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information. (p. 312)
Khmer Rouge
Communist movement in Cambodia led by Pol Pot that killed 2-4 million.
Khmerstams
Vietnamese people defeated by Northern govt. of Hanoy
Khruscher
Leader of SU, followed melankov; attacked Stalins method of rule. Lost power because of conservative opposition
Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire. (p. 351) Chinggis Khan's grandson who consolidated Mongol rule all over China.
Kiev
Comercial city in Uklraine established by Scandonavians in the 9th century. Bemace the center for a kingdom that flourished until 12 centuryl
Kievan Russia
State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. (p. 267)
King Alfred
He stopped the Norse/Viking invasion of England in the 800's.
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)
King Menes
Unified rule came from this conquerer in 3100BCE and founded Memphis.
King Otto I
He led an army to support the Pope in the 960's against the Lombard Magnates and was crowned by the pope the First Holy Roman Emperor.
Klondike gold rush
1890 rush for gold in Northwestern canada
Knight
a mounted warrior in Europe in the Middle Ages.
Knossos
site of the most majestic Cretan palace
Korean Air Flight 007?
Korean Air Flight 007, was a Korean Air civilian airliner shot down with all on board by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. KAL 007 carried 269 passengers and crew, including a U.S. congressman. There were no survivors. The Soviet Union stated it did not know the aircraft was civilian, and suggested it had entered Soviet airspace as a deliberate provocation to test their response capabilities. The shoot-down attracted a storm of protest from across the world, particularly the United States.
Koryo
Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259. (p. 292)
Kubla Khan
Grandson of Ghengis. Concurred China. Established the Yaun Dynasty in 1271.
Kush
Independent kingdom. 1000 BCE. Had own writing. Used iron. Affected other cultures in the region
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of Pan-African movement in Ghana.
labor union
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers. (p. 709)
latifundia
vast plantations
Latin West
Historians' name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period ca. 1000-1500. (p. 394)
Lawrence of Arabia
Lead Arab rebellion against the Turks in WWI.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry 820
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Legitimate Trade
Exports from Africa in the nineteenth century that did not include the newly outlawed slave trade. (p. 654)
Lenin
Russian Bolshevik Leader who was responsible for turning Russia to communism
Leon Trotsky
Rose with Lenin, opposed to Stalin. Stalin exiled and later assassinated him.
Leonid Brezhnev
After Khrushchev until 1982. Invaded Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
Li Shimin
One of the founders of the Tang Empire and its second emperor (r. 626-649). He led the expansion of the empire into Central Asia. (p. 277)
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes. (713)
Library of Ashurbanipal
A large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the sixth century B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. (98)
Linear B
a system of writing used to record an early form of Greek
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462)
Lockerbie bombing?
Pan Am Flight 103 was from Heathrow to JFK. On December 21, 1988, the aircraft was blown up as it flew over Lockerbie, Scotland. It was widely regarded as an assault on a symbol of the United States, and with 189 of the victims being Americans, it stood as the deadliest attack on American civilians until September 11, 2001. United Nations sanctions against Libya and protracted negotiations with the Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi secured the handover of the accused on April 5, 1999.
loess
fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because loess soil is not compacted, easily worked, but it leaves the region vulnerable to earthquakes. (p.58)
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
Lorenzo de Medici
Patron of great renaissance artists, including Botticelli, Michelangelo and da Vinci.
Lost generation
Disillusioned youth after WWI in Europe and America that refused to integrate into the mainstream.
Louis XIV
Practiced Absolute monarchy in France. L'etat, c'est moi.
Louis XVI
Last king of France before French Revolution. Tried to compromise with constitutional monarchy. Later fled, but was captured and beheaded.
Lucy
An australopithecus female skeleton found in Ethiopia.
ma'at
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order. (See also pyramid.) (p. 42)
Macartney Mission
The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. (p. 560)
Magna Carta?
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility. It was the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law.
Mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
Mahayana Buddhism
Great Vehicle' branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment. (p. 181)
Malacca
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)
Malay Peoples
A designation for peoples originating in south China and Southeast Asia who settled the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines, then spread eastward across the islands of the Pacific Ocean and west to Madagascar. (p. 190)
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. (See also Timbuktu.) (p. 375)
Mamluks
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
Manchu dynasty
17th century Chinese dynasty which greatly expanded China's control in Asia. Overthrown in 1911 by nationalists.
