• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/87

Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Was it good or bad for the early movie industry that its movies were silent?
Good. Many early moviegoers were non english speakers.
What did Voltaire Believe?
That heretical views should not be persecuted by the government.
What is a controlled-circulation magazine?
A magazine that sets its circulation and gets money from advertisers.
What is Anglicisation?
Anglicisation or Anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of making something British and/or English. For example, people may be Anglicised: an immigrant to England may be said to become Anglicised as he or she acclimates to the culture. However, Anglicisation is most commonly discussed in the more abstract context of language: language is said to become Anglicised as it becomes more like the English language.
What is Anti-clericalism?
Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. It suggests a more active and partisan role than mere seperation of church and state.
What is deism?
Historical and modern deism is defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. Deists reject both organized and revealed religion and maintain that reason is the essential element in all knowledge. Deism has become identified with the classical belief that God created but does not intervene in the world, though this is not a necessary component of deism.
What is Jingoism?
Jingoism is a term describing chauvinistic patriotism, usually with a hawkish political stance. In plain language, it means bullying other countries or using whatever means necessary to safeguard a country's national interests.
What is Leavenworth?
There are two US prisons in Leavenworth, Kansas. One is for the military, one is for civilians. Both are maximum security. The military one houses the US Military's Death Row.
What is more conservative, the AFL or the CIO?
The AFL is more conservative.
What is nativism?
Fear and distrust of foreigners.
What is natural law?
Natural law is law that exists independently of the positive law of a given political order, society or nation-state. It is simultaneously a legal philosophy or perspective, and a genre of law - depending on the jurisdiction in which the term is used. s philosophical perspective, especially in the English and American legal traditions, the principles of natural law are expressed, obliquely or openly, in such documents as Magna Carta and the Declaration of Independence, when rights are discussed, explicitly or implicitly, as being inherent. For example, the phrase "all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain rights" expresses a natural law philosophy. Social contract theorists, such as Hobbes, Locke or Rousseau all believed in a natural law and in natural rights, which were transferred from the individual subject to the sovereign state. The state would then protect individuals from each other through the mediation of its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force.
What is statism?
Statism is a term used in a variety of disciplines (economics, sociology, education policy etc) to describe a system that involves a significant interventionist role for the state in economic or social affairs. In economics, the term "statism" refers to any economy where the state plans or coordinates the economy, or the advocacy of such a system.
What is the current poverty rate in the U.S.?
Approx. 12%. It has hovered between 11 and 15% since the 1970s.
What is the Social Contract?
Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract; such violation would signify a problematic attempt to return to the state of nature. It has been often noted, indeed, that social contract theories relied on a specific anthropological conception of man as either "good" or "evil". Thomas Hobbes (1651), John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism, which is the theoretical groundwork of democracy. It is also one of a few competing theoretical groundworks of liberalism, but Rousseau's social contract is often seen as conflicting with classical liberalism which advocates protection of individual liberty from the will of the community.
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African-American social thought and culture based in the African-American community forming in Harlem in New York City (USA). This period, beginning with 1920 and extending roughly to 1940, was expressed through every cultural medium—visual art, dance, music, theatre, literature, poetry, history and politics. Instead of using direct political means, African-American artists, writers, and musicians employed culture to work for goals of civil rights and equality. For the first time, African-American paintings, writings, and jazz became absorbed into mainstream culture and crossed racial lines, creating a lasting legacy. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement". Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, W.E.B. DuBois, and Marcus Garvey were all part of it.
What was Transcendentalism?
Transcendentalism was the name of a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-nineteenth century. It began as a protest against the general state of culture and society at the time, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard and the doctrine of the Unitarian church which was taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among their core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions. Prominent Transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. The publication of Emerson's 1836 essay Nature is usually taken to be the watershed moment at which Transcendentalism became a major cultural movement. Emerson wrote: "We will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak our own minds...A nation of men will for the first time exist, because each believes himself inspired by the Divine Soul which also inspires all men." Emerson closed the essay by calling for a revolution in human consciousness.
Where are the Adirondack Mountains?
Northeast New York state. It is a resort area.
Who is Costa-Gavras?
A Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. He has made movies mostly in French but also several in English.
