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82 Cards in this Set

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Fluency inducing conditions
Chorus reading, lipped speech, prolonged speech, rhythmical speech, singing, slowed speech
Chorus reading
reading aloud w/ someone
lipped speech
whispering and mouthed speech-it's because there are reduced demands
prolonged speech
streching words out no voicing ess neural demands may use daf (delayed auditory feedback)
keeping voice on
slowed speech
not prolonged
Stuttering cause
Recent studies neuromotor control problem.
Stuttering influenced
language production-when connected speech begins temperment/biological-learning port, complex learning process, inheritance, and environment.
Brown's seven grammatical factors stuttering occurs
consonants, intial sounds, context speech, noun/verbs/adj/adv., longer words, words @ beginning of sentences, stressed syllables
factors in stuttering children
stutter on pronouns and conjunctions, whole word repetition, and some linguistic planning problems.
Genetics stuttering
stuttering runs in families, genetics definitely plays a role, genetics coupled w/ enviroment, psyiological, and persons response to enviroment
Demands on fluency
demands on motor systems and demands on language system, demands on emotional system
demands on motor system
speech rate of parents, turn taking style, time pressure
demands on language system
demands for speech, increase parental language, language stimulation, and language therapy.
demands on the emotional system
punishment for stuttering, conf/unstable home, parental fear of stuttering.
WHO def of stuttering
disorders in rhythm of speech in which the individual knows precisely what he wishes to say but @ the same time is not able to say because of the involuntary repetition, prolongation/sessation of sound.
stuttering characterized
abnormal frequency and duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech. repition(syllables, words, and words, prolongation, and blocking (airflow and voicing)
People who stutter
usually aware of it, embarassed, struggle not to do it. uses abnormal physical and mental effort.
Stutter feelings
shame, frustration, embarassment, hostility, fear. Excitement/fear can result in repetition causing more repetition and more stuttering.
Facts about stuttering
onset between 2-5, 1%, 5% stutter sometime in life, M->F: under 27 mos 1:1, 1st grade 3:1, 5th grade 5:1, adults 7:1 females stutter earlier and recover more quickly.
Recovery w/o treatment
variability and predictabilty stutter
anticipation, consistency, adaptations, language factors. Each suggest that stuttering is no just neurophysiological it's learned.
anticipation stuttering
stutterer can perdict stuter when reading
reading consistently stutter on same word
after reading passage 6x's-stutter occurs less often
language factors
brown's 7 grammatical factors when reading aloud.
Core behaviors stuttering
Involuntary-repetition, prolongations, blocks
secondary behaviors
learned reaction to core, two classed of 2nd-escape, avoidance, feeling and attitudes.
don't happen til later can be 1/2 sec in length and still be considered prolongation. several mins in adults and children.
last one to develop, most severe, inappropriate block of airflow @ any level. lose train of thought. may develop tremor, varies from stutterers, block 1-5 sec.
types of secondary behaviors
exist upn realization of stutter escape and avoidance.
type of secondary behavior-terminates a stutter twitch, eye blink, head nods
type of secondary behavior-stutterer anticipates stuttering substitute words.
attitude about stutterers
feeling pervasive in people who stutter, belief cannot talk, neg attitudes about themseves and listners, tense, crazy, fearful, and insecure.
intellgence in stutterers
SLIGHT difference in avg. IQ-maybe related to test situation. articats there are subtle diff. in cogntion/functions such as lang. processing, sensory motor/perception
school performance stutterers
stutterers perform slightly below ave. stutterers more likely be 1 grade behindlower test scores because diff. in talking and deficite in lang. skills
Stutterers nervous
No, both stutterers and non have high leveals of arousal whecn having to speak aloud higher levels of autonomic arousal during stutter
Sensory motor coordination stutter
REaction time, central autditory processing, cerbral dominance, and fluent speech of stutterers.
stutterers reaction time
sloer all almost all types of sense motor studies including auditory and visual stimuli.
Central auditory processing
synthetic sentence ID test-stutterers perform more pooly on tasks requiring audiotry discrimination of small time differences in signals
Masking level for stutterers
Stutterers have a harder time dectecting tone w/ presence of masking.
cerebral dominance
Normal-Left-speech + lang. rapid changes right-slow signals. pet scan shows increase in right when reading aloud, but left in non, severe stutterers do not activate left. diff are there even after treat.
Stutterer brain
decrease in left active of lang. area while increase in right, stutterers use less efficient part of brain for processing and encoding speech.
acoustical studies problems
lower vowel durations, slow transistions between consonants and vowels, and delayed VOT.
Kinematic research
measures movement of speech structures-speech structures move more slowly-slow movement causes muscle tension, neural processing delays.