Manchuria
Region of Northeast Asia bounded by the Yalu River on the south and the Amur River on the east and north. (p. 354)
Manchus
Federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing Empire. (p. 556)
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Mandate System
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. (p. 770)
Manichaenism
Developed by Prophet Mani, "the elect" were especially holy abstaining from pleasures. "the hearers" led conventional lives while supporting the elect. All looked towards personal salvation.
manor
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. (p. 254)
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world. (p. 376)
mansabs
In India, grants of land given in return for service by rulers of the Mughal Empire. (p. 536)
manumission
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave. (p. 505)
Maoism
Doctrine of Mao calling for continuous revolution
Marco Polo
One of the first Europeans to travel to Asia.
Marie Antoinette
French queen beheaded with her Husband Louis XVI in French Revoltuion
maroon
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America. (p. 505)
Mary shelley wrote
An early gothic horror story about a monster created from corpses
mass deportation
Removal of entire peoples used as terror tactic by Assyrian and Persian Empires. (95)
mass production
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright. (602)
Mata Hari
Seductive female Double Agent of France and Germany in WWI.
Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes. (184)
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918. (p. 774)
Maximillien Robespierre
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. See Jacobins. (p. 589)
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion. (p. 230)
mechanization
The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century England. (p. 603)
Medici's
A succesful family who owned Medici bank in Florence (like Fuggers in England)
medieval
Literally 'middle age,' a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. (p. 250)
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
Mediterranean Sea
An intercontinental sea that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Asia on the east and separates Europe from Africa. It has often been called the incubator of Western civilization.
Meiji Restoration
1868 when last Shogun was overthrown in Japan and Emperor took over. Marked opening of Japan to the West.
Meir Golda
Israeli PM 1969-74, tried to lesson Arab-Israeli conflicts through diplomacy. Surprise attacked by Arabs 1973.
Memphis
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
Mero?
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E. In this period Nubian culture shows more independence from Egypt and the influence of sub-Saharan Africa. (p. 71)
Meroitic Script
alphabetic script originally derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, used to write the Meroitic language of the Kingdom of Kush. Developed 700â€"300 BCE. Appeared in the 2nd Century.
Mesetizo
The offspring of intermarriage between Europeans(Spanish) and Native AMericans
Mesolithic Era
10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Also called Middle Stone Age. Ancient cultural stage, or level of human development, that existed between the Paleolithic Period, with its chipped stone tools, and the Neolithic Period, with its polished stone tools. Mesolithic usually refers specifically to a development in northwestern Europe that began about 8000 BC, after the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, and lasted until about 2700 BC. Although culturally and technologically continuous with Paleolithic peoples, Mesolithic cultures developed diverse local adaptations to special environments. The Mesolithic hunter achieved a greater efficiency than did the Paleolithic and was able to exploit a wider range of animal and vegetable food sources.
Mesopotamia
"land between the rivers", located in between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
mestizo
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent. (p. 484)
metallurgy
"science of extracting and refining metal from raw ore; began in Middle East and China between 4000 and 3000 b.c.e.
metalworking
craft of shaping refined metal into tools; like metallurgy, a highly advanced skill
Middle Ages
a period in history which lasted for roughly a millennium, commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the beginning of the Early Modern Period in the 16th century, marked by the division of Western Christianity in the Reformation, the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance
Middle Passage
The part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas. (p. 508)
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811. (p. 625)
Mikhail Romanov
Russian tsar (r. 1613-1645) A member of the Russian aristocracy, he became tsar after the old line of Muscovite rulers was deposed. (p. 551)
Ming Dynasty
Replaced Yaun Dynasty in China 1363-0664. Focused on internal development.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. (554)
Minoan
Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The Minoans engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks. (p. 73)
Missi Dominici
Envoys Charlamagne sent to oversee local rulers.
Mississippi/Missouri River system
Major river system of North America, which runs from Minnesota and North Dakota to Gulf of Mexico. Played central role in American economy, military strategy and culture.
mit'a
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations. (p. 312)
Mithraism
Cult dedicated to the god Mithras. Adopted by soldiers, it focused on Sun & light, divine sanction of human life, and and purposeful moral behavior.
Moche
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples. (p. 313)
Moctezuma II
Last Aztec emperor, overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hern?n Cort?s. (p. 437)
modernization
The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies. (p. 652)
Moguls
Muslim dynasty that ruled India in 16th-17th century. Built Taj Mahal.
