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24 Cards in this Set

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What is the origin of cells for the adrenal CORTEX??
Coelomic epithelial cells - from an area of proliferation between the root of the GI dorsal mesentary and Medial UG Ridge.
When does the fetal adrenal cortex begin to develop?
Week 6
How does the Definitive Cortex form?
A second proliferation of coelomic epithelial cells surrounds the original fetal cortex.
How developed is the definitive cortex at birth?
Not completely.
How big does the fetal cortex get? How much of the Adrenal gland does it compose?
-Grows to over 20x the size of the definitive adrenal cortex.
-Makes up 80% of the fetal gland
What stimulates the function of the adrenal cortex? (early/later)
Early: hGC
Later: ACTH
When does the FETAL cortex begin to regress, and when is it gone?
-Regression starts at birth.
-Gone by 6 mo - 1 yr old.
What enzyme in the steroid pathway is missing in the FETAL adrenal cortex? What is the result?
3-B-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase
Result: cannot make progesterone
and cannot make androstenedione
How does the fetal cortex make hormones, if it has no progesterone?
Progesterone comes from the placenta from the mom.
What is this cooperative action for making hormones called?
Materno-feto-placental Unit
What cells is the Adrenal MEDULLA derived from?
Neural Crest
What develops from the neural crest precursors of the medulla?
(3 things)
-Chromaffin tissue
-Neurons
-Glandular cells
What is the effect of CAH on fetal development?
-females
-males
Females: Virilization - male like external genitalia.
Males: precocious devo of genitalia.
What defect usually is the cause of Adrenal Hypoplasia?
Anencephaly - there is no ACTH to stimulate the adrenal gland because there is no pituitary gland.
Primary source of Amniotic fluid in First Trimester:
-Mother - decidual tissue
-Amnion
Primary source of Amniotic Fluid in 2nd Trimester:
Urine - Kidney
Lungs - tracheobronchial secretions
How is amniotic fluid resorbed?
Fetal swallowing
What is Polyhydramnios?
Increased volume of amniotic fluid
What causes polyhydramnios?
Esophageal or Duodenal atresia
-failure to resorbe
What is the most common cause of Polyhydramnios?
Twins or multiple pregnancy
What is Oligohydramnios?
Too little amniotic fluid
What causes oligohydramnios?
Failure of kidney development - not enough amniotic fluid volume -Bilateral renal agenesis
-Urethral obstruction
What results from oligohydramnios?
-Fetal deformation of the FACE and FEET
-Hypoplastic LUNGS
-Umbilical cord may be compressed
When is there enough Amniotic fluid to do amniocentesis?
By the 14th week = approximately 200 ml and sufficient to safely withdraw 20-30 ml