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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 3 enviornmental factors for stuttering?
1. Parents
2. Speech and Language Environment
3. Life Events
The speech ang language environment for a PWS needs what two things?
HIGH support and LOW demand
What are the communication stresses from the environment of a PWS?
-rapid speech of others
-long words/high vocab. of others (try to stick to one syllable)
-complex sentences of others
-lots of questioning by others
-use of more than 1 language at home
-irreputions by others
-competition to speak
-demand to perform/be on display with speech
-loss of attention of listener
stuttering is at higher incidence in children who are learning more than one language at home
Do life events have a lot to do with stuttering?
What are the two learning factors?
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning Types...
-positive/negative reinforcement
-stimulus generalization
-important variables
-start with 1
positive reinforcement
behavior is followed by a desirable reward and the behavior increases
negative reinforcement
behavior is followed by removal of an aversive event and the behavior increases
behavior is followed by an aversive consequence and the behavior decreases (as long as you keep punishing)
to teach a new behavior, reward behaviors that are successively closer to the target behavior
if reward no longer follows behavior, the behavior gradually disappears
stimulus generalization
behavior learned in one situation occurs in similar situations
important variables
strength timing and frequency of consequence
start with 1
1 reward and gradually move to variable ratio; hope eventually they are internally rewarded.