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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 types of oligosaccharides
raffinose, starchyose, dextrins
4 kinds of polysaccharides
starch, pectins, gums, cellulose
two important functional groups of sugars
carbonyl and alcohol
functional group in sugar that's imp for sweetness
alcohol
functional group in sugar that's imp for reducing and Maillard browning
carbonyl
6 functional properties of sugars
browning, crystallization, hygroscopicity, inversion, sweetness, texturizing
example of browning
maillard and caramelization
example of crystallization
used in making hard candies
example of humectancy
play a role in food preservation
inversion
makes foods sweeter by breaking apart something like sucrose into its two components
sweetness refers to what kind of sugar
simple sugars
oligosaccharides found in beans that cause flatulence
raffinose, stachyose
7 functional properties of polysaccharides
bulking, emulsion stabilizer, fat replacer, gelation, thickening, water binding, promotes growth of probiotics
starch is a polymer of...
sweetness...
used for making...
glucose linked a-1,4 or a-1,6
not very
pastes and gels (thickening)
2 kinds of starch
straight chained, branched chain
straight chained starch
amylose
branched chain starch
amylopectin
cellulose is polymer of...
digestible...
water solubility...
used for...
abundancy
glucose linked b-1,4
indigestible dietary fiber
insoluble due to bond angle
texture
most abundant org. compound
hemicellulose consists of...
glucose and other monosaccharides, arabinose, xylose, other 5-gum sugars
2 functions of gums
thickeners, stabilizers
pectin is polymer of...
found in...
solubility...
can form...
imp in fruits and veggies...
galacturonic acid
middle lamella of plants
water soluble
gel=jelly
firmness and softening
the more methylated the pectin the more...
insoluble
beta-glucans composed of..
solubility...
sources...
sugar D-glucose either 1,3 or 1,4
soluble fiber
oats, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae
inulin aka...
solubility
food additive for...
fructooligosaccharide
water soluble
low cal food and encourages prebiotic growth
sweetness of mono- and di- saccharides
fru>suc>glu>malt>galac>lact
most are sweet
solubility of mono- and di- saccharides
water soluble
mono- and di- saccharides influence in Aw
creates a low one
viscosity of mono- and di- saccharides
thickens which increases viscosity
reducing sugars
react w/ other substances through exidation-reduction chemisy to produce a reduced substance plus the oxidized sugar molecule
maillard browning
creates brown pigments that can be good or bad, results from baking or getting old
1. condensation
2. rearragement
3. polymerization
a-1,4...
a-1,6...
backbone of starch (amylose)
branch point of starch
amylopectin)
polymers of glucose
beta-glucans, cellulose, dextrins, starch
starches w/ high ... content form gels more easily
amylose
starches w/ high ... are considered to be non-gelling but have a gummy, cohesive texture
amylopectin
when heated starch granules absorb water and sweel in size
gelatinization
forms from a cooled paste of starch
gelation
after heating and cooling, the starch polymers and intergranule matrix fragments reassociate into an ordered structure
retrogradation
refers to nonmethylated galacturnonic acid polymers found in immature fruit
protopectin
short-chain demethlated derivative associated w/ overripe fruit
pectic acid
6 types of lipids
pigments, terpenes, waxes, steroids, phospholipids, triacylglycerides
5 common sat. fatty acids
butyric-4
behenic-22
capric-10
palmitic-16
stearic-18
common monunsaturated fatty acid
oleic-18:1
3 common polyunsaturated fatty acid
linoleic-18:2
linolenic-18:3
eicosapentaenoic-20:5
fatty acid that doesn't contain any carbon-to-carbon double bonds
saturated
fatty acid chain that does contain carbon-to-carbon double bonds
unsaturated
when H atoms bonding to the C=C are located on the same side of the double bond
cis fats
when the H atoms attached to the carbonatoms of the double bond are opposite each other
trans fat
most unsaturated fatty acid double bonds are ...
cis
polar lipids
water soluble and fat
diff. btwn polar phospholipid from TAG
has glycerol backbone w/ 2 fatty acids attached and a phosphate group
classes of pigments
beta-carotene, lycophene, anythocyanins, bealains, and chlorophylls
waxes
mp
shelf life and flavor
esters of fatty acids
low
increase
8 functional properties of lipids
aeration, crystallization, emulsification, flavor, heat tranfser, mouthfeel, plasticity, tenderization
MPs
saturated
cis-unsaturated
trans-unsaturated
short chains vs long chains
highest
lowest
middle
shorter is lower
when air bubles are physically held by crystal molecules in the fat and allow product to expand
aeration
can change melting points, more there are more likely a solid
crystallization
3 forms of crystal
alpha, beta, beta prime
get a lot of lipid flavor from these molecules in plants
terpenoids
frying in fats help move this from the heat source to the food and also gets absorbed into the food
heat transfer
physical property of a fat thatdescribes its softness at a given temp
plasticity
creamy texture and smoothness of fat
mouthfeel
occurs during processing when exposed to oxygen but not the same as oxidation, bad flavor in fats
reversion
results when stored fats become bad by a rxn w/ water
hydrolytic rancidity
chemical mechanism in which heat, light or metals trigger a chain rxn w/i stored fats and oils that results in a fat becoming rancid
lipoxidation
lipoxidation steps
fatty acid, catalyst, fatty acid free radical, oxygen, peroxyl free radical, unsat. fatty acid, hyderperoxide + fatty acid free radical, oxygen..., finally splits into ketones/aldehydes/alcohols
forced addition of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated bonds in an unsat. fat
hydrogenation
removal of fatty acids from glycerol and rearrangement into numerous configurations
interesterification
polypeptide that is not bound to other substances and contains only amino acids
nonconjugated
protein combined with nonprotein substances such as carbs and lipids into complex molecules
conjugated
linear sequence of amino acids in order w/i a polypeptide
primary structure
whether the amino acids together assume either an alpha helix or beta sheet configuration w/i a polypeptide
secondary structure
describes the overall 3D shape achieved by the folding of the entire protein molecule
tertiary structure
type of interactions that stabilize the tertiary structure
hydrogen and disulfide bonds
when a protein contains more than one polypeptide chain in its structure
quarternary structure
food protein that is spherical like a ball, soluble
globular
food protein that is elongated like a twisted rope, insoluble
fibrous
examples of globular proteins
egg albumen, meat and legume globulins