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71 Cards in this Set

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Comprises all fluid within body cells, in adults, it is approximately 40%of body weight.
Intracellular fluids (ICF)
Fluid outside the cell,makes up 20% of total body weight, which is divided into three smaller compartments: interstitial fluid, intravascular fluid, and transcellular fluid.
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
This type of ECF contains lymph, and is the fluid between the cells and outside the blood vessels.
Interstitial Fluid
This type of ECF is blood plasma
Intravascular Fluid
This type of ECF consists of cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal, and synovial fluids.
Transcellular Fluid
As water moves through the compartments of the body, it contains substances that are sometimes called minerals or salts but are technically known as
Electrolytes
An electrolyte is an element or compound that when melted or dissolved in water or another solvent, it separates into _____and is able to carry an electrical current.
Ions
Positively charged electrolytes are called
Cations
Sodium [Na] , potassium [K], and calcium [Ca] are what type of electrolytes?
Positively charged electrolytes, Cations. Sodium [Na+],potassium [K+], and calcium[Ca++]
Negatively Charged Electrolytes are called________. Name 3
Anions.
1.chloride [Cl-],
2.bicarbonate [HCO-3]
3.sulfate [SO-4]
This value represents the number of grams of the specific electrolyte (solute) dissolved in a liter of plasma (solution)
mEq/L
The solution in which the a solute is dissolved is called a
Solvent
These which are ingested as compounds are constituents of all body tissues and fluids and are important in maintaining physiological processes. These also act as catalyst in the nerve response, muscle contraction, and metabolism of nutrients in the foods. They also regulate electrolyte balance and hormone production and strengthen skeletal structures. eg. Iron and zinc
Minerals
Fluids and solutes move across membranes by four processes:
Osmosis, diffusion, filtration, and active transport.
Because cell membranes separating the body fluid compartments are selectively permeable, water can pass through them easily. However _____and_________pass through them more slowly.
Ions and Molecules
The movement of a pure solvent, such as water, through a semipermiable membrane from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater solute concentration in an attempt to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane is called. The membrane is permeable to the solvent, but is impermeable to the solute. eg. boiling a hot dog, water filling inside until it bursts
Osmosis
The concentration of a solution is measured in _______ which reflect the amount of a substance in solution in the form of molecules, ions, or both.
Osmols
What is the drawing power of water and depends on the number of molecules in solution.
Osmotic Pressure
A solution with a high solute concentration draws water to itself and has a
High Osmotic pressure
Osmotic Pressure of a solution is called
Osmolarity
Osmols or milliosmols per kilogram (mOsm/kg)
Osmularity is the measure used to evalute _____and______in a clinical practice.
serum and urine
Solutions are classified as these three...
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, or Isotonic.
A solution with the same osmolarity as blood plasma is called
Isotonic
A solution of higher osmotic pressure, such as 3% sodium chloride, pulls fluid from cells causing them to shrink is called
Hypertonic solution
A solution such as 0.9% sodium chloride, that expands the body's fluid without causing a fluid shift from one compartment to another is called
An isotonic solution(a solution of the same osmotic pressure)
A solution, such as 0.45% sodium chloride, moves fluid into the cells, causing them to enlarge.
Hypotonic Solution (a solution of lower osmotic pressure)
Osmotic pressure of the blood is affected by plasma proteins, especially________.
Albumin
This is exerted by albumin which tends to keep fluid in the intravascular compartment by pulling water from the interstitial space back into the capillaries.
Colloid Osmotic or Oncotic Pressure
The movement of a solute (gas or substance) in a solution across a semipermiable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is called_______. The results is an even distribution of the solute in a solution. eg.The movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and blood vessels in the lungs
Diffusion
The difference between two concentrations is known as a
Concentration Gradient
The process by which water and diffusible substances move together in response to fluid pressure, moving from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure is called
Filtration
Filtration is active in capillary beds, where_________ __________differences determine the movement of water.
Hydrostatic Pressure
When there is an____________ in hydrostatic pressure on the venous side of the capillary bed, as occurs in congestive heart failure (CHF), the normal movement of water from the interstitial space into the intravascular space by filtration is reversed, resulting in an accumulation of excess fluid in the interstitial space, known as edema.
Increase
Excess fluid in the interstitial space is called
Edema
Unlike diffusion, osmosis and filtration, this type of transport requires metabolic activity and expenditure of energy to move materials across cell membranes.
