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41 Cards in this Set

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1. Which of the following is not true about pepsin?

A. Amino acid chains are the digestive products of its action.
B. Pepsin works best in an alkaline environment.
C. Acid activates pepsin.
D. Pepsin acts on food in the stomach.
B. Pepsin works in an alkaline environment.
2. If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a

A. complementary amino acid.
B. essential amino acid.
C. limiting amino acid.
D. dispensable amino acid.
C. Limiting amino acid
3. Which of the following is not true about the events during and after absorption of protein digestive breakdown products?

A. Most protein eaten ends up as individual amino acids in the blood.
B. Small peptides are digested further to amino acids inside the absorptive cells of the small intestine.
C. Many whole proteins are absorbed and enter the blood.
D. Amino acids travel to the liver via the portal vein.
C. Many whole proteins are absorbed and enter the blood
4. A vegetarian who excludes animal flesh but consumes such products as milk and eggs is referred to as a(n)

A. lacto-vegetarian.
B. lacto-ovo-vegetarian.
C. vegan.
D. ovo-vegetarian.
B. lacto-ovo-vegetarian
5. If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?

A. Body cells will synthesize it.
B. Protein synthesis will be limited.
C. Health will not be affected as long as other nutrients are adequate.
D. Proteins will be made but they will lack that particular amino acid.
B. Protein synthesis will be limited
When there is a need for increased dietary protein during pregnancy or lactation, which foodstuff would be least desirable?

A. Eggs
B. Dried beans
C. Gelatin
D. Beef
C.Gelatin
7. All of the following are primary functions of protein except to

A. repair tissues.
B. support growth of new tissue.
C. supply more than 40 percent of the kcalories in the diet.
D. maintain body tissues.
C. Supply more than 40 of the kcalories in the diet
All of the following are true of high quality protein except

A. it contains all essential amino acids.
B. it provides 7 kcal/g of energy.
C. it can support body maintenance.
D. it can support body growth.
B. It provides 7 kcal/g of energy
9. If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen?

A. Fatty acids will be converted to glucose.
B. The pancreas will convert insulin to glucose.
C. The liver will convert amino acids to glucose.
D. The pancreas will convert protein to glucose.
C. The liver will convert amino acids to glucose
The most reliable source of vitamin B12 for the vegan would be

A. fortified soybean milk.
B. milk.
C. cheese.
D. eggs.
A. fortified soybean milk
11. A vegetarian who eats only plant foods is a(n)

A. lacto-ovo-vegetarian.
B. lacto vegetarian.
C. vegan.
D. ovo-vegetarian.
C. Vegan
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is

A. stored as glycogen and/or fat.
B. excreted in the urine.
C. stored as amino acids in muscle.
D. stored as amino acids in the liver.
A. stored as glycogen and/or fat
The child with kwashiorkor has all the following conditions except

A. moderate weight deficit.
B. some visible fat stores.
C. edema in the abdomen and legs.
D. a skin-and-bones appearance.
D. A skin-and-bones appearance
Proteins regulate the acid-base balance of the blood by
A. acting as buffers.
B. releasing nitrogen.
C. releasing an acid.
D. binding sodium ions.
A. acting as buffers
Food proteins are used most efficiently when we

A. are eating a very low kcalorie diet.
B. eat large quantities of protein even though our kcalorie intake may be low.
C. are consuming enough carbohydrates and fats to meet our kcalorie needs.
D. are eating enough fat even though carbohydrate intake may be low.
C. Are consuming enough carbohydrates and fats to meet our kcalorie needs
The typical American diet supplies approximately what percentage of protein as essential amino acid?

A. 10%
B. 25%
C. 40%
D. 50%
D. 50%
Proteins are digested in which areas of the body?

A. Mouth and stomach
B. Mouth and small intestine
C. Stomach and small intestine
D. Small and large intestines
C. Stomach and small intestine
The RDA for protein translates into approximately what percentage of total daily kcalorie needs?

A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 15%
D. 20%
B. 10%
The American Institute for Cancer Research promotes "The New American Plate," which includes plant-based foods covering __________________ of the plate and meat, fish, poultry, or low-fat dairy covering __________________ of the plate.

