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88 Cards in this Set

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Works as solvent for transport
water
eliminates wastes through kidney, skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract
water
Assists with temp regulation
water
Lubricant for joints
water
comprises 40% of total body weight
intracellular
Consists of intravascular fluid opr plasma and interstitial fluid that is between the cells and outsided the blood vessels
Extracellular
Large amount of K+, mg+,po4-
intracellular
larger amount of Na+, hco3-, cl-, Ca+
extracellular
Spacing of fluids.
1st space=
Normal distribution
spacing of fluids
2nd space
abnomal accumulation in interstitial compartment resulting in edema
what causes increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased colloid osmotic or oncontic pressure in veins?
edema, 2nd space fluid filling
spacing of fluid
accumulation in potential spaces (peritoneum, pancreas, intestines)
3rd space
process of water movement through a semipermeable membrane from an area of LOW solute concentrate to an area HIGH solute concentration.
Osmosis
The pulling force for water created by numbers of molecules.
osmotic pressure
What is normal serum osmolarity
280-295mOsm/kg
What is normal serum osmolarity
280-295mOsm/kg
normal serum osmolartiy means
the osmotic pressure of a solution
Has same osmolarity as blood plasma
isotonic fluids
what expands intravascular volume without causing a fluid shift
isotonic fluids
Pulls fluids from cells since the solution has more osmotic pressure then the interstitial fluid or intracellular fluid.
hypertonic fluids
What moves fluid into cells because intracellular fluid has more pulling power
hypotonic fluids
hypertonic and hypotoninc both occure through
osmosis
moves fluid into cells because intracellular fluid has more pulling power
hypotonic fluids
movement of molecules or solute in a solution across a semipermeable membrane from an area of HIGHER concentrate to an area of LOWER concentration.
Diffusion
Stops when concentration is same in both areas.
Diffusion
O2 and CO2 diffuse across alveolar capillary membranes
Diffusion
The process of water and diffusable substances such as electrolytes move together across semipermeavle membranes in a response to fluid pressure.
Filtration
Movement of materials across the membranes and epithelial layers of a cell by jmeans of chemical activity that allows the cell to admit otherwise impermeable molecules against a concentration gradient.
active transport
What pulls potassium into cells and sodium out of cells
Sodium-potassium pump.
enzymes along with ATP is required for?
active transport
Cells absorb what for energy
glucose
where is the thirst control center located?
hypothalamus
often blunted response in older adults
thirst center
What responds to reduction in water
thirst control center
Causes kidneys to retain water when the hypothalamus senses low blood volume and increased serum osmolarity.
ADH
What gland secretes ADH
posterior pituitary gland
these cells of the kidney secrete renin when blood flow to glomerulus drops
juxtaglomerular cells
Renin converts what in the liver to angiotensin I.
Angiotensionogen
Renin converts angiotensionogen in the liver to ?
angiotensin I.
Na+ and water retention, and K+ excretion by kidneys is caused by
aldosterone
What attracts water to exert colloid osmotic pressure
albumin
decreased colloid will cause water to do what
leave intravascular compartment (plasma) and go into intersitial spaces. resulting in edema
what contributes to fluid volume deficit with in intravascular compartments
albumin
To maintain water balance, output shoud be within how many cc's of intake?
200
packed red cell volume exxpressed as a percentage of the total blood volume
hematocrit
normal hema for men and woman
40-54 men
38-47 wom
raise im hema is from
dehydration or water loss
hema decreases with
hemodilution aka... fluids excessively retained.
test that measuresamount of byproduct of muscle metabolism that is excreted by kidneys.
serum creatinne
normal serum creatine is
.5-1.2mg
serum creatinine increases with what disease? and decreases with what?
kidney disease
muscle atrophy
test of amount of nitrogenous product present in blood as urea
BUN
normal BUN test is
10-20mg
Increase in BUn with? and decreased with
kidney dysfunction and decreaed with malnutrition, water excess, hepatic damage
Urines degree of concentration is?
urine specific gravity
evaluates kidneys abliity to cnserve or excrete water
urines specific gravity
normal urine specific gravity level is
1.010-1.025
affected only by the number of particles 50-1400 mOsm.
Urine osmolatity
urine output less then 30cc/hr
Fluid Vol def
Urine specific gravity of more then 1030, and amber colored is
Fluid volum Def
Increased loss from vomitying or diarrhea, fever 2rd space fluid shifts, diuretics can result in
Fluid V Def
decreased intake, nausea, anorexia cant drink or swallow, decreased in thirst results in
fluid vol def
Signs of FVD
Dry mucose membranes. decreased saliva, bad skin turgor
weakness and thirst, are signs of
FVD
weak rapid pulse and decreased BP and drop in BP when moving from laying to standing is a sign of
fvd
wt loss, slow vein fill, increased HCT and BUN. Clear lungs is a sign of what
FVD
nursing care for FVD should be?
i and o
turn pt
offer fluids
antiemetics for nausea
Decreased fluid losss in excessive Iv administration,chf, renal failue, chronic liver disease and log term use of steroids are risk factors for what?
FV Excess
oliguria and decreased urine SG of less then 1.003 is a sign of
F V E
full bounding pulse, increased HR is a sign of
FVE
Moist breath sounds (crackles) DOB confusion are signs of
fve
Moist breath sounds (crackles) DOB confusion are signs of
fve
Moist breath sounds (crackles) DOB confusion are signs of
fve
nursing care for FVD should be?
i and o
turn pt
offer fluids
antiemetics for nausea
distended neck and peripheral veins and slow emptying of hand veins is a sign of what?
FVE
Nursing practices for Fluid V Excess would be what?
Low sodioum
avoid olives pickles soy sauce bacon sausage cheese
administer diuretics
turn q1h to avoid skin breakdown
encourage rest for diuresis
Contols water balance, primary regulator of ECF vol.
Sodium (135-145)
Generatioin and transmisson of nerve impulses Sodium pot pump
Sodium
Sodium is conserved by the___
with what?
Kidneys with aldosterone
Loss of sodium in Gi fluids, diuretics, adrenal insufficiency is?
Hyponatremia
Too much drinking of water without electrolyte replacement is
hyponatremia
when excessive adh is secreted what happens?
SIADH
characteristics of hyponatremia
anorexia, nausia, vomiting
congusion muscle cramps, fingerprinting over sternum sezures
Serum Na below 135 results in
hyponatermia
related factors for hypernatremia
excessive salt intake in food
increased water loss throuwh sweating heatstroke
drowning in sea
deprivation of water
characteristics for hypernatremia
thirst dry tongue, sticky mucous
elevated temp
disorientation hallucinations seizures coma
serum Na above 145 is characteristic of
hypernatremia
nursing practices for hypernatremia are
offering fluids regularly
monitor i and o
teach what food fluids to avoid