Mohenjo-Daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. (p. 48)
Mohica
A state around (300-700CE) leaving a large artistic legacy, depicting a complex and diverse society.
Moinchus
From North East of China and took power and created Qing dynasty after collapse on the Ming,
moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179)
monasticism
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. (Primary Centres of Learning in Medieval Europe) (261)
Mongols
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
monotheism
Belief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam. (102)
Monsoon
Extensive rains in the spring and summer in India. Governing trade routes on the Red Sea ports.
Montaigne stated that "all that is certain is that nothing is certain" this was and example of ..?
skepticism
mosaic
artwork, images made with small pieces of glass
most-favored-nation status
A clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories. (p. 686)
movable type
Type in which each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. It replaced woodblock printing, allowing for the arrangement of individual letters and other characters on a page. Invented in Korea 13th Century. (293)
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 536)
Mughals
Established by Turkish invaders in 1520 lasted until mid 19th century
Muhammad (570-632 C.E.)
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam. (p. 230)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights (816)
mulatto
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent. (p. 484)
Multiregional thesis
Theory, held by a minority of scholars, that modern humans appeared simultaneously throughout world, descending from earlier hominid groups that had already left Africa.
Muscovy
Russian principality that emerged gradually during the era of Mongol domination. The Muscovite dynasty ruled without interruption from 1276 to 1598. (p. 551)
Muslim
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God. (p. 231) )
Mustafa Kemal (ataturk)
1881-1938; founder of modern republic of Turkey, followed Western Ideals
Mycenae
Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. (74)
Napoleon Bonaparte
. Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
Napoleonic code?
The original Napoleonic Code was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. Even though the Napoleonic code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system, it is considered the first successful codification and strongly influenced the law of many other countries. It dealt only with civil law issues
Napoleon's invasion of Russia was motivated by?
Czar Alexanders resumed trade with England
Nasir al-Din Tusi
Persian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system. (p. 337)
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe (713)
Nationalism was a force that (3)
tore apart century-old empiress, rise to nation-states, opposed by conservatives
nawab
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor. (p. 657)
Neo-Assyrian Empire
An empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine, conquered by the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia between the tenth and seventh centuries B.C.E. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects. (93)
Neolithic Era
5,000 or 6,000 to 10,000 years ago. Also called New Stone Age. Final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans, it was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving. Preceded the Bronze Age, or early period of metal tools.
Neoorthodoxy?
Neo-orthodoxy is an approach to theology that was developed in the aftermath of the First World War (1914-1918). It is primarily associated with the Swiss Protestant Karl Barth (1886-1968) and theologian Emil Brunner (1899-1966). The neo-orthodox thinkers had strong disagreements between themselves and so neo-orthodoxy cannot be considered to be a unified system. Nevertheless, this type of theology has a number of distinctive traits: Revelation, Transcendence of God, Existentialism, Sin.
Nero
Cruel Roman emperor. Killed his mother, wife and mistress. Persecuted Christians, blamed them for the Fire (which he may have started). Put Peter and Paul to death.
Nestorians
Christian Sect cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763. (p. 489)
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories for the benefit of the col
new monarchies
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits. (p. 414)
newly industrialized economies
Rapidly growing, new industrial nations of the late twentieth century, including the Asian Tigers. (p. 861)
Niccolo Machiabelli
Wrote “the prince” which increased how to take and maintain power
Nile River
The father of African rivers and the longest river in the world. It rises south of the equator in Uganda and flows northward through Sudan to Egypt, where it drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It has a length of about 4,132 miles.
Nocolaus Copernicus
First to argue that the Earth moves around the sun
nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water. (p. 326)
nonaligned Nations
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War. (p. 846)
Norman conquest
Overthrow of England by the French in 1066 by William the conqueror.
Normans
Descendants of Vikings, living on the peninsula of Normandy in France. Served Carolinians and later Capetians. Constructed centralized rule with Dukes.
nuclear nonproliferation
Goal of international efforts to prevent countries other than the five declared nuclear powers (United States, Russia, Britain, France, and China) from obtaining nuclear weapons. The first Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968. (p. 890)
Oceania
collective name for the islands scattered throughout most of the Pacific Ocean. The term, in its widest sense, embraces the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas.
Oceans of the world
In order of size, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean also being the deepest.
Olmecs
Mesoamerican "rubber people" arose about 1200BCE. Excess amounts of rainfall called for irrigation to avoid flooding.
Oman
Arab state based in Musqat, the main port in the southwest region of the Arabian peninsula. Oman succeeded Portugal as a power in the western Indian Ocean in the eighteenth century. (p. 542)
One of the first European composers to experiment with romanticism in music was?
Beethoven
Open Door Policy
a series of letter sent in 1899 by US secratery of state John Hay to britain, france, germany, italy, japan, and russia calling for equal economic access to the chinese market for all states and for the maintence of the territorial and administrative integrity of the chinese.
Operation Overlord?
The codename for the Normany Invasion in 1944 (WWII).
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Oracle Bones
Early Shang writing was found on these.
Osiris
The god associated with life, and rebirth due to his story of being cut up and put back together.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
Ottoman Empire
Turkish Empire established in Asia Minor. Expanding through Middle East and balkins. Concurred Constantinople. In 1453 it ended the Byzantine Empire.
Ottomans
Turkish people who settled in Asia minor during the 14th century, established empire in the middle east, North Africa, and eastern Europe lasted until just after WWI
Out of Africa thesis
Theory, which most scientists believe, that H. sapiens sapiens emerged in Africa and migrated outward. Implies that Africa is source of features of human behavior such as complex social networks, economic strategies, personal adornment, and use of symbols and rituals in daily life.
Ovid
wrote The Art of Love
Paleolithic Era
Ancient cultural stage, or level, of human development, characterized by the use of rudimentary chipped stone tools, 2.5 million to 10,000 years ago. Use of fire and tools for making shelters.
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Panama isthmus and canal
Land link extending east-west about 400 miles from the border of Costa Rica to the border of Colombia. It connects North and South America and separates the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) from the Gulf of Panama
Pangaea
hypothetical protocontinent proposed by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener in 1912 as a part of his theory of continental drift
Panthalassa
Under Wegener's theory, the rest of the globe was covered by Panthalassa, an enormous world ocean that stretched from pole to pole and extended to about twice the width of the present-day Pacific Ocean at the Equator.
papacy
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. (pp. 258, 445)
papyrus
The main Egyptian writing material
Paris Peace conference (1919)?
1919 conference at the end of WWI. The League of Nations was created. Can also refer to the 1947 treaty ending WWII.
Parthians
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 B.C.E. and 226 C.E. (p. 204)
Partion of Poland
3 separate divisions of polish territory b/w Russia, Prussia, and Austria
Pastoralism
Domestication and raising of animals for companionship, security, help in hunting, and food. Allowed humans to manipulate environment to greater degree
patricians
the upper classes
patron/client relationship
Anciant Roman: a fundamental social relationship in which the patron-a wealthy and powerful individual-provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the clients supported their patrons (149
Paul
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian. (156)
Pearson Commission on International Development?
The Pearson Commission on International Development investigated the effectiveness of the World Bank's development assistance in the 20 years to 1968 and made recommendations for future operation of the organization. In August 1968 Robert S. McNamara, then President of the World Bank, formed the commission, asking former Canadian Prime Minister and Nobel Peace Prize winner Lester Bowles Pearson to head the commission. On September 15, 1969 Pearson and seven colleagues on the Commission on International Development delivered their report, Partners in Development.
Peloponnesian War
Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors/Persian $$$ (135)
percussion cap
Gunpowder-filled capsules that, when struck by the hammer of a gun, ignite the explosive charge in a gun. Their use meant that guns no longer needed to be ignited by hand. (p. 681)
Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens. (130)
Persepolis
A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homelan (119)
Persian empire
Tried to conquor Greece in 5th Century, but were defeated in the Battle of Marathon.
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
personalist leaders
Political leaders who rely on charisma and their ability to mobilize and direct the masses of citizens outside the authority of constitutions and laws. Nineteenth-century examples include Jos? Antonio P?ez of Venezuela and Andrew Jackson of the US. (628)
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
Petition of Right?
A document produced by the English (pre-British) Parliament in the run-up to the English Civil War. It was addressed to Charles I of England in 1628 in an attempt to seek redress on the following points: forced loans, arbitrary arrest, imprisonment contrary to the Magna Carta, arbitrary interference with proeprty rights, lack of enforcement of habeas corpus, forced billetting of troops, imposition of martial law, exemption of officials from due process.