Who is Ingmar Bergman?
A Swedish stage and film director who is one of the key film auteurs of the second half of the twentieth century. His films usually deal with existential questions about mortality, loneliness, and faith; they are also usually direct and not overtly stylized. Persona, one of Bergman's most famous films, is unusual among Bergman's work for being both existentialist and avant-garde.
Who is Jean-Luc Godard?
A Franco-Swiss filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or "French New Wave". Known for stylistic implementations that challenged, at their focus, the conventions of Hollywood cinema, he became universally recognized as the most audacious and most radical of the New Wave filmmakers. He adopted a position in filmmaking that was unambiguously political. His work reflected a fervent knowledge of film history, a comprehensive understanding of existential and Marxist philosophy, and a scholarly disposition that placed him as the lone filmmaker among the public intellectuals of the Rive Gauche.
Who is Stewart Brand?
An author, editor, and creator of The Whole Earth Catalog and CoEvolution Quarterly. His intent with the Whole Earth Catalog was to enable people to find virtually any sort of information useful to themselves, in the belief that humans would then develop a new, positive and sustainable culture and technology for themselves; in this way, his ideas were forerunners of the Internet. Hence, Brand later pioneered the online community The WELL.
Who patented the movie camera?
Thomas Edison.
Who was Aaron Copland?
(November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music. Instrumental in forging a uniquely American style of composition, he was widely known as "the dean of American composers." Copland's music achieved a difficult balance between modern music and American folk styles, and the open, slowly changing harmonies of many of his works are said to evoke the vast American landscape.
Who was Agnes de Mille?
(September 18, 1905 – October 7, 1993) was an American dancer and choreographer. She was white. In 1939 she was invited to join the American Ballet Theatre. There she created Black Ritual, the first ballet to use an all-black cast. After that, she worked as choreographer on many major musicals and a number of films, including: Rodeo, Oklahoma!, Carousel, Brigadoon, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Paint Your Wagon, Juno
Who was Carl Sandberg?
(January 6, 1878 – July 22, 1967) was an American poet, historian, novelist, balladeer and folklorist. He was born in Galesburg, Illinois of Swedish parents and died at his home, which he named Connemara, in Flat Rock, North Carolina. H. L. Mencken called Carl Sandburg "indubitably an American in every pulse-beat." He was a successful journalist, poet, historian, biographer, and autobiographer. During the course of his career, Sandburg won two Pulitzer Prizes, one for his biography of Abraham Lincoln (Abraham Lincoln: The War Years) and one for his collection The Complete Poems of Carl Sandburg.
Who was Charles A. Beard?
Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 - September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, the most influential American historian of the early 20th century. As a leader of the "Progressive School" of historiography, he introduced themes of economic self-interest and economic conflict, such as the conflict among industrialists in the Northeast, farmers in the Midwest, and planters in the South that he saw as the cause of the Civil War. His revisionist study of the financial interests of the drafters of the United States Constitution seemed radical in 1913, since he proposed that the U.S. Constitution was a product of economically determinist, land-holding founding fathers. He saw ideology as a product of economic interests. His approach lost favor after 1950 as historians paid more attention to ideology as a force. Beard's interest in progressive higher education was an early one. In 1899, he collaborated with John Ruskin at Oxford in the founding of Ruskin House, the first institution of labor education, and which set in motion a succession of failed attempts in the United States which finally culminated with the founding of the National Labor College in 1999. After resigning from Columbia University in protest in 1917, he helped to found the New School for Social Research in New York, and advised on reconstructing Tokyo after the earthquake of 1923. He supported the new deal.
Who was Charles Evans Hughes?
Chief justice of U.S. nominated in 1930 by Herbert Hoover. Under him the Supreme Court continued to enforce a Federal laissez-faire approach, overturning many of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs, which were designed to combat the Great Depression, by 5–4 margins. Most notably, the National Industrial Recovery Act was overturned in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935), and the Agricultural Adjustment Act was struck down in United States v. Butler (1936). In response, President Roosevelt proposed the Judiciary Reorganization (court packing) Bill.
Who was David Ricardo?
David Ricardo (April 18, 1772 – September 11, 1823), a British political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists. He was also a successful businessman, financier and speculator, and amassed a considerable fortune.