Active Transport
Allows cells to admit larger molecules than they would otherwise be able to admit or move molecules from areas of lesser concentrations to areas of greater concentration "uphill" eg. sodium and potassium pump
Active Transport
This process makes it possible to keep a higher concentration of sodium in the ECF and a higher concentration of potassiuim in the ICF.
Active Transport
Active transport is enhanced by these within a cell that bind themselves to incoming molecules. eg glucose is able to enter cell after it binds with the transport vehicle insulin
Carrier Molecules
The mechanism by which cells absorb glucose and other substances to carry out metabolic activites.
Active Transport
Body Fluids are regulated by fluid intake, hormonal controls, and fluid output. This physiological balance is termed
Homeostasis
The thirst control center is located within
the Hypothalamus of the brain
These receptors continually monitor the serum osmotic pressure and when osmolality increases, the hypothalamus (thirst center) is stimulated. eg. eating patatochips, salt increases osmotic pressure, and then thirst stimulation occurs.
Osmoreceptors
This can occur with any condition that interferes with the oral ingestion of fluids, or it can occur with the intake of hypertonic fluids.
Increased plasma osmolity
The hypothalamus will also be stimulated when excess fluid is lost and excessive vomiting and hemorrhage also known as
Hypovolemia
Besides Osmoreceptors, stimulation of renin-angiotensin aldosteron mechanism, potassium depletion, psychological factors, and oraopharyngeal dryness initiate the sensation of
Thirst
The average adult intake of fluids is about
2200-2700ml per day
The Average Adult Fluid intake is about 2200-2700ml, Oral intake accounts for
1100-1400ml/day
The Average Adult Fluid intake is about 2200-2700ml, solid foods account for
800-100ml/day
The Average Adult Fluid intake is about 2200-2700ml, oxidative metabolism accounts for
300ml /day
The by-product of cellular metabolism of ingested solid foods is
(Oxidative Metabolism) water oxidation
Infants, clients with neurological or psychological problems, and some older adults who are unable to perceive or respond to the thirst mechanism are at risk for
Dehydration
This hormone is stored in the posterior pituitary gland and is released in response to changes in blood osmolarity
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
The osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated when there is an increase in the osmolarity to release what hormone?
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
This Hormone works directly on the renal tubules and collecting ducts to make them more permeable to water. This in turn causes water to return to the systemic circulation, which dilutes the blood and decreases its osmolarity. As the body attempts to compensate, the client will experience a decrease in urinary output.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
This hormone is released by the adrenal cortex in response to increased plasma potassium levels or as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron mechanism to counteract hypovolemia. It acts on the distal portion of the renal tubule to increase the reabsorption (saving) of sodium and the secretion and excretion of potassium and hydrogen. Because Sodium retention leads to water retension, the release of this hormone acts as a volume regulator.
Aldosterone
A proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys, responds to decreased renal perfusion secondary to a decrease in extracellular volume. Also acts to produce angiotensin 1 which causes some vasoconstriction.
Renin
This is almost immediately becomes reduces by an enzyme that converts it into angiotensin ll.
Angiotensin l
Causes massive selective vasoconstriction of many blood vessels and relocates and increases the blood flow to the kidneys, improving renal perfusion. Also stimulates the release of aldosteron when the sodium concentration is low.
Antiotensin ll
Fluid output occurs through what four organs of water loss?
1.Kidneys
2.Skin
3.Lungs
4.Gastrointestinal tract (GI)
What is the major regulatory organs of fluid balance.
The Kidneys
The kidneys receive approximately
180L of plasma to filter each day
How much urine do the Kidneys produce per day?
1200-1500ml
Water loss from the skin is regulated by what system which activates sweat glands
Sypathetic nervous system
Water loss from the skin can be
sensible and insensible water loss.
What is the average sensible and insensible fluid loss via the skin?
500-600ml/day
Water loss that is continuous and is not perceived by the person but can increase significantly with fever or burns is called
Insensible water loss
Water loss that occurs through excess perspiration and can be perceived by the client and the nurse through inspection is called
Sensible water loss
How much water do the lungs expire daily?
400mL. This insensible water loss may increase in response to changes in the respiratory rate and depth. In addition devices for giving oxygen can increase insensible water loss from the lungs.
Approximately how much isotonic fluid is moved into the gastrointestinal tract and then returned to the extracellular fluid?
3-6L
How much fluid from the approximate 3-6L does the average person loose under normal conditions from the GI tract into feces per day?
100-200mL
In the presence of what disease will the GI tract become a site of a large amount of fluid loss?
Diarrhea