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18 Cards in this Set

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What is diabetes?
Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, due to a defect in insulin production or action
What causes type I diabetes?
Beta cell destruction caused by both genetic & environmental factors (Viruses, cows milk)
What causes type II diabetes?
Insulin secretory defects, insulin resistance defects, & a combination (predominantly genetically determined)
What is the difference between onset of diabetes I & II?
Type I is sudden onset of hyperglycemia
Type II is insidious
What's the most dangerous aspect of type II diabetes?
Hypoglycemia is most dangerous
How do diabetic complications arise and what are the primary contributing pathologies?
Due to persistent hyperglycemia & disruption of lipid metabolism
1. Angiopathy
2. Nephropathy
3. Retinopathy
4. Neuropathy
What's the most dangerous aspect of type I diabetes?
Ketoacidosis
What are the major pathways affected by diabetic hyperglycemia?
1. aldose reductase & polyol pathway
2. AGE pathway
3. PKC pathway
name some of the current approaches to the treatment of diabetes
1. Molecules which can affect GAPDH activity
2. Superoxide Dismutase
3. Poly(ADPribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, PJ34
which vitamins are water or fat soluble?
Water soluble: B & C vitamins
Fat soluble: A, D, E, & K vitamins
Identify the major minerals and their role in metabolism.
1. Calcium: bones, clotting, muscle
2. Phosphorus: bones, energy, genetic material
3. Na+,K+,Cl-: fluid level maintenance
4. Mg: cellular metabolism
What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins?
Complete proteins provide essential & nonessential amino acids (animals)
Incomplete proteins are insufficient in one or more amino acids (plants)
What is the importance of acetyl-CoA?
acetyl-CoA is the carrier for the small molecules of digestion
How is acetyl-CoA involved with other phases of metabolism?
fatty acids monosaccharides & amino acids all use acetyl-CoA to enter the citric acid cycle
What is ATP's role in metabolism?
ATP is used as the basic energy transfer unit
What is the definition of metabolism?
Metabolism is the summation of all chemical reactions in an organism
What is the definition of nutrition?
Nutrition is the taking in & use of food & other nourishing material by the body.
What is the importance of co-factors such as NADH and NADPH?
They are electron carriers