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382 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the driving forces behind developments in new media technologies?
entertainment needs as consumers seek higher quality media
What are two mass communication functions of entertainment, besides to entertain? P. 349
cultural transmission and mobilization

cultural transmission: primarily refers to the transference of the dominant culture as a function of mass communication, as well as its subcultures, from one generation to the next, or to immigrants. THis function includes socialization, which the media perform in helping persons learn society's rules, or how to fit into society

mobilization: a function of mass communication in which the media can influence the public, especially regarding political issues or movement
Which medium do children spend almost half their media consumption with? P. 350
television
Summarize television programming in the 1970s. P. 352-3
There was an introduction of more complex, realistic characters like All in the Family which addressed many social, gender, and civil rights issues that were happening in society...today it would be almost unexceptable

In 1977 the miniseries Roots was aired based on the novel by Alex Haley...on January 30 one of its episodes became the 3rd most watched tv in history
What is the likely reason that quiz or game shows were very popular in the 1950s? P. 356
Because it was easy for the audience to identify with the contestants and the stakes were larger--by 1958 there were 22 network quiz shows
Prime time network programming is dominated by which type of programming? P. 357
dramatic series and situation comedies
Why are theaters unlikely to close completely despite lots of competition from other media outlets? P. 359
Because it is as much a social activity as it is a mass media entertainment activity
Who was the influential filmmaker who made films that were later remade as popular Westerns and who was
greatly admired by George Lucas? P. 361
Japenese director Akira Kurosawa
What is a likely reason that most movies derived from video games have NOT been great successes? P. 363-4
Because having a video game turned into a movie takes away its interactive nature and the fact that the user can somewhat control the story...those attributes are taken away from the movie goer
In 2001, what type of entertainment outranked box office sales for the first time? P. 365
Video games and hardware
What was Tin Pan Alley? P. 368
an area in Manhattan in New York on 28th Street and between Broadway and Sixth Avenue where music producers hung out. people bought music sheets for voice and piano to use at home. It became a generic reference to the music publishing business that hired composers and lyricists to write popular songs. continued until the 70s
In terms of music promotion, what had a large impact in changing how it was promoted? P. 353-54
MTV
What was a surprising third on the list in a report on children and media usage? P. 371
reading for fun
Why are entertainment ethics important to consider? P. 372
Because of the important role that entertainment plays in our lives...they have to be careful about the negative social values and harmful stereotypes that the media might contain
What happened as a result of Frederick Wertham's report on the effect of horror comics on children? P. 373-74
The public and media paid attention to watching the amount of graphic sexual and gruesome violent content of the comic books

