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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
7 bones of the foot:
1. Talus
2. Calcaneus
3. Navicular
4. Cuneiform
5. Cuboid
6. Metatarsals of foot
7. Phalanges of foot
Talus articulates with:
-Tibia (above)
-Fibula (above)
-Calcaneus (below)
-Navicular bone (in front of)
Calcaneus articulates with:
-Talus (on top)
-Cuboid (in front of)
Sustentaculum Tali - what is it?
Projection of calcaneus bone that supports the talus
How to remember what the Sustentaculum Tali is:
"Sustentaculum tali sustains the Talus"
Navicular bone articulates with:
-Head of talus (on top/behind)
-3 Cuneiforms (in front of)
-Cuboid bone (side)
Cuboid bone articulates with:
-Calcaneus (behind)
-Navicular (to the side)
-Lateral Cuneiform
-Metatarsals 4 / 5
What is the weight distribution in the foot?
50% -> Calcaneus
50% -> Metatarsals
What happens when you wear high heels?
Shift so 80% of weight is on MTs
What is Hallux Valgus?
Lateral deviation of big toe JOINT - 1st MTP joint
What is a Hammer toe?
Hyperextension of the 2nd MTP joint - usually in conjunction with hallux valgus; results in pushing 2nd toe up/bent.
What is Plantar Fasciitis?
Stretched out, sagging arches
What is a Bunion? Usually where?
Extra boney growth, primarily at the 5th MTP joint.
what is Morton's neuroma?
Fibrosis of the nerve on the plantar portion of the foot btwn toes 3/4
What is Tinea Pedis?
Athlete's foot
What is Pes Planus?
Flat feet
Where are there sesamoid bones in the foot?
At the 1st metatarsal, plantar side.
What runs between the 2 sesamoids at the Great toe?
-Bones are there to keep pressure off this tendon.
What is the axis of ab/adduction in the foot?
Toe #2
How many phalanges are in
-the big toe
-the other toes?
Big toe = 2
Other toes = 3
What type of a joint is the Ankle joint? What bones form it?
hinge and mortis; formed by Tibia, Fibula, Talus.
Mortis means:
What are the primary actions of the Ankle joint?
Plantarflexion - pressing on gas

Dorsiflexion - easing off gas
Which action is true flexion?
What are the 2 ligaments of the ankle joint? How are they different?
-deltoid (medial) STRONG

-Tripartite (lateral) WEAK - so most commonly dislocated
What type of movement damages the medial Deltoid ligament?
Eversion - lateral side of foot goes up, medial down - pulls apart the medial side of joint.
What type of movement damages the lateral Tripartite ligament?
What is the Transverse Tarsal joint?
Where the talus and calcaneus articulate w/ Navicular and Cuboid bones
What is the function of the Transverse Tarsal joint?
It assists with Eversion and Inversion.
Which Tarsal-Metatarsal joint is similar to a mortis joint? Why is it significant?
2nd - this is the site of a marching fracture - common site for stress fractures.
2 Diseases that commonly occur at the 1st MTP joint:
-Hallux valgus
What are the 2 types of Interphalangeal joints?
PIP - proximal
DIP - distal
What is significant about the IP joints in the big toe?
Only one - usually just refer to as "the ip joint of the hallux".
What are the major arches in the foot?
-Longitudinal (2) medial/lateral
What forms the Medial Longitudinal Arch?
-3 Cuneiforms
-Metatarsals 1-3
What forms the Lateral Longitudinal Arch?
-Heads of Metatarsals 1-3
Which longitudinal arch is higher?
Medial (think of a sand footprint)
What forms the Transverse Arch?
-3 Cuneiforms
What are the ligaments of the arches? What are the ligs for?
1. Long plantar
2. Short plantar
3. Spring ligament
4. Plantar Aponeurosis
-Maintaining the arches
What does the Long Plantar ligament extend between?
Where is it located?
-Proximal metatarsals
Located Laterally & Superficial
What does the Short Plantar ligament extend between?
Where is it located?
(Calcaneo-cuboid ligament)
Found deep to Long Plantar Lig.
Where is the Spring ligament located? What is it also called?
Found Medially - puts spring into your step!
Aka Calcaneo-navicular
What is the Spring ligament important for? (2 things)
-Putting spring into your step
-Maintaining your arch.
What is the Plantar Aponeurosis?
Mass of superficial fibrous tissue - extends between calcaneus and metatarsal heads.
What condition results from wearing shoes without arches?
Plantar fasciitis - stretching, irritation, and inflammation of the plantar aponeurosis.