Who was Earl Warren ?
US supreme court chief justice nominated in 1953 by Dwight D. Eisenhower. The first important case of Warren's tenure was Brown v. Board of Education (1954), in which the Court unanimously declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional, effectively reversing the precedent set earlier in Plessy v. Ferguson and other cases. The Warren Court also made several controversial decisions relating to the Bill of Rights. The doctrine of incorporation, which had first taken root in Gitlow v. New York, was applied fully to most provisions of the Bill of Rights. In Engel v. Vitale (1962), the Court declared that officially sanctioned prayer in public schools was unconstitutional under the First Amendment. Similarly, in Abington School District v. Schempp (1963), it struck down mandatory Bible readings in public schools. The Court also expanded and incorporated the rights of criminal defendants, on the basis of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments. In Mapp v. Ohio (1961), the Court incorporated the Fourth Amendment and ruled that illegally seized evidence could not be used in a trial. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) established that states were required to provide attorneys to indigent defendants. Miranda v. Arizona (1966) held that the police must inform suspects of their rights (including the right to remain silent and the right to an attorney) before being interrogated. (The decision is the source of the famous Miranda warning.) Another significant and controversial decision made by the Warren Court was Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), which established that the Constitution protected the right to privacy.
Who was Edward Douglass White?
US supreme court justice nominated in 1910 by William Howard Taft. In the early twentieth century, the Supreme Court established that the Fourteenth Amendment protected the "liberty of contract." On the grounds of the Fourteenth Amendment and other provisions of the Constitution, it controversially overturned many state and federal laws designed to protect employees. The first important decision of the era was Lochner v. New York (1905), in which the Court overturned a New York law limiting the number of hours bakers could work each week. In Adair v. United States (1908), the Court overruled a federal law which forbade "yellow dog contracts" (contracts that prohibited workers from joining unions). Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) involved a decision that a District of Columbia minimum wage law was unconstitutional. White was generally seen as one of the more conservative members of the court.
Who was Edward Teller?
Edward Teller (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American nuclear physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb." He was an early member of the Manhattan Project charged with developing the first atomic bombs. During this time he made a serious push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well, but these were deferred until after World War II. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos colleague Robert Oppenheimer, Teller became ostracized by much of the scientific community. He continued to find support from the U.S. government and military research establishment. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and was both its director and associate director for many years. Over the course of his long life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and his difficult interpersonal relations, and is considered one of the key influences on the character Dr. Strangelove in the 1964 movie of the same name.
Who was Emma Goldman?
(June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was a Lithuanian-born anarcho-communist known for her anarchist writings and speeches. Adopted by First-wave feminists, she has been lionized as an iconic "rebel woman" feminist. Goldman played a pivotal role in the development of anarchism in the US and Europe throughout the first half of the twentieth century. She immigrated to the United States at seventeen and was later deported to Russia, where she witnessed the results of the Russian Revolution. She spent a number of years in the South of France where she wrote her autobiography, Living My Life, and other works, before taking part in the Spanish Civil War in 1936 as the English language representative in London of the CNT-FAI.
Who was Fiorello LaGuardia ?
(December 11, 1882–September 20, 1947) was the Mayor of New York from 1934 to 1945. He was popularly known as "the Little Flower," the translation of his Italian first name, also perhaps a reference to his short stature of just 5 feet. According to modern historians, LaGuardia is considered one of New York City's greatest mayors because of his role in leading New York during the Great Depression.
Who was Francis Parkman?
Francis Parkman (September 16, 1823 – November 8, 1893) was born in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts. He is best known as a historian, and particularly as author of The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky-Mountain Life, and his monumental seven volume France and England in North America. These works are considered masterpieces of both history and literature.
Who was Frederick Douglass?
1818-1895 an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. Among the most prominent African Americans of his time, and one of the most influential lecturers and authors in American history. Most well-known work is his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Later became the publisher of a series of newspapers.
Who was Frederick Jackson Turner?
Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861–1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the most influential American historian of the early 20th century. Frederick Jackson Turner is best remembered today for his "Frontier Thesis", which he first publicized on July 12, 1893 in a paper read in Chicago to the American Historical Association, during the Chicago World's Fair. Here, he stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the westward expansion of the country. Turner is also famous because of his famous lecture on how the frontier had shaped American development, he concluded that the "first period" of American history- the period that had nurtured individualism, democracy, and the widespread opportunity for economic autonomy-had come to an end.
Who was Frederick Moore Vinson?
Supreme court chief justice nominated in 1946 by Harry S. Truman. On racial segration, he wrote that states practicing the separate but equal doctrine must provide facilities that were truly equal, in Sweatt v. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents. The case of Brown v. Board of Education was before the Court at the time of his death. Vinson, not wanting a 5-4 decision, had ordered a second hearing of the case. He died before the case could be reheard, at which time Earl Warren was appointed to the Court and the case was heard again.
Who was George Bancroft?
George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman. A native of Worcester, Massachusetts, he was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845.
Who was Gwendolyn Brooks?
(June 7, 1917 – December 3, 2000) was an award-winning African American woman poet. Her poetry is rooted in the poor and mostly African-American South Side of Chicago. She initially published her poetry as a columnist for the Chicago Defender, an African American newspaper. Although her poems range in style from traditional ballads and sonnets to using blues rhythms in free verse, her characters are often drawn from the poor inner city.
Who was Harlan Stone?
Supreme court chief justice nominated in 1941 by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Liberal justice who supported new deal programs.
Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe?
1811-1896 an abolitionist, and writer of more than 10 books, the most famous being Uncle Tom's Cabin which describes life in slavery.
Who was Helen Hunt Jackson?
(October 18, 1831-August 12, 1885) was an American writer. In 1879, her interests turned to the plight of the Native Americans after attending a lecture in Boston by Ponca Chief Standing Bear, who described the forcible removal of the Ponca Indians from their Nebraska reservation. Jackson was angered by what she heard regarding the unfair treatment at the hands of government agents and became an activist. She started investigating and publicizing the wrongdoing, circulating petitions, raising money, and writing letters to the New York Times on behalf of the Poncas. She also started writing a book condemning the Indian policy of the government and the history of broken treaties. Because she was in poor health at the time, she wrote with desperate haste. A Century of Dishonor, calling for change from the contemptible, selfish policy to treatment characterized by humanity and justice, was published in 1881
Who was Henry Adams?
Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian, journalist and novelist. He was a member of the Adams political family. In 1868, Henry Adams returned to the United States and settled down in Washington, D.C., where he started working as a journalist. Adams saw himself as a traditionalist longing for the democratic ideal of the 17th and 18th centuries. Accordingly, he was keen on exposing political corruption in his journalistic pieces.
Who was Henry David Thoreau?
1817-1862 an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden, on simple living amongst nature, and Civil Disobedience, on resistance to civil government and among 22 other books that Thoreau published. He was a lifelong abolitionist.
Who was Henry Wadsworth Longfellow?
1807-1882 an American poet who wrote many works that are still famous today, including The Song of Hiawatha, Paul Revere's Ride and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieri's Inferno. His poetry is based on familiar and easily understood themes with simple, clear, and flowing language. His poetry created an audience in America and contributed to creating American mythology.
Who was Henry Ward Beecher?
1813-1887 Theologically liberal American Congregationalist clergyman and reformer, and author. One of his elder sisters was Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. An advocate of women's suffrage and for temperance, and a foe of slavery, he bought guns to support Bleeding Kansas.
Who was Herbert Spencer?
He pioneered the field of social darwinism by applying Darwin's ideas to human behavior.
Who was Herman Melville?
1819-1891 an American novelist, essayist, and poet. During his lifetime his early novels were popular, but his popularity declined later in his life. By the time of his death he had nearly been forgotten, but his masterpiece, Moby-Dick, was "rediscovered" in the 20th century. His short story "Bartleby the Scrivener" is among his most important pieces because It has been considered a precursor to Existentialist and Absurdist literature.
Who was Horace Greeley?
1811-1872 an American newspaper editor, reformer and politician. His New York Tribune was the most influential newspaper of the period 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties. "Go West, Young Man!" he advised ambitious youth. Champion of the workingman, he attacked monopolies of all sorts and rejected land grants to railroads. Fought the extension of slavery.
