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12 Cards in this Set

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Causes of fluid volume deficit
1. Decreased Fluid intake
2. Failure to absorb or reabsorb water -- i.e., diarrhea
3. Loss of fluid through GI tract -- i.e., vomiting, NG suctioning
4. Excessive renal excretion due to renal disease and inapropriate ADH secretion
Causes of fluid volume deficit
1. Overuse of diuretics or inadequate fluid replacement of fluid loss
2. Excess fluid loss through skin & lungs due to febrile state
3. Impaired skin integrity -- i.e., burns, wounds, hemorrhage
Fluid volume deficit
Signs & Symptoms
1. Rapid, acute weight loss
2. Extreme thrist
3. Decreased urine output
4. Weakness, confusion, dizziness
Daily Weight
Most accurate measure of fluid status
Fluid Volume Deficit
Signs & Symptoms
1. Tongue furrows
2. Dry skin & mucous membranes
3. Poor skin turgor - Tented
4. Flat jugular veins
5. Cap refill > 5 seconds
Fluid volume deficit
Signs & Symptoms
1. Decrease BP
2. Increased, weak pulse
3. Postural hypotension
4. Decreased CVP
5. Elevated temp
Sodium
Major electrolyte that affects fluid balance. "Where it goes, so goes the water."
Fluid volume deficit
Lab Findings
1. Specific gravity > 1.030
2. BUN > 25
3. Hematocrit > 55%
4. Sodium > 145
Fluid Volume Excess Causes
1. Excessive fluid intake
2. Failure to excrete fluids - i.e., renal or cardiac failure
3. Fluid increase due to excessive infusion of hypotonic fluids
4. Excess sodium intake
Fluid volume excess
Signs & Symptoms
1. Weight gain
2. Dependent pitting edema
3. Pulmonary edema
4. Coughing, dyspnea, & crackles
5. Lethargy, changes in mental status
Fluid volume excess
Signs & Symptoms
1. Jugular vein distention
2. Increased BP
3. Decreased, bounding pulse
4. Increased CVP
Fluid volume excess
Lab Values
1. Sodium < 135
2. Hematocrit < 45%
3. Specific Gravity < 1.010
4. BUN < 8