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88 Cards in this Set

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What is the layer of dense irregular tissue that surrounds cartilage?
perichondrium
What is the most abundant type of cartilage in the body?
Hyaline cartilage
What type of cartilage is only found in two skeletal locations...the external ear and the epiglottis?
Elastic cartilage
What type of cartilage is the most compressable and has the most tensile strength?
Fibrocartilage
What is appositional growth?
Growth of cartilage from the outside. Cartilage forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage.
What is interstitial growth?
Growth of cartilage from the "inside". The lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within.
How many named bones are there in the human skeleton?
206
(probably not on quiz, just trivia)
What is the axial skeleton?
The axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and the rib cage. These bones are most involved in protecting, supporting, and carrying other body parts.
What is the appendicular skeleton?
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton.
What are long bones
Long bones are bones that are longer than they are wide. A long bone has a shaft plus two ends. All limb bones except the patella and the wrist and ankle bones are long bones.
What are short bones?
Short bones are roughly cube shaped bones. The bones of the wrist and the ankle are an example.
What is a sesamoid bone?
A bone shaped like a sesema seed. A special type of short bone that form in a tendon.
What is a flat bone?
A flat bone is thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved. The sternum, scapula, ribs and skull bones are all flat bones.Flat bones consist of a layer of spongy bone (the diploë) sandwiched between two thin layers of compact bone.
What are irregular bones
Irregular bones are bones that have complicated shapes that do not fit into any of the other categories. Examples include the vertebrae and the hip bones.
Name the five function of bones:
1.) Support
2.) Protection
3.) Movement
4.) Mineral and growth factor storage
5.) Blood cell formation
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood cell formation
Define "Bone Markings"
Projections, depressions, and openings on bones that serve at sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves.
Define "compact bone"
The dense outer layer of bone that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye.
Define "spongy bone"
Internal to the compact bone. Is a honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces called trabeculae
What is another name for spongy bone?
Cancellous bone
Define "trabeculae"
strut or thin plate of bone in spongy bone. Literally means "little beams"
What is red marrow?
Hematopoietic tissue that is typically found within the trabecular cavitities of spongy bone of long bones and the diploe of flat bones.
What is an ostoeblast?
Bone forming cells. Literally means "bone germinators"
What is on osteoclast?
bone destoying cells. Literally means "bone breakers"
What is the periosteum?
A glistening white, double layer membrane that covers the entire external surface of long bone except for the joint surfaces.
Define epephyseal plate.
Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and the epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone.
What is epiphysis?
The end of long bone, attached to the shaft.
What is diaphysis?
Elongated shaft of a long bone.Forms the long axis of the bone (on long bones)
Tuberosity
Large rounded projection, may be roughened
(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Crest
Narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Trochanter
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (the only examples are on the femur)

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Line
Narrow ridge of bone. Less prominent than a crest.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Tubercle
Small rounded projection or process

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Epicholyle
Raised area on or above a condyle.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Spine
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection.
(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Process
Any bony prominence.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment section)
Head
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that help to form joints)
Facet
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface.
(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that help to form joints)
Condyle
Rounded articular projection.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that help to form joints)
Ramus
Armlike bar of bone.

(From Bone Marking Table- Projections that help to form joints)
Meatus
Canal-like passageway
(From Bone Marking Table- Depressions and Opening Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to pass secion)
Sinus
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

(From Bone Marking Table- Depressions and Opening Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to pass secion)
Fossa
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface

(From Bone Marking Table- Depressions and Opening Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to pass secion)
Groove
Furrow

(From Bone Marking Table- Depressions and Opening Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to pass secion)
Fissure
Narrow, slitlike opening

(From Bone Marking Table- Depressions and Opening Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to pass secion)
Foramen
Round or oval opening through a bone