There was an investigation in 1954 on the nature and effects of comics on kids...the senate never took any legal action in the case ...the Association of Comic Magazine Publishers came up with the Comics Code Authority and they began banning all sexual and violent content that was found in the comics
What are the reasons reality shows are so popular? P. 347
because it's intersting to watch someone else's life
Do children under eight years old spend more time with media than older children? P. 350
no
. Is it true that some shows on cable television have attracted larger viewing audiences than network shows? P. 354
yes
Foreign box office sales make up how much of additional revenue for Hollywood movies? P. 359
40%
Have DVDs reached a household market penetration faster than any other consumer electronics product? P. 365
yes
Up to what percent of music videos on MTV have sexual imagery? P. 370
40-75%
What phrase best characterizes book sales in recent years?
Book sales have had a mixed sales pattern since 1990
When two competing newspapers work together to merge their business departments it is called a...?
Joint operating Arrangment
What was an important change in newspapers brought about by the penny press?
Advertisements became an increasingly important source of revenue
A popular general interest magazine in the early and mid 20th century was called...?
Life
A low budget, informally distributed publication that is often free is known as a...?
zine
USA Today is best known for
adding strong graphics and visuals to newspapers
The first newspaper published in the United States is
Publick Occurrences (1690)
Books intended to be primarily for enjoyment can still be controversial because
they impart cultural values that readers may not agree with
One common trend for books has been
become smaller and cheaper
What is not a major trend in the book industry
Books are including more photography and illustrations
What is a problem with newspaper chains
Advertising rates rise
Local news gets squeezed out by wire service stories
Corporate owners put pressure to be profitable
What best describes the trends in newspaper ownership today
Newspapers are mostly owned by nationwide chains
What reason best describes why mass-distributed newspapers started in the 1830's
The invention of the steam-powered press meant that copies could be printed much more quickly than in the past
What is the largest circulation paper in the U.S.
The Wall Street Journal
The printing press had what effect
New ideas became more easily disseminated
What major function or functions do newspapers serve
legal record of public communication
coverage of local as opposed to national events
economic infrastructure for local businesses
The most basic function of magazines is
survelliance
One of the aspects of mass market paperbacks that made them so popular is
They were small and inexpensive
What is a problem with magazines going online?
Readers tend to want to read small chunks of information online
The era of mass-distributed newspapers was started by who at the New York Sun?
Benjamin Day
Two of the top circulation magazines today target which demographics?
middle-aged and elderly
Mass market paperbacks were first introduced in
1870
The seven leading women's magazines are called the
seven sisters
Which is the most important function of newspapers?
survelliance
M.J. Rose's case with her novel Lip Service was unique because...
she used the internet and self-publishing to establish and audience for her book
What trend or trends adequately describe the newspaper industry
many cities have fewer newspapers than in years past
newspapers are experiencing drops in circulation
newspapers are using more color and graphics
What is likely the oldest book publishing cateragory?
religious books
How much of the cost in producing a newspaper actually goes into producing news (journalists saleries, etc.)
1/3
What is not a major newspaper chain
Universal Vivendi
What cateragory of publishing has the highest sales world wide?
trade books
Paperbacks are less expensive to produce, ship, and market than hardcover books
True
Printing was invented in Western Europe
False
The book industry is in serious decline because of the rise of the Internet
False
One way the magazines differ from newspapers is that they target a national as opposed to a local audience
False
Newspapers mostly consist of advertisements
True
The only purpose of textbooks, besides making students spend more money, is to impart knowledge
false
mass market paperback sales have dropped significantly compared to hardcover counterparts in recent years
true
Early newspapers used large sheets of paper in order to include illustrations and lithographs
false
The first time that consumers spent more on videos than books was 1998
true
What company was largely responsible in the 1990s for making direct-to-home satellite broadcasts more accessible to U.S. consumers?
DirectTV
What is the primary reason the FCC allocates electromagnetic spectrum>
because the electromagnetic spectrum is limited
What is the most widely available medium of mass communication worldwide?
radio
The inventor of the phonograph was?
Thomas Edison
What is the primary logic for assigning radio station call letters either with W or K?
Stations east of the Mississippi River got W, those west of it recieved K
The inventor of radio telegraophy, also called wireless, was?
Guglielmo Marconi
A label typically gets how much profit in every CD sold?
$5
The main recording industry trade group is called>
Music Recording Industry Association (MRIA)
A transparent filament, usually made of glass or plastic, that can caryry information in the form of light is called?
light-form cable
When was television unvelied to the public?
The Dempsey/Turney boxing match in 1923
an insulated and layered conducting wire about a half-inch think is called?
coaxial cable
File - sharing services do what regarding the recording industry?
threaten the labels' traditional music distribution channels

