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17 Cards in this Set

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Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
This occurs when the author uses a term in two different ways in the same argument. More or less the author uses one word in two different ways in which the meaning changes. Aka: Equivocate
Source Argument aka Ad Hominem
When a persons character, and not the argument presented is attacked. Ex: "We should not pass this law because Sen Boxer is a lesbian"
Circular Reasoning
When the author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. The premis and conclusion will be identical in meaning.
Ex: "This essay is the best because it is better then all the others"
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Reversal, or Mistaken Negation. Confusing a Nessesary condition with a Sufficiant condition or vice versa.
Mistaken Cause and Effect
1) Assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events
2) Assumes that there is a causal relationship when only a temporal relationship exists.
3) Failure to consider an alternate cause of the effect, or an alternate cause for both the cause and effect.
4) Failure to consider that the events might be reversed.
Straw Man
When author attempts to attack opponenet's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts and refashions the argument, making it weaker and easier to knock down. Hence the name straw man.
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
Either failing to provide information to support the conclusion or providing irrelivant information to support conclusion.
Internal Contradiction
When author makes conflicting statements.
Ex: "Everyone should join our country club. After all it's an exclusive group that links many influential members of the community"
Appeal Fallacies
1) Appeal to authority.
2) Appeal to popular opinion/numbers.
3)Appeal to emotion.
Survey Errors
1)Biased sample
2)Improperly constructed questions
3) Respondents to the survey give innaccurate responses.
Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization
This flaw takes a small number of instances and treats those instances as if they support a broad, sweeping conclusion.
Ex: "Two of my friends were shortchanged at that store. Therefore, everyone gets short changed at that store."
Errors of Composition and Division
Composition or Division errors invlove judgments made about groups and parts of a group.
Composition: When author attributes a characteristic of part of the group to the group as a whole or to each member of the group.
Division: When author attributes a characterisitc of the whole (or each member of the whole) to part of the group.
False Anaolgy
A false analogy occurs when the author uses an analogy that is too dissimilar to the original situation to be applicable.
False Dilemma
A false dilemma assumes that there are only two courses of action available when in reality there may be others.
Errors in the use of Evidence
1) Lack of Evidence is taken to mean that the position taken is false.
2) Lack of Evidence against the position is taken to mean the position is true.
3) Some evidence against the position is taken to proove the position is false.
4) Some evidence that supports the position is taken to mean that the position is true.
Time Shift Errors
This flaw assumes that conditions will remain constant over time, and that what is the case in the past will be the case in the future.
Numbers and Percentage Errors
Errors can be made when an author improperly equates a percentage with a definite quantity, or vice versa.