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172 Cards in this Set

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The branch of biology that deals with heredity and the expression of inherited traits
Genetics
Transmission of traits from one generation to the next
Heredity
Any detectable phenotypic variation of an inherited trait
Traits
Genetics is the magnifying glass of _________.
Biology
Which was studied first, Plants or Animals?
Plants
What was one of the first known plants to be cultivated, and why?
Grain, and it was cultivated to make ceral.
Date Palms were found in what gepgraphic region?
Western Mesopotamia
Western Mesopotamia later became known as what?
The Fertile Cresent.
Name 3 food products that had been engineered by the year 1000 ybp!
what, cotton, and rice
first major belief about Genetics, holding to the idea that living organisms formed from ninliving organisms.
Spontaneous Generation
usually involved a diety; Venus of Willendorf (22,000 bp)
Who is responsible for discrediting and disproning the the Spontaneous Generation Theory?
Pasteur
This group of people believed that the male provided form, and that the female brought the form to life.
The Greeks
also believed that blood was important, believed in right and left theory-(if a woman laid on her right or left side after sex, it could affect the sex of the baby)
The idea that one of the sex cells contained within itself, the entire organism in perfect miniature form.
Preformationism
The idea (theory) that small, exact copies of body parts (pangenes) are transported by the bloodstream to the sex organs and are assembled in the gametes.
Pangenesis
coined by Charles Darwin
What was the major problem with the theory of Pangenesis?
there was no way of testing the theory.
What is the leading cause for the United States having more stability than Russia?
Agricultural success.
What is the theory we accept in present day concerning Genetics?
Epigenesis
idea that many new structures such as tissues and organs, appear during the development of an organism which are not present at the time of original formation.
Epigenesis
*known as DE NOVO development.
True or False

The most substantial advancements in Genetics took place from 1800 to 1900
False:

This was the slowest peiod.
Physical location of a given gene
Locus
only concerned with one gene
Physical location of two or more genes
Loci
- 2N (same length, same centromere location, same loci)
Ex: if mom gives gene for eye color on chromosome 4 father will have to give the same.
Homologous
One of the possible mutational states of a gene, distinguished from other alleles by phenotypic effects.
allele
Diploid organisms have two of these.
if two alleles are identical the individual is known as ________?
Homozygous
AA
When two alleles are not identitcal they are known as ________?
heterozygous
Aa
A genetic cross between two individuals involving one character.
Monohybrid Cross
AA x aa
Who is responsible for the breakthrough studies in Genetics by growing and studying Pea Plants?
Gregor Mendel
ratio determined by mode of inheritance.

Ex: 3G_: 1 gg
phenotypic ratio
ratio determined by the cross that is actually made between two alleles.

Ex: 1 GG: 2Gg: 1 gg
genotypic ratio
What were the four major concepts discussed in Lecture that Mendel is responsible for undertaking?
1.) That genes worked in pairs
2.) That there were Dominant and Recessive Genes. (a.k.a. simple Mendellian)
3.) Principles of Segregation,(a.k.a. Mendel's First Principle)
4.) Medel's Big 6 Crosses. (see written notes)
Belif that DURING THE FORMATION OF GAMETES, THE PAIRED ALLELES SEPARATE (SEGREGRATE) RANDOMLY SO THAT EACH GAMETE RECEIVES ONE OR THE OTHER.
Principles of Segregation, otherwise known as Mendle's First Principle
The process in gametogenesis or sporogenesis during which one replication of the chromosomes is followed by two nuclear divisions to produce four haploid cells.
Meiosis
Chromosomes that synapse or pair during meiosis. Chromosomes that that are identitcal with respect to their genetic loci and centromere placement.
Homologous Chromosomes
When crossing an AA organism with another AA organism
AA x AA; what will be the resulting genotype and phenotype? What would the resulting name be called?
Both the Phenotype and the Genotype will both be (AA). It would thus be named (Pure A)
When crossing an aa with another aa
aa x aa; What is the resulting genotype and phenotype? What is it named?
Both the genotype and the phenotype would be all aa's. It would thus be named, Pure a.
When crossing AA with aa
AA x aa; What is the resulting genotype and phenotype? What will it be named?
The genotype will consist of all Aa and the phenotpye will consist of all A_.
The cross would thus be named Parental.
When crossing an Aa with another Aa

Aa x Aa; What is the resulting gneotype and phenotype? What will it be called or known as?
Genotype will consist of (1AA:2AA:1aa) and the phenotype will consist of (3A_:1aa) and will be called or known as an F(1) cross.
When crossing an AA with an aa

