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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are mineral elements neede for?
1.body building
2.control of body processes,e.g.transmission of nerve impulses
3.essential parts of body fluids
Name five mineral elements that are required in large amounts.
calcium ,iron ,phosphorus ,potassium ,sulphur
Mineral elements required in small amounts are called...
trace elements
Name some trace elements.
State the functions of calcium.
It is required:
-for the complex mechanism which causes blood to clot after an injury
-for the correct functioning of muscles and nerves
-maintenance of bones and teeth once formed
What does calcium make when it combines with phosphorus and why is this combination necessary?
calcium phosphate,it is the chief material that gives hardness and strength to bones and teeth.
List some sources of calcium.
milk,cheese,bread,bones of canned fish and hard water
What is the name of the substance that whole grain cereals can combine with to make calcium unavailable to the body?
phytic acid
What vitamin controls the absorption of calcium and the mineralization of bones and teeth?
vitamin D
Around which age does calcium start to be lost and is not replaced?
at the age of 30
Calcium loss may speed up in women who are going through menopause what can be done to slow down this loss?
Hormone replacement therapy(HRT)
The continual loss of bone mass can lead to...
What is osteoporosis?
this means that the bones became weak,brittle,and break easily.
What happens to children with a deficiency of calcium?
- bones and teeth are not mineralized properly and are improperly formed.
- leg bones may bend under the weight of the body
What happens when adults have a deficiency of calcium?
-strength of bones and teeth is not maintained,possibly resulting in osteomalacia
What is tetany?
Tetany is a conditon resulting from muscles and nerves not functioning correctly
What happens to a person who has tetany?
Their muscles contract rigidly and the patient has convulsions.
What is essential for the production of energy in the body?
What is phosphorus present in all plant and animal cells as?
Iron is a component of _________
What is haemoglobin?
the substance which gives red blood cells their colour
What is haemoglobin required for?
To transport oxygen around the body to every cell,for the production of energy and the maintenanceof all cell functions
Name some good sources of iron.
-liver -plain chocolate
-kidney -watercress
-corned beef
Name some reasonable sources of iron.
-white bread
-curry powder
-whole grain cereals
In which form is iron easier to absorb?
ferrous form
What vitamin increases iron absorption,especially from plant foods as it changes the iron form ferric to ferrous form.
Ascorbic acid(vitamin C)
Red blood cells die after about ____ weeks
two weeks
Where is the absorption of iron controlled?
In the small intestine
In severe cases deficiency of iron leads to .....
Iron deficiency anaemia
What happens when haemoglobin is not made properly?
Insufficient oxygen is carried around the body which leads to fatigue,weakness and a pale complexion.
What are sodium,chloride, and potassium all require for?
To maintain the correct concentration of the body fluid.
What is chloride also requires for?
the production of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice of the stomach.
What is sodium,chloride and potassium eaten as?
sodium chloride or potassium chloride in food
Name some examples of sodium,chloride and potassium being added as salt to foods.
-yeast extract
Where can sodium,chloride,and potassium found naturally?
fish and meat
What is the scientific name for salt?
sodium chloride
What is monosodium glutamate?
a flavour enhancer
Name two commonly used additives.
sodium bicarbonate and sodium nitrite
Why is sodium and chloride necessary for workers in heavy industry?
beacause they are lost in sweat
Excess intakes of sodium and chloride are excreted in ...
urine and sweat
What conditions might a person have to be placed on a salt restricted diet?
-heart,kidney,liver disease
-high blood pressure
Name three low salt foods.
natural cereals
-unsalted butter
What is important in strengthening teeth against decay?
How do teeth become more resistant to attack by the acid produced by bacteria in the mouth?
fluoride combines with the protective enamel coating of the teeth
Where is fluoride found naturally?
-sea-water fish
-some parts of the country in water supplies
calcium - Ca chlorine -Cl
iron - Fe sodium - Na
phosphorus - P magnesium-Mg
sulphur - S *fluorine-F
potassium - K
iodine-I cobalt- Co
copper-Cu chromium- Cr
manganese-Mn zinc - Zn
selenium -Se nickel- Ni
How often do red blood cells die?
every six weeks
When is the strengthening effect that fluoride has on the teeth of value?
when the teeth are developing in children
What can too much fluoride cause?
It can be harmful as it causes the teeth to become 'mottled' with dark brown spots.
Name some sources of iron mainly eaten in Jamaica.
dried peas,dried fruits,eg. raisin,and curry
What is iodine required for?
To make the horomone thyroxine
What is thyroxine produced by?
the thyroid gland in the neck
Thyroxine along with other horomones helps ...
To control the rate of metabolism in the body.
Name some foods that have a good supply of iodine.
-sea foods -iodized salt
-green vegetables(spinach)
-fresh water(certain areas)
What are the requirements for iodine?
A minute quantity is required every day and in our whole life 2.8g is needed by the body
How is a goitre formed?
a deficiency of iodine leads to a reduction in the amount of thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland---metabolism slows down and the gland swells up in the neck
Research shows that regular exercise stimulates______ _______ ____________.
new bone production
What is the name given to milk that is treated to break up fat in milk?
Homogenized milk
Milk that is heated to kill bacteria so it can be kept for a long time....
Pasteurized milk
__________ __ helps with the absorption ot iron
vitamin C
Fur in water because of too much chlorine can cause...
-kidney damage
-kidney stones
-gall stones