Who was Jackson Pollack?
1912-1956 An influential American artist and a major force in the abstract expressionism movement. Pollock's style changed dramatically beginning in 1947. He began painting with his (usually large) canvases placed on the floor, and developed what was called his "drip" technique, or the more preferred term, his "pour" technique. He used his brushes as sticks to drip paint, and the brush never touched the canvas. This was an origination of action painting. In this process he moved away from figurative art, and changed the Western tradition of using an easel and brush, as well as moving away from use only of the hand and wrist - as he used his whole body to paint. Pollock was dubbed "Jack the Dripper" due to his painting style. Died of car crash in 1956.
Who was James Eads?
James Buchanan Eads (23 May 1820–8 March 1887) was an American engineer and inventor.In 1861, after the outbreak of the American Civil War he was contracted to construct ironclads for the United States Navy, and impressed the Navy by producing 8 such ships within 100 days. He continued to produce ironclad steamships throughout the war, which greatly aided the Union. Eads designed and built the first road and rail bridge to cross the Mississippi River, the famous Eads Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri, constructed from 1867 through 1874. The Mississippi in the 100-mile-plus strech between the port of New Orleans, Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico frequently suffered from silting up of its outlets, stranding ships or making parts of the river unnavigable for a period of time. Eads solved the problem with a wooden jetty system that narrowed the main outlet of the river, which caused the river to speed up and cut its channel deeper, so allowing year-round navigation. This system did, however, exacerbate flooding during the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. He designed a gigantic railway system intended for construction at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which would carry ocean going ships across the isthmus from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean; this attracted some interest but was never constructed.
Who was James Whistler?
1834-1903 American-born, British based painter and etcher. Most famous work is Whistler's Mother. Whistler's belief that art should concentrate on the arrangement of colors led many critics to see his work as a precursor of abstract art.
Who was Jean Gottmann?
Jean Gottmann (October 10, 1915 – February 28, 1994) was a French geographer who was most widely known for coining the term megalopolis to describe the condition of the Boston-Washington corridor. His main contributions to human geography were in the sub-fields of urban, political, economic, historical and regional geography.
Who was John Brown?
1800-1859 One of the first white abolitionists to advocate, and to practice, guerrilla warfare as a means to the abolition of slavery. He first gained national notoriety when he led a company of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis, in which he fought two major battles with pro-slavery terrorists, directed the Pottawatomie massacre on the night of May 24th, 1856, and liberated 11 slaves from slaveholders in neighboring Missouri. Brown's most famous deed was the raid he led on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (in modern-day West Virginia). Brown's subsequent capture by federal forces commanded by Robert E. Lee, his trial, and his execution by hanging are generally considered an important part of the origins of the American Civil War.
Who was John Dewey?
An American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. He is recognized as one of the founders of the philosophical school of Pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leading representative of the progressive movement in U.S. education during the first half of the 20th century.
Who was John Foster Dulles?
Secretary of State under Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and famously refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954.
Who was John Jay?
1745 – 1829 was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat and jurist. Considered one of the "founding fathers" of the United States, Jay served in the Continental Congress, and was elected President of that body in 1778. During and after the difficult and dangerous years of the American Revolutionary War, he was an ambassador to Spain and France, helping to fashion American foreign policy and to secure favorable peace terms from the British and French. He cowrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Jay also served on the U.S. Supreme Court as the first, as well as the youngest, Chief Justice of the United States from 1789 to 1794. Perhaps the most controversial of the Supreme Court's early decisions under him was Chisholm v. Georgia, in which it held that the federal judiciary could hear lawsuits against states. Soon thereafter, responding to the concerns of several states, Congress proposed the Eleventh Amendment, which granted states immunity from certain types of lawsuits in federal courts. The Amendment was ratified in 1795.
Who was John Kenneth Galbraith?
