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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_________occurs when reducing sugars react with amino acids
Mailliard Browning

-nonenzymatic browning
What are the 3 elements in sugar?
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon
What are the 4 types of sugars?
Monosaccharides, Dissacharides, Polysaccarides, Olgiosaccarides
What are 3 examples of a monosaccharide?
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose
Which monosaccharide is the most abundent?
-20-30% in grapes
A glycosidic bond does what?
Links monosaccharides to create disaccharides.
What are 3 examples of a dissacharide?
sucrose, maltose, and lactose
What is the sweetest of the sugars?
As a carbonyl group, sugars do what?
Reduce activity, cause mailliard browning
As an alcohol group, sugars do what?
Solubility, and sweetness
What type of sugar is not a reducing sugar?
polysaccharide. The rest are a reducing sugar.
__________ is the formation of brown pigments as a result of temperatures higher than 200 degrees.
__________ is the organization of three-dimensional units into a solid form with a repeating pattern
3 factors that affect crystallizaton are:
Concentration of sugar
Hard candies are made of what two sugars
glucose and fructose
Humectancy is ___________.
the affinity for moisture of a substance
ex: Brown sugar that wants to clump up.
Humectants reduce what?
the water activity of foods.
ex: lessens cake clumping
Which sugar is the most sweetest and which is the least?
Fructose is the most.
Lactose is the least.
This is a complex carbohydrate of 10 or fewer sugar units.
Raffinose and stachyose are present in beans, soybeans, peas and lentils which are examples of _____________
What are 3 main characteristics of oligosaccharides?
Poorly digested
Cause flatulents
Fermented in large intestine
Polysaccharides have how many sugar units?
at least 40
What are Beta-Glucans?
They are polysaccharides of glucose similar to cellulose, but less linear
Where do you find Beta- Glucans?
oats, barley and yeast.
What enzyme treated flour is used as a fat replacer in many types of food products?
True or False
Cellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate polymer?
What is an example of Cellulose?
These are derived from starch by hydrolyzing the amylose portion of starch
Dextrins and Maltodextrins
__________ are used as fat replacers in products and are obtained from tapioca
__________are derived from starch hydrolysis of corn
___________are sugars composed of multiple glucose units with one, two or three fructose molecules attached
Fructooloigosaccharides (FOS)
FOS sugars are _____________and promote ___________.
prebiotics, probiotics
What are pectins used for?
to form dispersions and gels

are used to stiffen the texture of pies and jellies
What do you need to add to get high methoxyl gel?
acid and sucrose
What do you need to add to get low methoxyl gel?
calcium ions
Long chain polymers of hexoses and pentoses that can be linear or branched are called __________
Vegetable Gums
Which of the following is a vegetable gum?
Gum arabic (sap)
Carrageenan and alginate (seaweed)
Guar gum (seed)
Xanthan gum (microbial)
All of the above.
What are the uses of vegetable gums.
Uses include thickening, gelling and binding
__________are organic substances that are relatively nonpolar
Food Lipids
They are _________ in water but are_______ in organic solvents
Slighly soluble, very soluble
lipophilic and hydrophobic descirbe ________.
Food Lipids
What is the difference between fats and oils?
Whether it is solid or liquid at room temperature.
What are the alternate names for fats and oils.
triacylglycerols or triglycerides
Fatty acids are ________ if there are no carbon to carbon double bonds
Fatty acids with two or more double bonds are _________.