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79 Cards in this Set

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In the 1880s, ______ salmonella was recognized as a foodborne pathogen
Non-typhoid
Who is the discoverer of Salmonella?
D.E Salmonella
T or F. In the 1950's, Salmonella emerged as the leading __________
food borne pathogen
What disease surpassed Salmonella as the leading foodborne pathogen in the 1990's?
Campylobacter
What is serotyping?
a technique that is used to differentiate betwen strains of microorganisms
The 2,375 serotypes of salmonella have __ and ___ antigens
O and H
O antigens are associated with ____
cell walls
H antigens are associated with ____
flagella
Are salmonella motile?
yes
Are salmonella coliforms?
no...they are lactose -
Is salmonella Gram + or Gram -
Gram -
Salmonella's grows between ___ and ____ degrees which would make it _____
8, 48, mesophilic
Salmonella can grow in environments with pH of ____ to _____
4.0-9.5
Salmonella has the property of acid adaptation.
has greater survival in fermented foods and stomach (pH 5.2) fermented foods
Salmonella is inhibited by ___ to ____ % NaCl
3-4
Salmonella's salt tolerance increase or decreases with temperature?
increases
Salmonella's Aw: > ___
.93
Is predictive modeling an efficient way of predicting salmonella numbers?
No because it doesn't account for other factors, like in potato salad
Can Salmonella resist freezing?
yes
Resistance to heating is ____ dependant
strain
Heat resistance is ____ at a lower Aw
greater
T or F Heat resistance is < in nutritionally rich media
false
Heat resistance is greater or less during the stationary phase
greater
Is there salmonella growth at 4.0 to 9.0?
yes
inhibition is :
acetic acid>lactic>citric>HCL
fact
An acid tolerance response in the log phase is triggered by exposure to pH of
5.5-6.0
Increased acid resistance triggers resistance to ____ ____ and ____
heat, salt (Aw), surface-active agents
The minimum ASw for growth is ____
.93
What strain is associated with the processing of chicken?
S. enteritidis
Can it pass into eggs?
yes
Name as many ways that chickens pass salmonella that you can
through infected flocks, through eggs/hatchery, through contaminated feed, from close quarters in poultry houses, and traditional processing without HACCP
During chicken processing, the chances of passing Salmonella are 1-4% more during the ____ phase
slaughter phase
During the chiller (fecal soup) phase, chances of passing it on are ____ to _____ %
25-60%
What percentage of Salmonella was in chickens before HACCP
20.0%
What percentage of Salmonella is in chickens after HACCP?
10.7%
T or F. Eggs can house Salmonella enteritidis
true
Contamination of the egg can occur in what two ways?
1) transovarian transmission in to the egg before the shell is deposited

2) Penetration of an intact or cracked egg shell
The geographic distribution of salmonella in eggs is highest in the _____
northeast
What are three ways of controlling salmonella outbreaks with chickens
1) destruction of contaminated flocks
2) competitive exclusion
3) pasteurization
The strain that is associated more with beef, pork and lamb is ______
S. Typhimuriom
T or F. There is cross contamination during slaughter and processing
True
T or F. Beef animals can not get or spread salmonella from contaminated feed.
false
_____ farming in third-world countries can result in salmonella spreading
high-density
Name ways that fruit and veggies can get contaminated with salmonella
questionable hygenic conditions during production, harvesting and distribution, or thru irrigation water and untreated fertilizer
T or F Global export of fruits and veggies is contributing to the spread of Salmonella
true
What are the 5 isolation and identifications steps for salmonella?
1) primary enrichment
2) secondary enrichment
3) plating
4) presumptive ID
5) serotyping
When identifying salmonella, does a microbiologist have to start with small or large numbers of salmonella. Why?
they should start with low numbers, since this process supports growth of the salmonella
Lactose broth is associated with what step of salmonella identification.
Primary enrichment.
Enterocolitis, a symptom of salmonellosis, is what?
infection of the colon
enterocolitis' onset is _____
8-72 hours after exposure
Does a person vomit with salmonella?
no
A person experiences _______ non bloody diarrhea
self-limiting (able to recover on their own)
What is the treatment of salmonella poisoning?
only fluid replacment and allow the body to rid itself of the parasite
Why should a person not take antibiotics?
they prolong the carrier state by reducing natural intestinal microflora
What is the human infectious dose of salmonella?
10-100 total cells
Who are the people that are susceptible to this?
newborns, infants, elderly, immunocompromised adults, individuals on antibiotics
Low infectious doses are associated with _____
high fat foods, rapid passage thru the staomch and anatacids
Salmonella manifestation is cattle is most common when?
during calving season
There is prolonged asymptomatic carriage and fecal shedding
fact
salmonella can infect the breast, also known as _____
mastitis
Is salmonella high or lowly pathogenic for swine?
highly
salmonella is handled in swine by _____ and ____
salmonella free feed, and careful handling through slaughter
Why are there very few cases linked to pork?
because pork is more often cooked all the way through
What is the definition of food borne intoxication?
bacteria are already present, so it is much quicker for the symptoms to appear
Salmonella Enteritidis is responsible for up to ____ % of all salmonellosis cases
37, large part of that is from contaminated shell eggs
Salmonella E. primarily affects (young or old) chickens and turkeys
young, they are more susceptible. The fatality rate is 80%
Salmonella and campylobacter colonizes in the ______
gastrointestinal tract
T or F. There is a lifetime of shedding salmonella or campylobacter
T
What are five of the ways to prevent S. Enteritidis in poultry
heat treated feed, feed additives, vaccination, competitive exclusion and Na Clorate
What are some of the modes of contamination for eggs
transovarian transmission, fecal contamination of shell followed by penetration of shell, hot water immersion, egg breaking machines,
Products of concern for S. Enteritidis are ____
ice cream, hollandaise and bernaise sauce, mayonnaise, caesar salad dressing, undercooked eggs etc etc
Salmonella Typhyimurium is resistant to _____
antibiotics
Where was S. Typhyimurium first discovered?
England
T or F. S. Thpyimurium is more or dangerous than other strains
true. it is unusually virulent
S. Typhy. can cause blood infections, also known as ____
septicemia
S Typhi can be in cattle, poulty, sheep, swine, and other animals like cats, wild birds, rodents, foxes and badgers
fact
Can S. Typh. be transmitted from cattle and swine to humans?
YES!
Salmonella Newport is linked to _____ in Englad
Salad
Salmonella DT 104 is generally less viable than E. Coli o157:h7
fact