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42 Cards in this Set

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What is another name for the gastrointestinal tract?
The alimentary canal
What are the accessory organs of the GI tract? (5)
Tongue
Salivary glands
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
The wall of the tubular part of the GI tract consists of four layers. What are they?
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa
Serosa
What are the three layers of the mucosa?
Epithelium
Lamina Propria
Muscularis mucosa (do not confuse with muscularis externa, which is one of the four layers of the GI tract)
What is the name for the layer of the GI tract that forms the interface between the luminal contents and the gut wall
The mucosa
This layer of the GI tract has both digestive an absorptive functions
The mucosa
This layer of the GI tract secretes locally acting and circulatory hormones
The mucosa
This layer of the GI tract contains blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibres and ganglia
The submucosa
This layer of the GI tract is circular with longitudinal smooth muscle, responsible for propulsion of contents along the digestive tract (?peristalsis) as well as mixing and storage functions
The muscularis externa
The submucosa contains smooth muscle T/F
F, the muscularis externa does
This layer of the GI tract has mixing and storage functions
The muscularis externa
This layer of the GI tract separates the GI tract from the peritoneum
The serosa
Which nervous systems take control of GI function?
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and enteric nervous system (ENS)
What are splanchnic nerves?
Paired nerves that contribute to the innervation of the viscera (an internal organ)

They contain sensory (afferent) AS WELL AS motor (efferent) information
Splanchnic nerves contain afferent and efferent nerve fibres T/F
T (70% afferent)
Vagal nerves contain both afferent and efferent nerve fibres T/F
T (90% afferent)
Efferent postganglionic nerves within the ENS innervate smooth muscle, but not glands and mucosal cells T/F
F, they innervate smooth muscle, glands and mucosal cells
The ENS consists of sensory neurones and motor neurones, but not intermediate neurones (interneurones) T/F
F, it contains all three
ENS activity is completely dictated by the ANS T/F
F (it is influenced, but the ENS can perform functions indepedently e.g. perisaltic reflex and ion secretion)
Which plexi contain the many millions of neurones in the ETS? (Often described as the 'gut brain'!)
The myenteric and submucosal plexi
What are the two divisions of hormones?
Endocrine (mediated via the blood)

Paracrine (locally acting)

However, some hormones can act in both ways (e.g. CCK, neurotensin). These are called *regulatory hormones*
What is the posh name for locally acting hormones?
Paracrine hormones
What is the posh name for hormones mediated via the blood?
Endocrine hormones
Paracrine hormones are mediated by the blood T/F
F. Endocrine --> Blood (enDo --> blooD)
What is 'neurocrine secretion'?
Term for when neurones act on non-excitable tissue (e.g. ACh stimulates ion secretion in salivary tissue)
GI hormones are all peptides T/F
T
GI endocrine cells are located in a concentrated region T/F
F, they are diffusely located
GI hormones have important sensing and signalling roles in digestion
And in regulation of energy homeostasis
Peptide YY (PYY) suppresses appetite in man T/F
T. Believed to act on 'satiety neurones' in the CNS
What are the three phases of GI activity?
Cephalic

Gastric

Intestinal
Describe the 'cephalic' phase of GI activity.
Activity that occurs before food enters stomach (anticipation, taste, smell, sight of food)
Describe the 'gastric' phase of GI activity.
GI activity that occurs while food is in the stomach (stimuli: distension of stomach by food, chemical nature of gastric contents, pH of gastric contents)
Describe the 'intestinal' phase of GI activity.
GI activity that occurs while food is in the intestines (stimuli: Intestinal distension, nutrient composition of intestinal contents)
How many pairs of salivary glands are there?
3
List the three pairs of salivary glands
Parotid (serous (watery) containing alpha-amylase)

Submandibular (mucous and serous acini present)

Sublingual (secretes mucus)
'Serous (watery) containing alpha-amylase' describes which pair of salivary glands?
Parotid
'Mucous and serous acini present' describes which pair of salivary glands?
Submandibular
'Secretes mucus' describes which pair of salivary glands?
Sublingual
What is an acinus (adjective: acinar, plural acini)?
An acinus (adjective: acinar, plural acini) refers to any cluster of cells that resembles a many-lobed "berry," such as a raspberry (acinus is Latin for berry).
What is the structure of a salivary gland?
Acini (for protein and fluid secretion) and ductus (for ion exchange)
Sympathetic stimulation brings about an increased rate of secretion of saliva T/F
F, parasympathetic does this
Hormones are involved in salivary secretion T/F
F