A widely read twentieth-century economist, from the American Institutional economics school. On the faculty of Harvard University from 1934 to 1975. He served in the administrations of Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson. In 1961, Kennedy appointed him ambassador to India, where he served until 1963. Although he is a former president of the American Economic Association, Galbraith is considered something of an iconoclast by many economists because he eschews mathematical modeling in favor of non-technical political economy. Additionally certain economists have alleged that he does not base his conclusions on solid research. His work includes several books on economic topics (some of which were bestsellers in the late 1950s and during the 1960s) in which he describes ways in which economic theory does not always mesh with real life. He said unions and governement regulations would automatically check the power of corporations over time. In his most famous work, The Affluent Society (1958), which became a bestseller, Galbraith outlined his view that to be successful the United States would need to make large investments in items such as highways and education using funds from general taxation.
Who was John L. Lewis?
(February 12, 1880 – June 11, 1969) was a leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960. He was a major player in the History of coal mining. He was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942, then back into the American Federation of Labor in 1944.
Who was John Locke?
John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was an influential English philosopher and social contract theorist. He developed an alternative to the Hobbesian state of nature and argued a government could only be legitimate if it received the consent of the governed and protected the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate. If such consent was not given, argued Locke, citizens had a right of rebellion. Locke's ideas had an enormous influence on the development of political philosophy, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers and contributors to liberal theory. His writings, along with those of the writings of many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, influenced the American revolutionaries as reflected in the American Declaration of Independence.
Who was John Singer Sargent?
1856-1925 A painter known for his portraits. He is usually thought of as an American artist, although he lived most of his life in Europe. Sargent's portraits subtly capture the individuality and personality of the sitters. In a time when the art world was focused on impressionism and emphasizing artistic individuality, Sargent emphasized his own form of Realism and regularly did commissioned portraits of the wealthy.
Who was Kant?
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) in East Prussia. Kant is often considered one of the greatest, and is one of the most influential, thinkers of modern Europe and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. Kant is known for his theory that there is a single moral obligation, which he called the Categorical Imperative, which is derived from the concept of duty. It is from the Categorical Imperative that all other moral obligations are generated, and by which all moral obligations can be tested. He believed that the moral law is a principle of reason itself, and is not based on contingent facts about the world, such as what would make us happy. Accordingly, he believed that moral obligation applies to all and only rational agents.
Who was Leonard Bernstein?
(August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, pianist and conductor. He was the first conductor born in the United States of America to receive world-wide acclaim, and is known for both his conducting of the New York Philharmonic, including the acclaimed Young People's Concerts series, and his multiple compositions, including West Side Story and Candide.
Who was Margaret Fuller?
(May 23, 1810 - June 19, 1850) was a journalist, critic and women's rights activist. Fuller became friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson and was subsequently associated with transcendentalism. She edited the transcendentalist journal, The Dial for the first two years of its existence from 1840 to 1842. When she joined Horace Greeley's New York Tribune as literary critic in 1844, she became the first female journalist to work on the staff of a major newspaper. In the mid-1840s she organized discussion groups of women in which a variety of subjects, such as art, education and women's rights, were debated.
Who was Mark Rothko?
1903-1970 Russian-born American Jewish painter who is often classified as an abstract expressionist. Among the founders of the New York School, his work concentrated on basic emotions, often filling the canvas with very few, but intense colours, using little immediately-apparent detail. He killed himself.
Who was Mary Cassat?
Lived 1844-1926. American impressionist artist who worked in Paris. After experimenting with different printmaking techniques like etching and aquatint she finally discovered drypoint combined with aquatint as her favorite intaglio process. Between 1889 and 1890 she created a set of twelve wonderful drypoints. From 1890 to 1891 she made a series of ten color prints, known as The Ten. This series is considered as a landmark in Impressionist printmaking.
Who was Mary Harris Jones?
(August 1, 1837 – November 30, 1930), better known as Mother Jones, was a prominent American labor and community organizer. She helped found the IWW in 1905.
Who was Melville Fuller?
Chief justice of supreme court nominated by Grover Cleveland in 1888. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Court determined that the equal protection clause did not prohibit racial segregation in public facilities, as long as the facilities were equal (giving rise to the famous term "separate but equal"). He declared the income tax law unconstitutional. In Western Union Telegraph Company vs. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania he ruled that states could not tax interstate telegraph messages. He struck a blow against government antitrust legislation with the 1895 case United States v. E. C. Knight Co.. In Fuller's majority decision, he found that the refining of sugar by a company within the boundries of one state could not be held to be in restraint of interstate commerce under the terms of the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act, regardless of the product's final market share.