Philip 2
Father of Alexander the Great, conquered Greece
Phoenicians
Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what are now Lebanon and Syria. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread right across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.
Pierre Trudeau
Canadian PM who made French an official language to appease Quebecois secessionists.
Pilgrims
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. (p. 487)
Pizarro?
A spanish explorer who conquered the Incas of Peru.
plantocracy
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century. (p. 502)
Plato
wrote The Republic, pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle
plebians
the common people (lower classes)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth?
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, actually called the "Republic of the Two Nations" or "Commonwealth of Both Nations" was a federal monarchic republic that was formed in 1569 by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and lasted until its final partition in 1795. The state covered not only the territories of what is now Poland and Lithuania, but also the entire territory of Belarus, a large part of Ukraine and Latvia and the most western part of today's Russia. The Commonwealth was an extension of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, a personal union between those two states that had existed from 1386. The Commonwealth was one of the largest and most populous states in Europe and for over two centuries successfully withstood wars with the Teutonic Order, the Russians, the Ottomans, and the Swedes. The Commonwealth's political system, often called the Noble's democracy or Golden Freedom, was characterized by the sovereign's power being reduced by laws and the legislature controlled by the nobility. This system was a precursor of the modern concepts of broader democracy, and constitutional monarchy, as well as federation.
Pope John Paul II
First non-Italian pope in long time, travelled extensively, loved by millions.
Pope John XXIII
Oversaw Vatican II, which liberalized church.
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)
positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. (616)
Post WWII dollar shortage?
Postwar world capitalism suffered from a huge dollar shortage. The United States was running huge balance of trade surpluses, and the U.S. reserves were immense and growing. It was necessary to reverse this flow. Dollars had to leave the United States and become available for international use. In other words, the United States would have to reverse the natural economic processes and run a balance of payments deficit. The modest credit facilities of the IMF were clearly insufficient to deal with Western Europe's huge balance of payments deficits. The problem was further aggravated by the reaffirmation by the IMF Board of Governors in the provision in the Bretton Woods Articles of Agreement that the IMF could make loans only for current account deficits and not for capital and reconstruction purposes. Only the United States contribution of $570 million was actually available for IBRD lending. In addition, because the only available market for IBRD bonds was the conservative Wall Street banking market, the IBRD was forced to adopt a conservative lending policy, granting loans only when repayment was assured. Given these problems, by 1947 the IMF and the IBRD themselves were admitting that they could not deal with the international monetary system's economic problems. Thus, the much looser Marshall Plan—the European Recovery Program—was set up to provide U.S. finance to rebuild Europe largely through grants rather than loans. The Marshall Plan was the program of massive economic aid given by the United States to favored countries in Western Europe for the rebuilding of capitalism. From 1947 until 1958, the United States deliberately encouraged an outflow of dollars, and, from 1950 on, the United States ran a balance of payments deficit with the intent of providing liquidity for the international economy. Dollars flowed out through various U.S. aid programs: the Truman Doctrine entailing aid to the pro-U.S. Greek and Turkish regimes, which were struggling to suppress socialist revolution, aid to various pro-U.S. regimes in the Third World, and most important, the Marshall Plan. From 1948 to 1954 the United States gave sixteen Western European countries $17 billion in outright grants.
postmodernism
Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture. (p. 900)
Potosi
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)
Potsdam conference?
The Potsdam Conference was a conference held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, the three largest and most powerful of the victorious Allies that defeated the Axis Powers in World War II. Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Truman—as well as Clement Attlee, who replaced Churchill after the Labour Party's defeat of the Conservatives in the 1945 general election—had gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on May 8 (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war.
Prague Spring?
The Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968, and running until August 20 of that year when the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies (except for Romania) invaded the country.
Prerevolutionary French society was marked by great social?
inequality
printing press
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450. See also movable type. (p. 409)
prophet
someone who is an interpreter of the will of God
Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446)
Ptolemies
Descendents of Macedonian officers under Alexander. Gov't largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized non-Greeks serving in the military and administration. (p. 138)
Ptolemy
Greek astronomer who said planets and sun rotate around Earth. Dominated astronomy until Copernicus.
publican
tax collector
Puritans
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. (p. 487)
Pythagoras
discovered the harmonic intervals within the musical scale and states the Pythagorean Theorum
Qanat
Underground canals that crisscrossed the Persian empire.
Qin
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects. (163)
Qin Dynasty
(221-202 BCE) Very strong centralized govt. Spread boundaries to include Hong Kong. Started to build great wall
Qing Empire
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times the Qing also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last Qing emperor was overthrown in 1911. (p. 556)
Queen victoria
Queen 19th-early 20th century during British industrial revolution and height of empire's power. Also highly moral, leading to Victorian Age
railroads
Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)
Raja
An Indo-Aryan Chief
Rajputs
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess. (p. 537)
Ramesses II
A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt. (p. 68)
Rashid al-Din
Adviser to the Il-khan ruler Ghazan, who converted to Islam on Rashid's advice. (p. 334)
recaptives
Africans rescued by Britain's Royal Navy from the illegal slave trade of the nineteenth century and restored to free status. (p. 655)
reconquest of Iberia
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms. (p. 414)
Reconquista
War in Spain; the military reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian rulers
Red guards
Militias who attacked Mao's foes during Cultural Revolution.
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern trans-Alpine Renaissance (407,445)
Rerum Novarum?
Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued in 1891. It was an open letter passed to all the bishops that addressed the condition of the working classes. It supported the rights of labor to form unions, but rejected socialism and affirmed private property rights. It discussed the relationships between government, business, labor, and the church proposing a social and economic structure that was later called corporatist. Rerum Novarum is generally accepted to be the founding document of Christian Democracy. While individual positions or statements have been debated, the work was remarkable as a summary of many issues raised by the industrial revolution and modern democratic societies. It began by describing many of the grievances of the working class. But it refuted as false the theories of Marxist socialists and defended private ownership. It stated that solutions would come from the combined actions of the Church, the State, the employer and the employee. It set out principles that should be used in seeking justice in industrial, social, and economic life. One profound effect was to push the Catholic Church and its hierarchy into the modern world. At the time his support for unions and a living wage were viewed as radically leftist.
Restoration
The return of constitutional monarcy in Britain in the late 17th century.
Revalations is in what part of the bible?
New Testament.
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
Rhine River
Waterway of western Europe, which is culturally and historically one of the great rivers of the continent and among the most important arteries of industrial transport in the world.
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English King who fought in the Crusades. Robin Hood was loyal to him.
Rig Vedas
Indo-Aryan work 1400-900BCE with 1028 hymns tot he gods.
Robespierre's execution marked the end of the..?
Reign of terror
Roman Principate
A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps ('first citizen') adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship. (p. 151)
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
Roman Senate
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. (148)
Romanization
The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. Romans did not seek to Romanize them, but the subjugated people pursued it. (155)
Romanovs
Family that ruled Russia from 17th century until Russian revolution.
Rothschilds
English banking family the financed Britian's efforts against Napolean. Still functioning today.
Royal African Company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa. (p. 507)
Rudyard Kipling
British writer, wrote Jungle Book
Russian Orthodoxy
The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian communion in the world with an estimated 300 million members worldwide.[1] It is considered by its adherents to be the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ and his Apostles nearly 2000 years ago
Russian revolution
Overthrow of the Czar that brought Communists to poer under Lenin.
Russo-Japanese War?
The Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. Japan won.
Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state. (p. 531)
Sahara
World's largest desert in the northern third of Africa
Sahel
Belt south of the Sahara; literally 'coastland' in Arabic. (p. 215)
Salamis
A great naval victory by the Athenians over the Persians under Xerxes (480BCE) that some historians think saved Western Civilization.
Salvador Allende
Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown by the military in 1973. He died during the military attack. (p. 856)
samurai
Literally 'those who serve,' the hereditary military elite of the Tokugawa Shogunate. (p. 563)
Sanskrit
Language of Vedas
Sapphos of Lesbos
a female lyrical poet
Sargon
King of Kish who conquered other city states to start his empire.
Sasanid Empire
Iranian empire, established ca. 226, with a capital in Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia. The Sasanid emperors established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islamic Arab armies overthrew the empire ca. 640. (p. 225)
Sati
Hindu ritual for burning widows with there dead husbands.
satrap
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Enjoyed much power. (pg118)
Schism
The term used to describe the split between the Roman Catholic Church in Rome and the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople.
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. (p. 408)
School of National Learning
18th century ideology which enforced Japans historical uniqueness and revived indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. (p. 466)
scramble for africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
Scriptoria
writing rooms in monestary
seasoning
An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas. (p. 504)
Seleucids
They controlled Persia after the death of Alexander. Their king was one of Alexander's generals.
