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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
activation energy
The energy that must be possessed by atoms or molecules in order to react.
adhesion
The tendency of different kinds of molecules to stick together.
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
atom
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
base
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. See Alkaline.
buffer
A substance that consists of acid and base forms in solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
carbohydrate
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
catalyst
A substance that lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction by forming a temporary association with the reacting molecules; as a result, the rate of the reaction is accelerated. Enzymes are catalysts.
chemical reaction
A process leading to chemical changes in matter; involves the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds.
cohesion
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
compound
A chemical combination, in a fixed ratio, of two or more elements.
covalent bond
A chemical bond formed as a result of the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
electron
A particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons orbit the nucleus of the atom.
element
Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance.
enzyme
A class of proteins serving as catalysts, chemical agents that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
ion
An atom that has gained or lost electrons, thus acquiring a charge.
ionic bond
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
isotope
One of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass.
lipid
One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.
molecule
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
monosaccharide
A The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.
nucleic acid
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
nucleus
(1) An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
pH scale
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to –log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
polymer
A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together.
polysaccharide
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by condensation synthesis.
protein
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
reactant
A starting material in a chemical reaction.
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
solution
A homogeneous, liquid mixture of two or more substances.solvent The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.
substrate
(1) The substance on which an enzyme works. (2) The foundation to which an organism is attached.
Van der Waals interactions
Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations