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14 Cards in this Set

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joint capsules
semielastic structures that give joints strength and stability but limit movement
muscle elasticity and length
collagen-white fibers that provide structure and support in connective tissue
elastin-yellow fibers that make connective tissue felxible
titin-a filament in muscle that helps align proteins that cause muscle contraction; titin has elastic properties and also plays a role in flexibility
proprioceptors
send information about the muscle and skeletal systems to the nervous system
-stretch receptors (sense organs in skeletal muscles that initiate a nerve signal to the spinal cord in response to a stretch; a contraction follows)
-golgi tendon organ (proprioceptive organ lying within tendons that recognizes and reacts to changes in muscle tension
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
a technique for stretching muscles that relies on neuromuscular reflexes to stimulate training effects
-contract relax
-hold relax
-slow reversal hold relax (push, pull, relax)
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
recommends that stretching exercises be performed a minimum of 2-3 days per week; ideally 5-7 days per week
stretch
when muscles are warm, either after a workout or after the active part of a warm up
hold
each stretch hold for 30 seconds
static stretching
a technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretch position
ballistic stretching
a technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced, swung, or jerked
dynamic stretching
a technique in which muscles are stretched by moving joints slowly and fluidly through their range of motion in a controlled manner; also called functional stretching
spine structure
-7 cervical vertebrae: in neck
-12 thoracic vertebrae: in the upper back
-5 lumbar vertebrae: in the lower back
-9 vertebrae: at the base of the spine fused into the sacrum and the coccyx (tailbone)
core muscles
stabilize the spine and help transfer force between the upper body and lower body
lack of core muscle fitness
can create an unstable spine and put stress on muscles and joints
whole body exercises
exercises using free weights or stability balls... all build core muscle fitness