(From Bone Marking Table- Depressions and Opening Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to pass secion)
Define Medullary Cavity of bone
Within the diaphysis of bone. Also known as a "marrow cavity".In adults, the medullary cavity contains fat (yellow marrow) and is called the yellow bone marrow cavity.
epiphyseal line
Between the diaphysis and each epiphysis of an adult long bone. A remnant of the epiphyseal plate, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.
metaphysis.
The region where the diaphysis and epiphysis meet, whether it is the epiphyseal plate or line.
Name the three structures of Long bones.
Diaphysis, epiphysis, and Membranes
What is a nutrient foramen
Literally means an "opening". How the periosteum is richly supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels. They enter the diaphysis through this.
What are Sharpley's fibers?
How the periosteum is secured to the underlying bone.
What is endosteum
A delicate connective tissue membrane that covers the internal bone surfaces. covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through the compact bone. Contains both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
What is diploe
In flat bones, the spongy bone is called this. Means "folded".
red marrow
A hematopoietic tissue that is typically found within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and in the diploë of flat bones.
What are the osteogenic cells?(also called osteoprogenitor cells)
actively mitotic stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum of bone tissue. Some of their progeny differentiate into osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) while others persist as bone stem cells to provide osteoblasts in the future
Define Osteon
The structural unit of compact bone. An elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone. It functions as a tiny, weight bearing pillar. A group of hollow tubes of bone matrix.
What is another name for Compact Bone?
Lamellar bone
What is the name of the matrix tube in an osteon
Lamella. Lamella contains collagen fibers.
What is a Haversion canal
The central canal running through each osteon. Contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteon’s cells.
Volkmann’s canals or perforating canals
A second type of canal found in osteons. This canal lies at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity
What is an osteocyte
Mature blood cell.
canaliculi
Hairlike canals that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal
What cells are responsible for bone modeling?
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Interstitial lamellae
Incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons, filling the gaps between forming osteons, or representing the remnants of an osteon that has been cut through by bone remodeling.
Lacunae
A small space, cavity, or depression; lacunae in bone or cartilage are occupied by cells.
What is Unmineralized bone matrix.
Osteoid
Osteogenesis
The process of bone formation; also called ossification.
Endochondral ossification
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
Bone remodeling
Process involving bone formation and destruction in response to hormonal and mechanical factors.
Bone resorption
The removal of osseous tissue; part of the continuous bone remodeling process.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level.
Calcitonin
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels in the blood.
Fracture
A break in a bone.
Hematoma
Mass of clotted blood that forms at an injured site
Callus
(1) Localized thickening of skin epidermis resulting from physical trauma; (2) repair tissue (fibrous or bony) formed at a fracture site.
Osteomalacia
Disorder in which bones are inadequately mineralized; soft bones.
Osteoporosis
Decreased density and strength of bone resulting from a gradual decrease in rate of bone formation
Paget’s disease
Disorder characterized by excessive bone breakdown and abnormal bone formation.
Achondroplasia
A congenital condition involving defective cartilage and endochondral bone growth so that the limbs are too short but the membrane bones are of normal size; a type of dwarfism.
Bony spur
Abnormal projection from a bone due to bony overgrowth; common in aging bones.
Ostealgia
Pain in a bone.
Osteitis
Inflammation of bony tissue.
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Also called brittle bone disease, a disorder in which the bone matrix contains inadequate amounts of collagen, putting it at risk for shattering
Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by pus-forming bacteria that enter the body via a wound (e.g., compound bone fracture), or spread from an infection near the bone. Commonly affects the long bones, causing acute pain and fever. May result in joint stiffness, bone destruction, and shortening of a limb. Treatment involves antibiotic therapy, draining of any abscesses (local collections of pus) formed, and removal of dead bone fragments (which prevent healing).
Osteosarcoma
A form of bone cancer typically arising in a long bone of a limb and most often in those 10–25 years of age. Grows aggressively, painfully eroding the bone; tends to metastasize to the lungs and cause secondary lung tumors. Usual treatment is amputation of the affected bone or limb, followed by chemotherapy and surgical removal of any metastases. Survival rate is about 50% if detected early.
Pathologic fracture
Fracture in a diseased bone involving slight (coughing or a quick turn) or no physical trauma. For example, a hip bone weakened by osteoporosis may break and cause the person to fall, rather than breaking because of the fall.
Traction
Placing sustained tension on a body region to keep the parts of a fractured bone in proper alignment; also prevents spasms of skeletal muscles, which would separate the fractured bone ends or crush the spinal cord in the case of vertebral column fractures.