make everyone a potential distributor of music

cause artists to lose royalties because of lost sales
What was the primary motivation for developing cable TV?
Hilly terain and remoteness could interfere with broadcast TV
Artist and producer royalties for each CD sold are typically how much?
10 to 20 percent of the list price
What factor is part largely responsible for the convergence of telecommunication companies and cable companies?
deregualtion of cable companies and the 1996 Telecommunications Act
What was a major element in helping the widespread adoption of radio?
a popular boxing match broadcast by a radio station
Most television and computer displays use what type of display technology?
cathod-ray tube
The scientist who first demonstrated the existence of radio waves was?
Heinrich Hertz
Recent regulatory changes by the FCC have caused what for radio stations?
concentration of radio station ownership by large media companies
Which is a potential result of music being offered entirely digitally?
Consumers would pay less for music because there is no physical product
What is a primary reason for the decline of the networks from the 1980s?
the growth of cable television and competition in programming that came with it
Fox television is owned by>?
Rupert Murdoch
What continues to be a major obstacle for DS?
their inability to include local programming
In the future, digital transmission of radi will make it more like _________ than traditional radio
audio programming
The first radio inventors were able to transmit the human voice
false
Even with the growing popularity of cable and satellite TV, most people continue to get TV through over-the-air broadcasts
false
Beeswax cylinders were and improvement over tinfoil cylinders that had been used to record sound
true
the recorded music industry is unique among media industries in that small, independent companies dominate
false
More U.S. households have television sets than telephones
true
Despite other forms of media and the rise of the Internet, people still spend more time wathcing the televison than with any other medium
true
a process in which the machines or computer programs do the work that was formerly done by humans is called
automation
Creating content and selling it to other media outlets is known as
syndication
What is a negative aspect of nonstop media?
information overload
Why must online-only radio stations pay royalities for the songs they play but traditional radio stations do not?
traditional radio stations argued that they help promote music
HTML stands for
hypertext markup language
One of the largest Internet companies that most resembles a traditional media company is?
CNET
A hypertext link to another Web site's inside page or pages is called?
deep linking
What was a primary reason that the Internet did NOT reach a widespread audience right away>
Arcane commands to type made it difficult for non-technical people
Microsoft has partnered with which network to create a news channel?
NBC
What is a primary reason that the music industry is threatened by online music?
the music industry loses conrol over distribution of its product
WHat is a likely problem regarding the future of the online music?
finding new songs and artists you may like may be more difficult without help form technology
Why might long-form text narratives be at a disadvantage in an online enviroment?
people online tend to have shorter attention spans and use hyperlinks to click to other Web sites to get information when they want
What percentage of online newspaper Web sites show up as the top 20 news Web sites, according to Editor &Publisher
50 percent
What is an important element in making digital nedia transformative?
networks
When were the foundations of the current Internet laid?
in 1969, with the creation of ARPANet
The dominant Web browser today is?
Internet Explorer
Like traditional media counterparts, advertising has proved to be a successful business model on the Internet
false
After the dot com bubble burst in 2000, existing online media companies found ways to become profitable
false
Online radio stations must abide by the Digital Millenium Copyright Act
true
Online versions of newspapers are NOT seen as major sources of news by the public
false
the recording indusrty has taken a leading role in developing digital sales and distribution of music
false
What is not a component of storage technologies?
capability
What component of storage technology has been scarificed the most with improvements in technolgy?
longevitiy
The storage technology truly revolutionary with digital media compared to its analog counterparts is?
reproducibility
What is a type of medium created as a random access memory device?
phone book
An important development in being able to record sound was?
magnetic recording
What was the event that finally convinced NBC to convert to videotape for news bradcasts
the assassination attempt on President Ford
The first type of storage devices for compouters were?
punched cards
The first example of optical storage device was the?
CD-ROM
A single CD-ROM can store________ pages of text?
300,000
DVD stands for?
digital versatile disk
What statement or statements best describe the characteristics of DVDs?
DVDs allow for multilingual capabilities

