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11 Cards in this Set

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By percentage, how is the body's fluid distributed into the different compartment? There are 3 main classifications from out lecture.
ICF - Around 63%
ECF - Around 37% total
-Intravascular Fluid - 7.5%
-Interstitial Fluid - 17.5%
-Transcellular Fluid - 12%
List the electrolyte contents of the ECF and ICF in order from highest concentration to lowest.
ECF - Primarily Na+ and Cl-, followed by scant amounts of HCO3-, K+, Ca++, PO4-, Mg++, SO4-
ICF - Primarily, K+, PO4-, Mg++, followed by scant amounts of Na+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4-, Ca++
What is the difference between osmolarity and olmolality?
Osmolarity - Force that draws fluid (usually water) from the side of less solute concentration to the side with higher solute concentration.

Osmolality - A measure of a solution's ability to create osmotic pressure and affect the movement of water. # of particles per kg of water. Used to evaluate urine and serum. ECF osmolality is determined by N+.
What are some of the common tests that use osmolality and what are the ranges?
Serum is usually 280-300 mOsm/kg. This can be estimated by doubling plasma Na+.

Urine - 50-1400 - A measure of the kidney's ability to excrete or conserve water.
What is a BUN? When is it increased and when is it decreased?
- Blood, Urea, and Nitrogen - Made up of urea, the end product of protein metabolism.
Normal - 10-20 mg/dL
Increased - GI Bleeding, Dehydration, Increased Protein Intake, Fever, Sepsis
Decreased - Starvation, End-Stage Liver Disease, Low Protein Diet, Expanded Fluid Volume (like pregnancy)
What is Creatinine?
It is the end product of muscle metabolism and is a better indicator of renal function.
Normal - 0.7-1.5 mg/dL
Can be increased in glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, urinary tract obstruction, reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
Doesn't usually decrease; not typically a problem if it does
What is an Hct? What are the normal values and what can affect it?
Hct - The % of RBCs in the blood
Norm - M 44-52%, F 39-47%
Decreased - Anemia from low iron, mineral or vitamin deficiency, or other reasons; recent bleeding, cirrhosis, or malignancies
Increased - Usually dehydration; polycythemia vera that can come from the bone marrow trying to make up for respiratory deficiencies
What electrolytes are transported by active transport?
K+, Na+, Mg+, Ca++, some sugars and some amino acids
What is Filtration?
Movement of fluid through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower hydrostatic pressure
What are the pressures like at the end of venous or arterial capillaries?
Arterial - Blood Pressure 40 mm Hg
Osmotic Pressure 25 mm Hg
Venous - Blood Pressure 10 mm Hg
Osmotic Pressure 25 mm Hg
(Blood Pressure = Hydrostatic Pressure in Filtration)
What is Third Spacing?
Large quantities of fluid from the intravascular compartment shift into the interstitial space; is inaccessible to the body