Physical development
link between growth and neurological maturation. imbalance can inhibit maturation and develop. of front cerebral space. No proof that physical development impact stutterering
Neurogenic Stuttering
result of identifiable neuropathology: stroke (usually right hemisphere), head trauma, brain tumors, drug use, Tourette syndrome
Psychogenic Stuttering
neurotic or hysterical stuttering; psychological reaction to stress; does not disappear; begins suddenly and usually occurs later in life; long repetitions and prolongations, and tense blocks; few secondary behaviors
Chronic Perseverative Stuttering Syndrome
incurable/irremediable stuttering, named by Gene Cooper, fluent speech is an unrealistic goal, includes adolescents and adults; typically respond to treatment with increased fluency only to relapse shortly after completing formal treatment
sounds cluttered as though they are talking without a clear idea of what they want to say; talk too fast and jerky, run words and sentences together; may also repeat sounds, syllables, and phrases excessively; typically unaware of any difficulty; clutterers are talkative, outgoing, disinhibited; may also have academic problems in various subjects, which may or may not be severe enough to qualify for services; some may excel in certain areas, such as math
tachylalia (talk too fast), disorganized thinking, unawareness, inability to get to the point, poor syntax
process of identifying a disorder by analysis of symptoms presented; may include a study of the origin and development of the symptoms
Differential diagnosis
process of distinguishing between 2 similar appearing conditions by discovering a significant symptom or attribute present in one condition but not the other
global appraisal of the significance and implications of diagnostic assessment; formal and informal procedures, objective and subjective procedures; also called evaluation
Questions to be resolved by assessment:
Child - normally disfluent child? stutterer? is child at risk for stuttering?
Adult - nature of problem, severity of problem, extent of problem (impact), prognosis for treatment
Components of Assessment/Diagnosis
Background information: case history, questionnaires, tapes
-Interview: parent, adolescent, adult
-Measurement and Discription of Disfluent Behavior: speech samples (3-5 min each of conversation, monologue, and reading), frequency of disfluent speech, frequency of specific types of disfluencies (repetitions, prolongations, blocks)
baseline frequency - percent stuttered syllables, average number of stuttered syllables per minute, average syllables per minute (speech rate)
words per minute
not constant, minimal rate information
syllables per minute
overall speech rate:
total syllables / minutes
total disfluency index
stuttered syllables / total syllables
disfluency type index
number of disfluencies of that type / number of stuttered syllables
Instrumental (operant) conditioning
behavior is immediately followed by reward (or punishment)responsible for the development of secondary behaviors
stimulus contingencies
two things happen in a sequence
response contingencies
if a response follows a stimulus
plays a role in development of stuttering, not in initiating stuttering classical conditioning (like Pavlov and his dogs)
gradually rewarding behaviors that are increasingly closer to target behavior
Variables affecting operant conditioning
-strength of reward/punishment: big rewards are more effective, but punishment is better in moderation
-timing: immediately after behavior is most effective
-frequency: fixed-ratio schedule is where reward follows a certain number of responses
variable-ratio schedule is where the reward comes after varying number of responses
Anticipatory struggle theory
stutterers interfere in some manner w/ their speech b/c of belief that speech is difficult, anticipation of sutter leads to stuttering
capacities and demands model
considers capacites and effect of environment. propose that children who stutter 71% genetics 30% environment.
deterioration of fluency
viewed as imbalance bt childs capacity and fluency dmeands placed on child from environment. environment exceeds the capacity of child.
capacity for fluency
motor skills, reaction time, cooridination, movement time, velocity of motor programming
emotional maturity
confidence and social skills
language skills
word retrieval, grammar form, pragmatic skills, cog. development.
cerebral dominance normal
allow for synch of neural impulses leading to smooth coordinated fluent speaker.
cerebral dominance stutterer
not established half dominance whenno dominance half each will function independent resulting in a lack of synch of neural imp thus predisposed to motor speech breakdown.
diagnosogenic theory
stuttering beings not in the mouth of child, but in ear. caused by parents misdiagnosis abnormal parental reaction to hesitancy in speech.
SL development
difficulty is more common in stutterers. stutterers score lower on SL test. age onset of 1st word and 1st sent., size of vocabe, MLU, express and recept syntax. not clear cut
articulation differences
research has confirme as 21/2x's more articulation disorders than in non.
Normal fluency failure
stress reaction disfluency, normal developmental disfluency
stress reaction disfluency
normal fluency failure, psychological stress/emotional disfluency is gone when stress is gone
normal developmental disfluency
normal fluency failure, child more disfluent at some times than others, peak of disfluency 2.6-4 yrs repeat whole words, no need for therapy.
variables of disfluent speech
presence of extras sounds, abnormal location and freq of pauses, deviation from typical rhythm, lack of intonation/stress, abnormal overall rate