AA x aa; What is the genotype and phenotype? What is it called, and is it dominant or recessive?
The genotype will be (1Aa:1aa) and the phenotype will be (1A_:1aa). It is known as a Backcross and is considered to be Recessive.
When crossing an Aa and an AA

Aa x AA; What is the resulting genotype and phenotype? Is it dominant or recessive? What will it be named?
The genotype is (1Aa:1AA) and the phenotype is (all A_). It is Dominant and is also known as a Backcross.
What are the 3 most important factors when establishing a food plot?
Water, the p.H. of the soil, & Nutrients.
What is the key ingreident in creating proper soil p.H.
Lime
What is the best definition for a food plot?
Agricultural like plantings established specifically for consumption by wildlife species.
As relates to law and politics what individuals are most likely to be impacted by growing food plots?
Lawyers, Judges, Conservation Officers,
True or False.

In Alabama it is legal to hunt baited fields.
False
Give a definition of baiting.
The placing of food, seed, or minerals for wildlife to consume.
True or False.

It is illegal to plant corn, knock it down, and then flood a field for the purpose of attracting ducks, and or waterfowl.
True
Give 4 examples of practices used with agriculture that are legal in regards to attracting wildlife.
Planting, Harvesting, Not Harvesting, & Flooding.
True or False.

It is a conservation officers duty to inform hunter's that field may or may not be baited.
False.

It is the hunters responsibility to know exactly where he is hunting, and wheter or not it is baited or not.
True or False.

The extent to which food plots provide nutrition can be guaged by using an equation.
False.

The extent of the nutritional benefits of food plots are somewhat unknown.
What three times of the year dicussed in class are the most important that wildlife receive high protein food sources.
Spring, Summer, and Early Fall.
Give 4 explanations as to why protein needs are at their highest during Spring, Summer, & Fall. (i.e., especially for whitetail deer.)
1.)Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient in terrestrial ecosystems.

2.)Nitrogen is extremely important for tissue growth.

3.)Bucks are growing antlers from April-July. (One of the fastest growing tissues in the animal kingdom).

4.)Does are pregnant and lactating. (Lactation is more costly than antler production).
What are the ideal characteristics of food sources that should be planted during spring, summer, and fall?

What are some examples of food sources that may meet these needs?
Protein rich species.

Some examples of good sources would be, Legumes (i.e., clovers, peas, & soybeans.)
What is the most important quality a food (nutrient) must possess during the winter months?
Energy
True or False.

Deer are at their highest tissue growth during the winter months.
False.

Deer are not building tissue during the winter months.
What are the 3 most important factors when establishing a food plot?
Water, the p.H. of the soil, & Nutrients.
What is the key ingreident in creating proper soil p.H.
Lime
What is the best definition for a food plot?
Agricultural like plantings established specifically for consumption by wildlife species.
As relates to law and politics what individuals are most likely to be impacted by growing food plots?
Lawyers, Judges, Conservation Officers,
True or False.

In Alabama it is legal to hunt baited fields.
False
Give a definition of baiting.
The placing of food, seed, or minerals for wildlife to consume.
True or False.

It is illegal to plant corn, knock it down, and then flood a field for the purpose of attracting ducks, and or waterfowl.
True
Give 4 examples of practices used with agriculture that are legal in regards to attracting wildlife.
Planting, Harvesting, Not Harvesting, & Flooding.
True or False.

It is a conservation officers duty to inform hunter's that field may or may not be baited.
False.

It is the hunters responsibility to know exactly where he is hunting, and wheter or not it is baited or not.
True or False.

The extent to which food plots provide nutrition can be guaged by using an equation.
False.

The extent of the nutritional benefits of food plots are somewhat unknown.
What three times of the year dicussed in class are the most important that wildlife receive high protein food sources.
Spring, Summer, and Early Fall.
Give 4 explanations as to why protein needs are at their highest during Spring, Summer, & Fall. (i.e., especially for whitetail deer.)
1.)Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient in terrestrial ecosystems.

2.)Nitrogen is extremely important for tissue growth.

3.)Bucks are growing antlers from April-July. (One of the fastest growing tissues in the animal kingdom).

4.)Does are pregnant and lactating. (Lactation is more costly than antler production).
What are the ideal characteristics of food sources that should be planted during spring, summer, and fall?

What are some examples of food sources that may meet these needs?
Protein rich species.

Some examples of good sources would be, Legumes (i.e., clovers, peas, & soybeans.)
What is the most important quality a food (nutrient) must possess during the winter months?
Energy
True or False.

Deer are at their highest tissue growth during the winter months.
False.

Deer are not building tissue during the winter months.
Hince, no need for protein.
Why is it so important that deer receive high energy foods during the winter time?
Because they need energy, to slow down utilization of internal energy stores.
Deer are (slowly or fastly) utilizing fat to meet energy needs in the winter time?
Slowly
True or False.

Planting food plots will always improve quality and number of deer seen.
False.

Food plots are not always a solution to the problem.
True or False.

Food plots improve the nutritional availability to wildlife.
True
What town in Louisiana conducted a study to determine whether or not food plots improved quality of deer.
Blairstown,LA.
How many food plots were observed during the Blairstown, LA. food plot study, & what did they grow?
A total of 14 food plots were planted.

The crop grown was Clover, & Rye.
What was the goal behind the food plot study conducted in Blairstown, LA.?
To compare two areas; One area in which food plots were not planted against areas that were planted with food plots.
What did the overall results from the Blairstown, LA. food plot study, conclude about crude protein in deer's diets.

What was the overall decided difference in the two?
It proved that crude protein intake increased with the addition of food plots.

Crude protein was 2.6% greater in the areas where food plots were present.
What did the Blairstown, LA. food plot study conclude about deer diets as relates to digestibility?
It found that digestibility of deer diets were 3.5% greater in the presence of food plots.
What did the Blairstown study conclude about the weight of 1.5 year old bucks?
Showed that the body weight of 1.5 year old bucks was on average 16.7 lbs. greater than 1.5 year old bucks that did not have access to food plots.
True or False.

The Blairstown, LA. study on food plots concluded that Bucks who had access to food plots measured 2 inchs thicker in diameter than those who did not feed on food plots.
False.

There was no scientific proof that the food plots actually improved antler growth in this particular study.
In regards to protein, what single element is most important and paramount to nutritional needs?
Nitrogen.
True or False.

It is more costly to ensure high protein in mothers milk when lactaitng than it is to ensure high protein levels for antler growth.
True
What is one the fastest growing tissues in the animal kingdom?
Antlers,Horns,etc.etc.
When are bucks growing antlers?
April-July
True or False.

Wildlife (deer) always maintain proper nutirition.
False.

Wildlife species including deer, balance on the edge of malnutrition.
What are three indications of malnutrition in wildlife species?
1.) Poor reproduction.

2.) Low body weights.

3.) Poor survival rates.
With respect to reproduction in Wildlife species, how important is adequate nutrition? And what is an example of neccesarry bilogical functions?
It is very important.

It can affect litter size and twinning rate.
How does birth weight affect a species in the long run?
Higher birth weight is associated with antler development, body size, and dominance later in life.
What is the most important factor in fawn growth?
Milk quantity.
What is accepted to be the most costly activity when species undergo development?
Lactation.
True or False.

Milk quantity produced is directly related to nutrient depletion.
False.

It is directly related to nutrient availability.
What are the two most important months (in Alabama), that does have access to high protein food sources, and why?
August and September.

The reason for this is because this is when the does will begin the lactation process, which will ultimatley be passed on through milk to the fawn.
When is the most important time of the year that bucks have access to high protein food sources in order to promote antler growth?
April-July
When measuring a yearling bucks antler growth, what and where should you measure?
The diameter at the base of his antler. You measure the antler beam diameter.
During the rut, how many hours on average do bucks spend actively awake and moving?
20-22 hours a day.
What is the ultimate goal of most all species, especially bucks?
To pass on its genes.
Why is it so important that bucks have access to high energy foods during the months of February-March?
Because mortality following the rut can be very high, due to the amount of energy they expend during the mating process.
What should be expected of a one year old food plot?
Increased body weight, & increased reproduction.
What results can be expected with a 2 year old food plot?
Increased antler size in yearlings.
When speaking about a dears age, why do we refer to them as being 1.5 years old, as opposed to just one or two?
Because it may be born in summer but killed in the winter.
What should a hunter expect to see in a three year old food plot?
Increased antler size in adults.
What can be observed in a food plot that is 4 years old or older?
Some "trophy bucks", however antler size still depends on genetic makeup and age of the deer.
What is the surest way to improve the chances of seeing and growing big antlered deer?
Don't kill the small bucks. Let the deer afe, and ultimatley their anlter size will improve.
What 3 things should be done to maximize the nutritional benefits of a food plot program?
1.)Plant both warm- and cool-season forages; take care of them during all periods needed. Does no good to plant only for hunting season

2.)Plan to maintain the program indefinitely.

3.)Employ good herd management.
When will the greatest results be seen from growing food plots?
3-7 years after implementing the food plots.
Although not always the case, food plots tend to ________ the number of deer seen during hunting season
Increase.
True or False.

Food plots provide a scant food source for attracting deer to the gun.
Fasle.

They should provide a concentrated food source.
As more deer are shot on a food plot, the more ______ they will generally become.
Cautious.
What two areas of South Carolina were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of baiting, as relates to hunting?
The Peidmont region & The Coastal Plain region.
In the S.Carolina study involving baiting, what were the final numbers of deer killed with baiting vs. those that were not baited?
Where deer were baited, an average of 12.04 deer were killed as opposed to the average of deer not baited which was 16.06.
What were the averages for does harvested in the S.Carolina study on baiting?
Baited = 5.75

Not Baited = 8.11
True or False.

In the S.Carolina study on baiting, more bucks were killed where baiting was allowed.
False.

In fact just the opposite was true. More bucks on average were killed where baiting was not allowed.
In the S.Carolina study on baiting, what control group spent more actual time hunting, in order to kill deer?
The group that hunted baited areas.
What two major observations were made in Wisconsin following the ban of baiting for deer.
1.) Archery harvest decreased.

2.) Gun harvest increased.
What is the general pattern hunters exhibit when huting food plots?
Hunters tend to kill young deer, and does on most food plots.
What is the most likely deer to arrive first on a food plot?
A fawn or a yearling buck.
True or False.

A 6.5 year old buck is much wiser than a 6.5 year old doe.
False.

A buck is probabally no wiser than a doe of equal age to himself.
True or False.

The chances of harvesting a buck is much greater than harvesting a doe of the same age in a food plot.
False.

The chances of harvesting a doe are much greater than a buck in a food plot because, hunters give much less thought to the age of a doe.
Overall food plots do very _________ for hunting success.
(little)

In fact food plots tend to decrease hunting success.
Give three reasons why people may plant food plots, not including nutritional benefits, or hunting purposes.
1.) Public Relations

2.) Hunter manipulation

3.) Economics
What are some reasons somebody may plant food plots from a public relations standpoint?
1.) Most hunters think that wildlife management consists of planting food plots.

2.) If hunters see food plots, they think the managers are doing their jobs.

3.) Food plots are a cheap way to get good PR.
How can food plots be used to manipulate hunters?
By planting food plots, managers can influence where hunters expend effort, knowing that the pressure will in effect drive the deer away form the food plot.
Describe 2 topics that were dicussed as relate to Economics of food plots.
1.) The cost of producing forage from food plots is about 10% of the cost of providing supplement feed.

2.)You should plant food plots, if nutrition is your goal, unless you can’t meet the initial investment of machinery.
What species are food plots primarily planted for?
Whitetail Deer.
Approximatley what percentage of money invested into food plots are for deer?
70%
What are some common plantings for whitetail deer?
Wheat
Rye
Clovers
Legumes
Corn
Turnips
Exotics: (i.e. Lab Lab)
Of all species hunted in America which one is harvested in the largest number?
Mourning Dove
What are common plantings for Mourning Dove?
Brown top millet
Dove proso millet
Wheat
Small sunflowers
Sorghum
Lespedeza
What are the most common type of crops planted for waterfowl?
Agricultural crops
What are the most common plantings for waterfowl?
Milo
Corn
Millet
Rice
What is the best method to use for attracting waterfowl to a crop or food plot?
The best method is to cut it down and then flood the field; this is however very expensive.
What is the major problem with flooding fields for waterfowl?
The grain tends to breakdown at a faster rate.
What are a few common plantings for Wild Turkey?
Clover, Wheat, & Rye.
What is the most preferred food plot for Wild Turkey's?
Chufa (Nut Sedge)
In addition to providing good nutrition food plots when planted for Wild Turkey's provide great _______.
Staging areas, where they are able to be seen by other turkeys.
What are common plantings for Bobwhite Quail?
Bicolor lespedeza
Partridge Pea
According to an Auburn University study concerning Bobwhite Quail, it was shown that they actually move _____ in food plots than they do without them.
Less
True or False.

Movement by Quail increases their chance of survival.
False.