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic invaders from central Asia.
Semitic
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic. (p. 32)
Seperate Spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)
sepoy
A soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British. (p. 658)
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny. (p. 661)
Serbia
The Ottoman province in the Balkans that rose up against Janissary control in the early 1800s. After World War II the central province of Yugoslavia. Serb leaders struggled to maintain dominance as the Yugoslav federation dissolved in the 1990s. (p. 676)
serf
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861. (pp. 254, 553)
Seven continents
Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia, in order of size. Asia also being the most populous.
Seven Years' War
War between Prussia and Britain on one side and Austria, France and Russia on the other. Prussia and Britian won. Britian got Canada, India. Fought also in US called the French and Indian War.
shaft graves
A term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Greek society in the mid-second millennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabs, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, and weapons (75
Shah Abbas I
Shah of Iran (r. 1587-1629). The most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings. (p. 533)
shamanism
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia. (p. 292)
Shang
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
Shang Dynasty
The ruling elite of this dynasty (1766-1122BCE) monopolized bronze metallurgy to maintain power.
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
Shi'ite Islam
Branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran. (See also Sunnis.) (pp. 225, 531)
Shinto
State religion in Japan. Derived from beliefs in natural spirits and until recently linked with belief in divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation.
Shogunate
The system of govt. in Japan in which the emperor exercised only tutylar authority whiles the shogun.
Shoguns
Japanese military leaders who ruled from 12th-19th century.
Siberia
The extreme northeastern sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk. (p. 551)
Siddhartha Guatmaa
The founder of Buddhism.
Significance of the writing systems
They helped codify laws, keep records, transmit knowledge
Sikhism
Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule. (p. 538)
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. (p. 203)
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
simony
The selling of church offices to the highest bidder
Sino-Japanese War?
(August 1, 1894 - April 1895) was a war fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan over control of Korea. The principal result was a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan. Faced with these repeated defeats, China signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki in April, 1895, agreeing to stay out of Korea and ceding a large portion of eastern Manchuria, including the Liaodong (literally: Eastern Liaoning) portion of the modern Liaoning province, to Japan. Additionally, the island of Taiwan (Formosa) was also ceded to the Japanese. Chinese defeat at the hands of Japan highlighted the failure of the Qing army to modernize and resulted in increased calls within China for accelerated reform. It also encouraged imperialist demands laid on the dynasty by western powers, particularly Britain, France, Germany, and Russia. For example, Russia, after the diplomatic slap in the face given to Japan in the Triple Intervention after the war, moved almost immediately to occupy the entire Liaodong Peninsula and, especially to fortify Port Arthur despite vigorous protests from China, Japan, and the United States — all three favoring an Open Door Policy in Manchuria.
Sir Francis Drake
First English explorer to travel around the world. Participated in destruction of the Spanish Armada.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English explorer to americas, introduced tobacco and potato from American to England.
Six Day War
Israel captured golan heights, West Bank and Sinai. Later traded Sinai back to Egypt in exchange for recognition.
socialism
Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties in the late 1800s. (709)
Socrates
Born 1460BCE. Greek philosopher. One of the founders of western philosophy. Duty to improve soul.
Sokoto Caliphate
large Muslim state founded in 1809 in what is now northern Nigeria. (p. 651)
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Song Empire
Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the 'Southern Song') while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics. (p. 285)
Sophocles
Wrote the plays Oedipus the King and Antigone, he introduced the third actor into his plays
Spanish America War
Between Spain and the US. US won, got Philippines and puerto rico and permitted american intervention in the caribean
Spanish Civil War
War Between authoritarian/military leaders (facists) vs. Communist. facist won
Sparta
An ancient Greek city-state, rival of Athens. Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian war.
Sparta/Athens
2 leading city states. Classical Mediterranean civilizations. Sparta military aristocracy culminating a slave population
Spartacus
Roman slave who lead slave revolt against Rome in 1st century BC
Sputnik
1st man made object sent into space; made by USSR; 1957; orbited Earth
Srivijaya
A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the seventh and eleventh centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes. (192)
St. Augustine
(354-430CE) bishop of North Africa city of Hippo. Put Platonist, Manichaeanistc, and Hellenistic teachings into Christianity.