Who was Morrison Waite?
1816-1888 Supreme court chief justice nominated by Ulysses S. Grant in 1874. In the Civil Rights Cases (1883), the Court under Chief Justice Morrison Waite held that Congress could not prohibit racial discrimination by private individuals (as opposed to governments) on the grounds of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Who was Nathaniel Hawthorne?
1804-1864 a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. He is seen as a key figure in the development of American literature. Hawthorne is best-known today for his many short stories and The Scarlet Letter. Much of Hawthorne's work is set in colonial New England, and many of his short stories have been read as moral allegories influenced by his Puritan background.
Who was Oliver Ellsworth?
1745–1807 an American lawyer and politician, was a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, and third Chief Justice of the United States.
Who was Plato?
An Immensely influential ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens where Aristotle studied. In Plato's writings are debates concerning the best possible form of government, featuring adherents of aristocracy, democracy, monarchy as well as other issues. A central theme is the conflict between nature and convention, concerning the role of heredity and the environment on human intelligence and personality long before the modern "nature versus nurture" debate began in the time of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, with its modern continuation in such controversial works as The Mismeasure of Man and The Bell Curve. Plato says reason and wisdom should govern. This does not equate to tyranny, despotism or oligarchy, however. Another key distinction and theme in the Platonic corpus is the dichotomy between knowledge and opinion, which foreshadow modern debates between David Hume and Immanuel Kant, and has been taken up by postmodernists and their opponents, more commonly as the distinction between the 'objective' and the 'subjective'.
Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?
1803-1882 a famous American essayist and one of America's most influential thinkers and writers. First expressed the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his essay Nature. Emerson made a living as a popular lecturer in New England and the rest of the country outside of the south.
Who was Richard E. Neustadt?
Richard Elliott Neustadt (June 26, 1919 - October 31, 2003) was an American political historian specializing in the U.S. Presidency. He also served as advisor to several Presidents. Neustadt later founded the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, where he taught for more than two decades, retiring in 1989. After his retirement he served as an advisor to Bill Clinton. One of Neustadt's closest students was a young Al Gore. Gore's interest in politics was reignited by a junior seminar taught by Neustadt in 1968 on the presidency. In the course, Gore role-played John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Gore arranged to have private tutorials with Neustadt during his senior year, meeting with him two hours weekly. His most important book, Presidential Power, first published in 1960, influenced Kennedy as well as a whole generation of academics, and continues to be one of the staples of courses about the presidency all over the world. Neustadt took a radically original view. The president, he believed, had to grab "for just enough power to get by the next day's problems". Neustadt argued that "the power of the presidency is the power to persuade". To be precise, he said, the government has three assets: the power to persuade, its professional reputation, and its public prestige. In a government like that of the United States, where powers are shared between congress, the judiciary and the executive branch headed by the president, the president must do his best to bargain with rival power centres to get what he believes to be needed.
Who was Robert Maplethorpe?
1946-1989 an American photographer, famous for his large-scale, highly-stylized black & white portraits, photos of flowers and male nudes. The frank, erotic nature of some of the work of his middle period triggered a more general controversy about the public funding of artworks. His most common themes were portraits of (now) famous people (including Andy Warhol, Deborah Harry, Richard Gere, and Patti Smith)
Who was Roger B. Taney?
1777 - 1864 Supreme court chief justice nominated in 1836 by Andrew Jackson. At a time when sectional tensions between the North and South were high, many of the Supreme Court's decisions—particularly those relating to slavery—met with controversy and contention. Most controversial was the Taney Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857). Dred Scott, a slave from Missouri, sued for his freedom on the grounds that his master had taken him into Illinois and the territory of Wisconsin, both of which prohibited slavery, for extended periods of time. Taney, however, ruled that members of the African race, "beings of an inferior order," were not and could never become citizens of the United States. Consequently, he ruled that Scott therefore had no standing to file the lawsuit. Moreover, he held that the Missouri Compromise, under which Congress prohibited slavery in certain territories that formed part of the Louisiana Purchase, was unconstitutional. The controversial decision met with vigorous opposition from abolitionists, and contributed to the tensions that led to the Civil War during the next decade.
