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68 Cards in this Set

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What is a food additive?
It's any substance added to foods.
Most additives are __________and must be approved by the Food & Drug Administration
Intentional additive
Indirect additives are __________.
Contaminates

Most are anticipated though.
Intentional adulteration is _________.
illegal
Indirect Additive Examples are________
Antibiotics, Dioxins, Dirt/dust, Hair, Hormones, Insects, Microwave packaging
What are the uses of Food additives?
Uses are to maintain product consistency, to improve or maintain nutritional value, to maintain palatability and wholesomeness,
to provide leavening or control acidity/alkalinity, to enhance flavor or impart desired color
Principles of Food Additive Use include......?
Safety first, Efficacy of function is important, Nutritional value must not be diminished and Must be detectable.
Is radiating a process or an ingredient.
It is a process, but it is classified as an ingredient.
What are the major types of food additives? (there are 20)
Antimicrobial Agents, antioxidants, Colorants, Curing Agents, Emulsifiers, Enzymes, Flavorings, Leavening Agents, Nonnutritive sweeteners, Nutritive Sweeteners, Oxidizing agents, pH control agents, and Stabilizers and thickeners
What are some examples of Antimicrobial agents?
iodine, hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride
What are some examples of antioxidants?
BHA, BHT, ascorbic acid, tocopherols (vitamin E)
When does an act become a law?
When the POTUS signs it.
What is a stature?
a rule or administrative code issued by governmental agencies
What is a code?
a collection of statutes and rules
What is a regulation?
it's implemented to enforce statutes
What is a rule?
a regulation in its final form
When is a proposed law written?
when a change is needed in regulation and includes time for public comment
What some examples of colorants?
FD&C certified color additives, exempt colorants
What are some examples of Anticaking and free-flowing agents?
Silicates and talc
What are some examples of curing agents?
Sodium nitrite
What are some examples of emulsifiers?
Lecithin, monoglycerides, sodium phosphate
What are some examples of enzymes?
Pectinase, glucose oxidase, invertase
What are some examples of leavening agents?
Baking powder
What are some examples of Flavorings?
Essential oils, monosodium glutamate
What are some examples of Nonnutritive sweeteners?
saccharin and aspartame
What are some examples of Nutritive sweeteners?
sucrose, lactose, maltose, and fructose
What are some examples of oxidizing agents?
Chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, benzoyl peroxide, sodium hypochlorite
What are some examples of pH control agents?
Acidulants: malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, vinegar, phosphoric acid

Alkaline compounds: sodium hydroxide
What are some examples of Stabilizers and thickeners?
Starch, pectin, gums, cellulose, gelatin
What are the 2 types of pH control agents?
Acidulants and Alkaline compounds
What is the code of Federal Regulations?
The annual compilation of rules
What does Title 9 deal with?
Animal and animal products
What does Title 21 deal with?
Food and Drugs
What is the Pure Food and Drug Act?
Prohibited interstate commerce of misbranded and adulterated foods, beverages and drugs
What is the Federal Meat Inspection Act?
Required antemortem and postmortem inspection of meat animals for interstate commerce
The Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act did what? (4 things)
Gave FDA authority over food and food ingredients, Required a standard identity for several foods (about 80),
Required a standard of minimum quality, Required a standard of container fill
Food Additives Amendment says what?
Requires FDA approval for use of an additive

All safe substances in foods prior to 1958 are prior sanctioned substances
What is GRAS?
(Generally Recognized as Safe)
and those ingredients recognized by experts as safe
What does the Delaney Clasue prohibit?
the approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals
What did the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act require? (don't worry too much about this one.)
Identity of product
Name and place of business of manufacturer
Net quantity of contents
Net quantity of a serving
What did the Pesticide Residue Amendment do?
Split the jurisdiction for pesticides between USDA and FDA
Action Levels allow for what?
contamination at levels below an enforcement level
What is the Biotechnology Policy?
FDA policy that states the agency will focus on the safety of a food, not the manner in which it was developed
What does the Biotechnology Policy do? (2 things)
Allowed the approval of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST)

Allowed approval of Flavr Savr tomato, a genetically engineered whole food
Who is an enforcer of Food Law?
USDA (food safety and inspection service) AND HHS (food and drug administration)
Why do businesses cooperate with recalls? (3 reasons)
Court orders
Impoundment
Withdrawl of inspection
Can USDA or FDA force a recall.
No, they can only suggest it.
What is a class 1 recall?
Recall of dangerous products that could cause serious health problems or death
What are Class 2 recalls?
Recall of products that might cause temporary health problems
What are Class 3 recalls?
Recall for products not likely to cause a health impact but violate regulations
What are some foods that have acceptable levels of filth?
Chocolate, Coffee, Peanut Butter, Mushrooms and Tomato Paste
What are the factors that the FDA consider for safety?
Amount likely to be consumed, Composition, and Long-term effects.
Do food and color additives require evidence of their safety before they are marketed?
Yes
What is a teratogen?
abnormal fetal development
What is a mutagen?
change in the DNA of cells
What is a carcinogen?
cancer development
Do All food additives have the potential to cause harm or toxicity?
Yes
Acute, subacute and chronic responses are common
Why was the Ames Test developed?
to identify the mutagenic potential of chemical substances
What is the Ames Test based on?
testing the response of bacterial cells to chemical substances
What are some foods that need Food Irridation Approval? (6)
Spices, Fruits, Poultry, Pork, Meat, Eggs
What does the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act require?
nutritional labeling of almost all foods covered by the FDA
What does the Nutrition Facts Label contain?
Details of Reference Daily Intake values and Nutritional Information
What does the Nutritional Information consist of?
Serving size, Amount per serving, and Percent of daily value for nutrients
What is included on general product labeling?
-Product name and place of business
-Product net weight
-Product ingredients (in decreasing order)
-Company name and address
-Product code (UPC)
-Product dating (if applicable)
-Religious symbols (if applicable)
-Special warning instructions (if applicable)
What are some examples of Nutrition Product Descriptors?
Examples are “free, low, extra lean and reduced”.
“Percent fat free” is only allowed for what kind of food?
low fat or fat free
“Healthy” is only for what kind of foods?
foods low in fat and saturated fat with limited cholesterol and sodium
“Fresh” is only used as a descriptor for what kind of food?
raw foods without preservatives (never frozen or heated)