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36 Cards in this Set

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4 Major cations within the body fluids include:
Sodium (Na+)
Potassium (K+)
Calcium (Ca2+)
Magnesium (MG2+)
Which cation is the most abundant in the ECF?
Sodium which is 90%
Which cation is a major contributor to maintaining water balance through their effect on serum osmolality, nerve impulse transmission, regulation of acid-base balance, and participation in cellular chemical reactions?
Sodium
Which cation is regulated by dietary intake and aldosterone secretion?
Sodium (Na+)
What are the normal sodium concentrations?
135-145 mEq/L
Which cation is the major electrolyte and principle cation in the intracellular compartment? It also regulates many metabolic activities and is necessary for glycogen deposits in the liver and skeletal muscle,transmission and conduction of nerve impulses, normal cardiac conduction and skeletal and smooth muscle contraction.
Potassium (K+)
Approximately what percentage of Potassium is found within the ECF?
2%
Normal ranges for for serum potassium concentrations are?
3.5-5 mEq/L
What cation is regulated by dietary intake and renal excretion?
Potassium (K+)
The body conserves potassium poorly, what condition decrease serum potassium concentration?
Conditions that increase urineoutput
Where is calcium stored?
In the bones, plasma, and body cells.
What percentage of all the calcium is stored in the bone?
99%
What percentage of all the calcium is located in ECF?
1%
50% of calcium in the plasma is bound to protein, primarily albumin, and 40% is free ionized calcium. The remaining small percentage is combined with non protein anions such as
phosphate, citrate, and carbonate.
Normal serum ionized calcium is
4.5-5.5mEq/L
Normal total calcium is
8.5-10.5 mg/100ml
This cation is necessary for bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, hormone secretion, cell membrane integrity, cardiac conduction, transmission of nerve impulses, and muscle contraction.
Calcium (Ca2+)
This anion is essential for enzyme activities, neurochemical activities, and cardiac and skeletal muscle excitability.
Magnesium (Mg2+)
Plasma concentration for magnesium ranges from
1.5-2.5mEq/L
This cation is regulated by dietary intake, renal mechanisms, and actions of the parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Magnesium (Mg2+)
About 50-60% of magnesium is contained within the bone, and only 1% is contained within the ECF compartment; the rest is located inside the
cell
What are the three major anions of body fluids?
Chloride (Cl-)
Bicarbonate (HCO-3)
Phosphate (PO4 3-)
What is the mayor anion in the ECF?
Chloride
The transport of which anion follows sodium?
Chloride
Normal concentrations of Chloride range from
90-110mEq/L
Which anion is regulated by dietary intake and the kidneys?
Chloride anions.
A person with normal renal function who has a high chloride intake will excrete higher amounts of
urine chloride
The major chemical base buffer within the body is
Bicarbonate
Bicarbonate is found in which two places?
In the ECF and the ICF
This anion is an essential component of the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffering system essential to acid base balance.
Bicarbonate
What regulates bicarbonate?
The Kidneys
Normal arterial bicarbonate levels range from
22-26mEq.L
Venous bicarbonate is measured as carbon dioxide content, and the normal value is
24-30mEq/L
An anion found primarily in the ICF and with a small amount found in the ECF
Phosphate (Phosphorus)
This anion assists in acid base regulation. It also assists with calcium to help to develop and maintain bones and teeth. This anion with calcium are inversely proportional; if one rises, the other one falls.
Phosphate (Phosphorus)
This anion also promotes neuromuscular action and participates in carbohydrate metabolism. It is normally absorbed through the GI tract and it is regulated by dietary intake, renal excretion, intestinal absorption, and PTH.
Phosphate (Phosphorus)