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18 Cards in this Set

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The products of lipid digestion are emulsified into small droplets called ________ that are small enough to be absorbed into intestinal mucosal cells
Micelles
Once taken up into mucosal cells, fatty acids are re-esterified and packaged with proteins, cholesterol and fat soluble vitamins into...which enter the lymphatic circulation
Chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein)
An enzyme that hydrolyses lipids in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons

Hydrolyses them into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule (which is hydrolysed by intracellular lipase or pancreatic esterases).
Lipoprotein lipase
Which organ is responsible for clearing chylomicron remnants
The liver
In the fed state, tissues obtain fatty acids by the action of what enzyme? Where is it?
Lipoprotein lipase, found on endothelial cells of capillaries, also extracellular
Where are chylomicrons formed?
Intestinal mucosa
Which organ secretes VLDL?
The liver
Lipoprotein lipase synthesis is increased by insulin T/F
T (unsure why)
In the fasting state, tissues obtain fatty acids as ____ bound to serum albumin
nefa (non-esterified fatty acids)
Which hormone causes the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue?
Hormone-sensitive lipase
Hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue catalyses the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to...
mono-acylglycerol (which is then hydrolysed by mono-acylglycerol lipase)
Hormone-sensitive lipase is stimulated by insulin T/F
F - inhibited by insulin (remember, it causes the release of fatty acids)
Muscle cannot metabolise enough fatty acids by beta-oxidation to meet its energy needs in fasting

The liver can, thus, the acetyl CoA from beta-oxidation in the liver is used to synthesise ketone bodies, which are exported to muscle and other tissues
.
Give two examples of ketone bodies
Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate
As a percentage, in prolonged starvation - how much of the brain's energy needs can be satisfied?
~20%
From the fed --> starvation state:

What happens to glucose concentration?
Decreases from ~5.5 - ~3.5
From the fed --> starvation state:

What happens to free fatty acid concentration?
Increases from ~0.3 - ~1.19
From the fed --> starvation state:

What happens to ketone body concentration?
Increases from ~0.01 - ~4.5 (around 2.9 in the fasting state)