Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

241 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Features of a chronic disease include all of the following except
it produces sharp pains.
What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health.
The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his
What is the term that defines foods that contain nonnutrient substances whose known action in the body is to promote well-being to a greater extent than that contributed by the food's nutrients?
Functional foods
Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?
What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods?
They contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate
What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment?
Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
How are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set?
High, to cover virtually all healthy individuals
Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
Setting nutrient goals for individuals
What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
Which of the following represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake?
Declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions within the body, and overt signs
The goal of Healthy People 2010 is to
set goals for the nation's health over the next 10 years.
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease 1
A person who assists registered dietitians has the formal title of
dietetic technician.
Most substances containing carbon-hydrogen bonds
Nutrient with the highest body concentration
Nutrient with the highest energy density
Energy (kcal) yield of five grams of sugar
A water-soluble vitamin
Vitamin C
An inert medication
A fat-soluble nutrient
Vitamin A
The recommended intake is set at the population mean
Excess nutrient intake leads to this
Deficient nutrient intake leads to this
Measurement of physical characteristics
A nutrient deficiency showing outward signs
Overt deficiency
A nutrient deficiency in the early stages
Subclinical deficiency
Which of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. does not bear a relationship to diet?
Pneumonia and influenza
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.
he concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?
kCalorie control
An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains
excess energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
Which of the following is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005?
Engage in regular physical activities
What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?
Vitamins A and C
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
sedentary women.
A cup of fresh blueberries is about the size of a
Which of the following is not descriptive of MyPyramid?
A broad-based figure that conveys the message that grains should be abundant and form the foundation of a healthy diet
Which of the following is a feature of the exchange list system?
All foods are grouped according to their content of carbohydrate, protein, and fats
Approximately what minimum percentage of all grains consumed by a person should be whole grains?
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?
Serving sizes on food labels are not always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide 1
A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?
Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Daily Values
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?
There are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D
The principle of consuming a number of foods in proportion to each other
Part of grain richest in fiber
Nutrient added in grain enrichment process
Example of a fortified food
Orange juice containing added calcium
Example of a functional food
Margarine containing plant sterols
Nutrient commonly added in cow's milk fortification process
Vitamin A
Serving size of rice on a food label
1 cup
Agency that regulates food labeling
Reliable health claim allowed on food labels
Sodium and hypertension
Health claim not allowed on food labels without a disclaimer
Antioxidants and heart disease
What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?
Vitamins A and C
All of the following are examples of legumes except
Which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?
A feature of catabolic reactions is that they
involve release of energy
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
4 lbs
Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass?
The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
outdoor exercises.
What is the most satiating macronutrient?
What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by his or her basal metabolism?
About 2/3
Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate?
Amount of lean body tissue
If a dancer and a office worker are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
more muscle mass.
What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?
Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called
body mass index.
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight women?
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight.
What term is given to the condition of a female athlete who has an eating disorder and develops amenorrhea and osteoporosis?
Female athlete triad
Which of the following is a characteristic of amenorrhea?
It induces prolonged bone loss
Which of the following is characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa?
Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting
Television watching contributes to obesity for all of the following reasons except
it replaces time that could be spent eating.
A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)
fad diet.
Fraudulent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent lumpy forms of body fat as
Bariatrics is a field of medicine that specializes in the treatment of
What is the primary action of orlistat, a weight loss drug?
It inhibits pancreatic lipase
All of the following are sensible guidelines for diet plans except
eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food.
What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
0.5-2 lbs/week
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?
The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in
complex carbohydrates
Upon beginning a meal, the satiety signal in the body is sent after a lag time of about
20 minutes
Which of the following describes the results of a weight-loss study comparing a low-carbohydrate diet with a low-fat diet?
On the low-carbohydrate diet, people lost more weight for the first 6 months but regained more weight during the next 6 months
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in formerly obese people who have lost weight?
Energy requirements are lower than expected for their current body weight
Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year?
The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below
Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?
A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise
Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
Which of the following can be used to gauge the amount of a person's abdominal fat?
Waist circumference
About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
4 hours
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?
The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
What is a precursor?
A substance that is used to synthesize another compound
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
they must be consumed daily.
What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Excreted primarily in the urine
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
Coenzyme participation
Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?
Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of vitamins when expressed per kcalorie?
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?
Painful, tingling, itching sensation
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells?
Which of the following foods is highest in folate?
Green, leafy vegetables
Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?
Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
What is a free radical?
A molecule with at least one unpaired electron
Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C supplementation on the resistance to, and recovery from, colds?
There was a significant reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least one gram a day
Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C?
Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea
Which of the following statements is representative of vitamin supplementation practices?
People who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
1 to 2 years
Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he's consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn't eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear?
"Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects"
Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?
Night blindness
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store?
Vitamin D-fortified milk
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?.
What is a free radical?
A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
Vegetable oils
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
Blood clotting
Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?
What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?
Among the following, which would be the best source of Niacin Equivalents?
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Excreted primarily in the urine
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
Cofactor in collagen formation
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?
The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except
pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection.
Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition?
Water intoxication is rare but can result in death
The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed
obligatory water excretion.
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?
What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?
2,500 mL
What minimum level of body weight loss as water impairs a person's physical performance?
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Distilled water
Which of the following is present in highest concentration in soft water?
What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?
Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person?
What is the body's most indispensable nutrient?
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Processed foods
Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?
Which of the following ages (years) is typically associated with people having the densest bone?
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, it is best to take them several times a day, in doses up to
500 mg.
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
30-40 yrs
All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except
consuming a high-protein diet.
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?
Catalyst in energy metabolism
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?
Working the muscles places stress on bones which stimulates more trabeculae development
Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron except
calcium from milk.
Your cousin Emily is a vegetarian. Since you have just learned in your nutrition class that nonheme iron is absorbed less efficiently than heme iron, you want to make sure Emily is getting enough iron. What should you recommend Emily do to maximize her iron absorption?
Eat her nonheme iron sources with a glass of orange juice
What is the function of MFP factor?
Enhances iron absorption
Iron overload is also known as
What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
Control the rate of oxygen use by cells
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
Increase in its size to trap more iodine
Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine?
1/2 teaspoon
Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
What is the primary mechanism associated with the role of fluoride in prevention of dental caries?
Fluoride becomes incorporated into the crystalline structure of teeth making them less susceptible to decay
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
Public water
As far as is known, what hormone is dependent upon chromium for optimal activity?
What mineral is part of vitamin B12?
All of the following are recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency except
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
What adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity?
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.
The components of fitness include all of the following except
bone fragility
Which of the following is generally not associated with a regular program of physical fitness?
Reduced bone density
What is muscle atrophy?
Loss of muscle size and strength
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning
In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
high number of repetitions with lighter weight
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?
Creatine phosphate
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Which of the following activities depletes glycogen most quickly?
Quarter-mile run
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
High-carbohydrate diet
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?
Which of the following is a property of conditioned muscles?
They can store more glycogen
Which of the following is a characteristic of glycogen synthesis after a bout of strenuous training?
Glycogen repletion is enhanced most by eating foods with a high glycemic index
What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance?
Except perhaps for iron and vitamin E, supplements are not recommended because there is no difference in the RDA of physically active people compared with sedentary people
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
All of the following are characteristics of heat stroke except
it is rarely fatal
Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
Diluted juice or cool water
Which of the following best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?
What is the placenta?
An organ from which the infant receives nourishment
A newly fertilized egg is known as a(n)
During development of the fetus, what organ(s) is/are the first to reach maturity?
Central nervous system and brain
Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of
3 months, called trimesters
All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except
high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit
An infant born with incomplete closure of the spinal cord has
spina bifida
You are working as a nutrition consultant in a women's health clinic and have been advising patients to make sure they consume about 400 micrograms of folate everyday. One patient is aware that folate helps prevent birth defects but she isn't sure why she should take it if she is not pregnant. Which of the following is the most appropriate reply?
The neural tube develops early on in pregnancy, oftentimes before most women realize they are pregnant
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?
Infant's birthweight
To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy, all of the following activities are considered acceptable except
Jenny has just learned that she is one month pregnant (1st trimester). She has been looking forward to all the ice cream, chips and cakes she has seen women on TV and in the movies eating when they are pregnant. What is the most appropriate advice for Jenny?
She does not have increased energy needs in the first trimester and should not indulge herself
Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval between pregnancies?
1 1/2- 2 years
Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?
Eat many small meals
In what period of pregnancy would most damage occur from alcohol consumption?
First trimester
Studies report that folate supplements for women may lower the incidence of neural tube defects of infants when the vitamin is taken during the
month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy
For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward?
1 lb
In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of
excessive fluid retention.
Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy?
Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?
Intestinal absorption increases substantially
Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal smoking and breast milk production?
The milk produced by mothers who smoke contains nicotine
Under which of the following circumstances would it still be acceptable for a mother to breastfeed?
She has an ordinary cold
Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol intake and lactation?
Alcohol easily enters breast milk
According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?
1 drink/day
What is the recommended increase in daily energy intake for the third trimester of pregnancy?
450 kcal
All of the following reflect a state of iron nutrition in pregnancy except
most women enter pregnancy with adequate stores of the mineral.
During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption?
Calcium and iron
Which of the following statements reflects current knowledge of food choices in pregnancy?
Cravings and aversions to certain foods are probably the result of altered taste and smell sensitivities induced by hormones
A craving for non-food substances is known as
Which of the following is a feature of the WIC program?
It saves an estimated $3 in medical costs in the first two months after birth for every dollar spent
What is the risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome for a woman who is 40 years old compared with a 20 year old?
100 times higher
With few exceptions, all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except
artificial sweeteners.
What would be a normal body weight after 1 year for a healthy infant with a birthweight of 8 lbs?
24 lbs
What is the chief reason that breast-fed infants usually need to eat more frequently than formula-fed infants?
Breast milk is digested faster
For optimal breast-feeding benefits, it is recommended that the infant be encouraged to suckle on each breast for about
10-15 minutes
Which of the following is a feature of infant development and nutrition?
Breast-fed infants generally score higher on tests of mental development than do formula-fed infants
Breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except
vitamin D
What is the approximate energy requirement of infants, in kcalories per kilogram body weight?
All of the following are features of nutrition and metabolism in infancy except
the protein content in breast milk can be high enough to occasionally induce protein overload
What type of formula is available for infants with milk allergy?
Low-fat or nonfat milk should not be given routinely to a child until after the age of
two years
A child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of