A. one-half; one-half
B. three-quarters; one-quarter
C. two-thirds (or more); only one-third (or less)
D. one-third; two-thirds
C. two-thirds (or more); only one-third (or less)
Donovan has been consuming large quantities of food and in violation of safe rules of athletic training is injecting testosterone. He has been seeing large temporary gains in muscle mass. He is in a state of

A. negative protein balance.
B. positive protein balance.
C. energy equilibrium.
D. excess protein balance.
B. Positive Protein Balance
Which of the following is true about protein?

A. It is unique in that it is the only dietary component that contains selenium.
B. It is important primarily for increasing bone density.
C. It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids.
D. It is made up of combinations of amino acids and fatty acids.
C. It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids
Edema appears when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because

A. sodium is retained in the body.
B. blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues.
C. blood protein levels increase and force fluid into the tissues.
D. increased protein synthesis occurs in tissues causing fluid to flow into them from the blood.
B. blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues
Today the best estimate for the amount of protein required for nearly all adults is _____ grams per kilogram body weight per day.

A. 2
B. 0.6
C. 0.8
D. 1.5
C. 0.8
Marasmus usually is associated with a deficiency of

A. kcalories.
B. protein.
C. carbohydrate.
D. fat.
A. kcalories
Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to

A. denaturation.
B. emulsification.
C. esterification.
D. detoxification.
A. denaturation
The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is

A. carbon.
B. nitrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. hydrogen.
B. Nitrogen
Kwashiorkor appears in children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The reason is that

A. growth needs are low.
B. children have been weaned from breast milk early.
C. by this time adequate exposure to other children allows them to catch it.
D. protein intake has been high for a long enough time to cause kidney damage.
B. Children have been weaned from breast milk early
All of the following are essential amino acids except

A. alanine.
B. lysine.
C. methionine.
D. threonine.
A. alanine
Kwashiorkor usually is associated with a deficiency of

A. carbohydrate.
B. fat.
C. protein.
D. kcalories.
C. protein
High protein diets may be harmful for

A. those with kidney disease.
B. athletes.
C. the elderly.
D. body builders.
A. those with kidney disease
If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?

A. Urea
B. Fatty acids
C. Amino acids
D. Ketones
C. amino acids
All of the following are true of the alteration of the three-dimensional structure of a protein except

A. it tends to be rigid and retains its structure.
B. it can be caused by heat, acid, or base.
C. it is called denaturation.
D. it usually destroys its physiological function.
A. it tends to be rigid and retains its structure
What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?

A. Pepsin
B. Lipoprotein lipase
C. Amylase
D. Trypsin
A. Pepsin
The nitrogen from amino acid breakdown is

A. stored in the liver.
B. oxidized to carbohydrate.
C. converted to urea.
D. converted to fat.
D. converted to fat
Proteins that bind to foreign proteins in the body are

A. enzymes.
B. antibodies.
C. hormones.
D. collagen.
B. antibodies
In the case of sickle cell anemia, the slight alterations in the DNA of red blood cells lead to

A. defects in the membranes of these cells.
B. changes in the structure of the protein hemoglobin.
C. poor use of glucose for energy.
D. inability of the cells to make protein.
B. changes in the structure of the protein hemoglobin
Which of the following is not true about body proteins?

A. They are in a state of breakdown, rebuilding, and repair.
B. They are static and change little after achievement of adult status.
C. Those in the bone marrow and intestine undergo the most change, in terms of breakdown and synthesis.
D. Their breakdown products, especially amino acids, can be recycled.
B. they are static and change little after achievement of adult status
Which of the following is true about protein intake of people in the United States?

A. Most do not consume enough protein.
B. Most consume approximately the amount needed to balance losses.
C. Athletes generally do not get enough protein without supplements.
D. Most consume more than is needed.
D. most consume more than is needed.
The combination of plant foods that most often is used to provide complete protein is
a. legumes and nuts
b. legumes and grains
c. vegetables and nuts
d. vegetables and seeds
A. legumes and nuts
The nitrogen from amino acid breakdown is
a. stored in the liver
b. oxidized to carbohydrate
c. converted to urea
d. converted to fat
C. Converted to urea
Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?
a. 5
b. 9
c. 20
d. 29
c. 20