Their movement, according to an AU study, showed that movement had a negative impact on survival rates.
What are some possible objectives as discussed in classfor planting food plots?
Hunting
Supplement nutrition
Hunter management
Waste money
What are the most important factors to remember when planting cool season food plots for deer?
1.) Plant in late summer or early fall.
2.) Making sure they are cold resistant
3.) Try to include a high energy source.
4.) Focus less emphasis on protein needs.
Name several crops that would fall under cool season crops under Grasses.
Wheat
Rye
Oats
What are a few of the advantages to grasses such as wheat, rye, and oats?
1.) They have aggressive fall growth.
2.) They have a high digestibility rate.
3.) Thay have moderate protein.
Whan should corn be planted? What are a few advantages to having corn in a food plot?
Corn should be planted in early summer.

A few advantages to having corn in a food plot are that
1.) It has a very high digestibility rate.
2.) It is a great energy quality.
What is one disadvantage to corn?
It has a small protein conent.
What are some advantages of Sorghum?
High digestibility.
High energy (not as good as corn though)
What are some disadvantages to Sorghum?
It has little protein.
And it is sometimes eaten to early; before it has a chance to mature.
Give 3 examples of Brassicas.
1.) Turnips
2.) Rape
3.) Biologic
What are the advantages in planting Brassicas?
1.) After the first hard freeze, they actually become sweeter, and in most cases more palletablle.
2.) Adequate source of protein.
3.) Good digestibility
Give a few examples of a clover type of plant.
1.) Ladino
2.) Durana (newest on market)
What are a few advantages to growing clover in a food plot?
High Protein
High Digestibility
Year round growth (perennial)
What is one disadvantage to warm season food plots?
Often they are not viable during hunting season.
What percent of soybean is protein?
20% whereas the seed contains about 40%
True or False.

Soybeans are not succeptible to browsing.
False.

Soybeans are succeptible to browsing.
What percent of cowpeas are protein?
23%
True or False.

Cowpeas are resistant to browsing pressure.
True
True or False.

Cowpeas cannot live without large amounts of water.
False.

Cowpeas are fairly grought resistant.
What percent of Lab Lab is protein?
30%
Where did Lab Lab originate?
Africa or S.E.Asia
What is Jointvtech, what is it grown for, and is it an efficent crop for widlife?
It is grown for cattle, it is 20% protein, and is relatively diffucult to establish.
Forages planted in ________, may have greater impact when _________, as opposed to when __________.
Combination
Combined
Seperate
A Rape~Wheat combo is very advantageous in that it does what?
Meets the needs of multiple wildlife.
When soybeans and cowpeas are mixed what is the appication percent?
70%
What is one disadvantage of planting cowpeas along side soybeans when thinking in a food plot frame of mind?
The deer will attack the soybeans and most likely not even touch the cowpeas. This does however allow the cowpeas to mature providing a longer lasting food plot.
What are some advantages of growing a Lab Lab/Sorghum mix?
Sorghum is a vine, which serves as a ladder for the for the Lab Lab to grow. These two plants allow for a mix of high protein & energy needs.
What is an advantage to growing a Wheat/Clover mix?
The cereal grass from the rye/oats, serve as a cover crop which aid in the developing clover.
What are the most important factors when deciding what to grow in a food plot?
•Plant what the DEER want
•Pay attention to what the deer are telling you
•Recommend putting up exclusion cages in every food plot you establish
which allows you to assess what is going on in your food plots
•Check for deer tracks
•Browsing pressure
•Beds
When testing new forages, what are the three most important things to remember?
1.) Experiment

2.) Don't abandon what is already working for you and the deer.

3.) Listen to what the deer are telling you.
In 1991, what was the national average for hunting expenditures?

Where did Alabama rank?
Nationally- $12.3 Billion

Alabama (17th in the nation)- $276 Million

*Do not includefood plot costs
What was the national expenditure for hunting in 1996? Where did Alabama rank?
Nationally- $20.6 Billion

Alabama (11th place)- $610 million

*Do not include food plot costs.
What was the national expenditure for hunting in 2001? Where did Alabama rank?
Nationally- $20.6 Billion

Alabama (4th in the nation)- $663 million

*Do not include food plot costs.
When national expenditures towards food plots = 25% what is the overall expendiatures on food plots?
5 Billion
What is the major disadvantage to Chufa for Wild Turkeys?
It tends to take over; and crowd out other native plants, causing disruptions in natural and normal ecosystems.