Who was Salmon P. Chase?
1808-1873 Lincoln appointed him to be Chief Justice in 1864. Chase had strong anti-slavery credentials and had previously served Lincoln as Secretary of the Treasury. His post-Civil War tenure featured several key decisions affirming the indestructibility of the Union. Chase continued to serve as Chief Justice until his death in 1873. Many cases that came before the Court in the post–Civil War era involved interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Who was Samuel Gompers?
(January 27, 1850–December 13, 1924) was the long-time leader of the American Federation of Labor who helped define the structure and the economic and political goals of the American labor movement. Founded the AFL in 1886. He was influenced by the writings of Marx.
Who was Stephen A. Douglas?
American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860. Lost to Lincoln. Was an expansonist. As senator, supported the Missouri Compromise.
Who was Victor L. Berger?
(February 28, 1860 – August 7, 1929) was a Jewish American United States politician and a founding member of the Socialist Party of America. In 1919 he was convicted of violating the Espionage Act and twice denied a seat in the House of Representatives though elected repeatedly.
Who was Voltaire?
(21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. Voltaire is well-known for his sharp wit, philosophical writings, promotion of the rights of man, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict censorship laws in France and harsh penalties for those who broke them. A satirical polemist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize Church dogma and the French institutions of his day. Voltaire is considered one of the most influential figures of his time.
Who was Warren Burger?
US supreme court justice nominated in 1969 by Richard Nixon. The Burger Court is best remembered for its ruling in Roe v. Wade (1973), which held that there is a constitutionally protected right to have an abortion in some circumstances. The Court also made important decisions relating to the First Amendment. In Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), it established the "Lemon test" for determining if legislation violates the establishment clause. Similarly, it established the "Miller test" for laws banning obscenity in Miller v. California (1973). In United States v. Nixon the court ruled that the courts have the final voice in determining constitutional questions and that no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law.
Who was Willa Cather?
(December 7, 1873 – April 24, 1947) is among the most eminent female American authors. She is known for her depictions of US prairie life in novels like O Pioneers!
Who was William Howard Taft?
US president 1909-1913 and supreme court justice nominated by Warren G. Harding in 1921. He remains the only person in the history of the United States to have led both the Executive and Judicial branches of the United States government, and is also the last President to hold a public office after his Presidential term ended. Was a Republican. Among other things, his administration is characterized for trust-busting, strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission, expanding the civil service, and establishing a better postal system. Two constitutional amendments were passed during his term: the 16th Amendment, authorizing a federal income tax, and the 17th Amendment, mandating the direct popular election of senators instead of by the state legislatures. New Mexico and Airzona became states under him in 1912. As chief justice, made a landmark ruling in Gitlow v. New York, establishing the doctrine of incorporation, under which provisions of the Bill of Rights were deemed to restrict the states.
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
1805-1879 A prominent white abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. After the abolition of slavery, he continued working on other reform movements, especially temperance and women's suffrage.
Who was William Rehnquist?
US supreme court justice nominated in 1972 by Richard Nixon and elevated in 1986 by Ronald Regan to chief justice. The Rehnquist Court generally took a limited view of Congress's powers under the commerce clause, as exemplified by United States v. Lopez (1995). The Court made numerous controversial decisions, including Texas v. Johnson (1989), which declared that flag burning was a form of speech protected by the First Amendment; Lee v. Weisman (1992), which declared officially-sanctioned, student-led school prayers unconstitutional; Stenberg v. Carhart (2000), which voided laws prohibiting late-term abortions; and Lawrence v. Texas (2003), which struck down laws prohibiting sodomy. (Some commentators see these decisions as part of the "culture wars.") Another controversial decision of the Rehnquist court in 2003 was Gratz v. Bollinger which upheld affirmative action. Perhaps the most controversial decision made by the Court came in Bush v. Gore (2000), which ended election recounts in Florida following the presidential election of 2000, allowing George W. Bush to become the forty-third U.S. President.
Who was Winslow Homer?
1836-1910 an American landscape painter. By 1857 his freelance illustration career was underway and he contributed to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly. His works, mostly engravings, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings.