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60 Cards in this Set

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Mitochondria
oxidative phosphorylation
breakdown fatty acids
Ribosomes
assemble proteins
Rough ER
synthesize and export proteins
produce lysosomes
Smooth ER
Glycogen metabolism (lipid detox, breakdown glycogen via g-6-p)
steroid hormone production
detoxify drugs and poisons
regulate Ca in muscle
Golgi
modify proteins (ie glycosylate)
export proteins from cell
Lysosome
break down dead cells and cell nutrients
Centrioles
induce formation of cillia
induce formation of microtubules
Nucleus
DNA replication
Transcription
Nucleoli
synthesize rRNA
Type 1 collagen
Tendons and ligaments
Type 4 collagen
basal lamina
Elastic fibers: AA not found anywhere else
Desmosine
Isodesmosine
Lecithin
phospholipid-phospatitdyl choline- glycerol+2 fatty acids+phosphate+choline
Ceramide
phospholipid- Sphingosine+1 fatty acid
Sphingomyelin
sphingosine+ 1 fatty acid+ phosphorylcholine
Cerebrocide
glycolipid
sphingosine+ 1 fatty acid+ 1 simple sugar
more common: galactocerebroside
sulfatides
galactocerebroside+sulfate
sphingosine+1 fatty acid+ 1 simple sugar+ sulfate
gangliocides
sphingosine+ 1 fatty acid+ 1 sugar polymer
glycosaminoglycans
chondroitin sulfate, eparin, dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, hyaluronan
glycosaminoglycan that is not part of a proteoglycan
hyaluronan
Nerns equation
-61/z log [K in]/[K out]
Calcium (effect on voltage-gated channels)
stabilizes the membrane and increases the threshold
Tetrodotoxin (TTX)
blocks sodium channels from the extracellular side
Local Anesthetic
Insert in the conductance pore to block increases in Na permeability
Bartachtotoxin
irreversibly opens sodium channels
Scorpion toxin
block Na channel opening
Tetraethylammonium (TEA)
blocks voltage gated K channels from intracellular side
Collagens (what 3 amino acids)
Proline
Lysine
Glysine
What 2 AA can be hydroxylated
Proline
Lysine
How do Proline and Lysine get hydroxylated
ascorbate reaction-need Vitamin C
Condensation point for hydroxy apetite
osteonectin
If you need bicarbonate or proton, where do you get it
carbonic anhydrase reduction
Key enzymes of glycolysis
Hexokinase- traps
Phosphofructokinase- commits
Pyruvate kinase-final regulatory enzyme
Key enzymes of TCA
pyruvate dehydrogenase
citrate synthase
isocitrate dehydrogenase
alpha keto gluterate dehydrogenase
succinate dehydrogenase
Energy from glycolysis
8 ATP
Energy from TCA
30 ATP
Key enzymes or Gluconeogenesis
G-6-P
F-1,6-P
pyruvate carboxylase
PEP carboxylase
Key enzymes of Glycogenesis/Glycogenolysis
glycogen synthase
glycogen phosphorylase
branching enzyme
Key enzymes of Pentose phosphate shunt
G-6-P dehydrogenase
transketolase
transaldolase
Key enzymes of Fatty acid synthesis/Lipolysis
Lipolysis:
AcetylCoA dehydrogenase
Enoyl CoA
Betahydroxyhydrogenase
Acetyl transferase
Synthesis:
AcetlyCoA carboxylase
Fatty Acid synthase
Essential amino acids
PVT TIM HALL
phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histadine, alanine, leucine, lysine
Key minerals: Ca
Bones, clotting, muscle function
Key minerals: Phosphorus
Bones, energy, genetic material
Key minerals: Na, K, Cl
Fluid level maintainance
Key minerals: Mg
cellular metabolism
Water soluble vitamins
B vitamins, Vitamin C
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin A, K, D, E
Pantothenic acid
metabolism of fats and carbs. converted to CoA
deficiency: anemia
Niacin- Vit B3
precursor to NAD and NADP
deficiency: pellagra, weak muscles, no appetite, diarrhea, dermatitis
Riboflavin- Vit B2
component of FAD
deficiency: dermatitis
Thiamine- Vit B1
required for decarboxylation reactions
deficiency: buildup of pyruvate, beriberi, nausea, exhausion, paralysis
Pyridoxine- Vit B6
synthesis of red blood cells. synthesis and breakdown of AA
Folic acid
synthesis of purines and pyrimidines
deficiency: anemia
Cobalamin- Vit B12
production of red and white blood cells
Vitamin C- ascorbic acid
formation or collagen, absorption of iron, antioxidant
deficiency: scurvy, tender tissues, weak, bleeding gums, swollen joints
Vitamin A- trans retinol
maintain membranes, vision
deficiency: inflammed eye membranes, night blindness, scaliness of skin
Vitamin K- phylloquinone
blood clotting, formation of prothrombin
deficiency: blood clotting disorder
Vitamin D- cholecalciferol
bone formation, retention of Ca and P
deficiency: rickets
Vitamin E- tocopherol
deficiency: breakdown of red blood cells
Energy intake distribution
Protein 15%
Carb 55%
Fat 30%