DVDs have better visual and sound quality than videotypes

DVDs can store far more information than CD-ROMs
What is one reason it is necessary to compress digital media?
the "pipes" that transport data to computers are still far too narrow to send large amounts of data easily
What does MPEG stand for?
Motion Pictures Expert Group
What is one of the problems with current search engines?
their searches do not encompass the entire Web
Comumbia Newsletter, which uses natural language processing is an example of?
automated news summarizing
CDs hold the greatest amount of digital information compared to other portable storage formats
false
a gigatbyte contains 2,000 times more information than a kilobyte
false
CD-ROMs can store information for a much longer time than printed books can
false
Atype of recording that involves placing tiny iron-based magnetic particles in substrate such as a plastic film is called?
magnetic recording
Eight bits of data is called a
byte
the practice of putting advertisers goods directly into shows for money is called?
product placememtn
Ultra-small technology that is currently in the early stages of development but that holds great promise for changing our world is called?
nanotechnology
What is an important difference in terms of our media usage regarding computers?
computers allow the user to interact with and change their media enviroment
Why is the issue of user interface important to mass communication?
it gives access to the huge content on the Internet and can make audiences more active in getting content
What media was important in the development of the modern user interface?
radio and television
What is an important element that has affected many design and user interface choices for computers?
the aspect ratio of computer monitors is the same as that of TV screens
The most efficient keyboard, which is not widely used is called?
Dvorak keyboard
What is a benefit of the keyboard over other types of input such as voice?
the keyboard allows for private input of inforamtion
What is a primary benefit of a touch-sensitive screen?
it simplifies the human-computer interaction
What is a potential drawback of speech - recognition systems?
they will be difficult to use in a public settings with everyone talking
What probably had the greatest impact in changing the public's behavoir and attitude towards computers?
the GUI
What is a drawback with using icons to represent items on a computer screen?
people not familiar with the real - world counterparts won't easily understand their functions
What role did user interfaces have in the microsoft trial in 1998?
Microsoft was accused of unfairly favoring the IE browser by bundling it with the Microsoft system
Who developed HDTV?
NHK
Why is digital TV more important for mass communication than HDTV?
digital TV enables the convergence of computing, television and telecommunications
Why do 3D visualizations of objects present unique user interface challenges?
there are new task-based requirements, such as being able to pick up objects
The knowledge to use various types of media technologies such as books is learned
true
television played a role in preparing the public mentally for interacting with computers
true
when the GUI was first introduced many computer users felt it dumbed down computer use and refused to use it
true
PCs and TVs will eventually merge into one device
true
although nice in theory, digital television is still technically not possible
false
A fundamental characteristic of digital distribution is that it?
is made of electrons and bits, not physical materials
With P2P networks, the audience essentially acts as a media?
distributor
What was the first technology that could transform information into electronic form and transmit it over great distances?
the telegraph
What is the type of switching that occurs within a network in whcih information is divided into pieces, transported as individual units, and then reassembled at the destination called?
packet switching
In what way have communication satellites substantially upgraded mediated communication?
they allow for ground based communication in remote parts of the world
What was the major reason that fiber optics took so long to be used?
sending light long distances without the signal degrading was difficult to overcome
The internet, for various technical reasons, eventually developed into which tyoe of network model?
client/server
The law states "the value of a network rises in proportion to the square of the number of the people on that network" is called?
Metcalfe's Law
The program that helped put file sharing services in the news was called?
Napster
Why might other file-sharing services be harder to shut down than Napster?
there are no central servers that hold databases of available songs on the network
A cateragory for discussion groups within Usernet is called a ?
newsgroup
A member of a discussion board who does not post messages but reads what others write is called a?
lurker
How do chat rooms differ from instant messaging?
chat rooms usually involve a group of people where instant messageing involves mostly one to one communication
What accounts for most Internet traffic today?
e-mail
Why is spam likely to continue?
costs are extremely low
Why do some experts say it is useless to creat digital distribution systems that ensure complete security?
because whenever a new secure technology is developed, it is quickly cracked
What idea espoused by Marshall McLuhan does the Internet seem to promise to deliver?
the world will become a global village
Napster's closing largely settled the legal and copying issues the record labels face
false
a drawback with P2P networks is that they cannot build instant messaging systems
false
Although email is convient for one to one communication, there is no way for individuals to "broadcast" their own messages to large numbers of people
flase
WHat is an often heard complaint about news coverage of negative events such as crimes or accidents?
heavy negative coverage gives a misleading impression that the world is more dangerous thatn it is
A press conference or planned rally or march is what historian Daniel Boorstin calls a ________,as it is designed to attract media attention
psuedo event
One of the oldest and largest news-gathering operations is
Associated Press
A noted newspaper publisher who owned the St. Louis-Dispatch and New York World and who bequeathed money to satrt the Columbia University School of Journalism was
Joseph Pulitzer
A noted newspaper publisher who owned the New York Morning Journal, was a politician, and who was immortalized in the movie Citizen Kane was
William Randolph Hearst
The Golden Age of newspapers ended when
radio became a medium for mass communication in the 1920s
The goal of objectivity in bews coverage has largely been abandoned today for what reason or reasons?
It is not possible to ever be truly objective in covering situations and events
How do most news organizations plan their new coverage for the following day?
editiors look at the AP daybook to decide what upcoming events are newworthy
At newspapers, who decides where stories are placed on the pages?
editiors
Which is a type of journalism that breaks from journalism tradition?
literary journalism
Writing in your diary is an example of?
intrapersonal communication
What is not a characteristic of mass communication?
it uses technologies to transmit messages to the audience
What is a weakness in the survelliance function of mass communication?
too much coverage of disastors and crime can skew the public's perception of what is normal
What is one problem with the cultural transmission function of mass communication?
it spreads a homogenizing cultural influence
The term bit stands for
binary digit
What is an example of digital medi>
a DVD
Combining text, images, sound, and video is an example of?
multimedia
What is not an aspect of interactivity?
users can send their message to a large number of people
What is a problem with digitization?
privacy can be eroded through tracking people's behavoir online
In an online enviroment, content becomes?
more fluid, dynamic, rapid and global
Intelligent software agents tht record and track vistiors to a website are called?
cookies
Peer to peer file sharing programs mainly do what?
make it easy for individuals to distribute and share files to a large audience
Media fragmentation means?
audiences become smaller as the public has more media choices based on their specific interests
A benefit of personalized and localized news is?
better contextualization of news events for the public
The concentration of media ownership into the hands of few, very large media companies is called?
an oligopoly
In a digital media world, journalism will change in what ways?
There will be less division between electronic and print journalists

journalists will on work non-stop news cycles with continous deadlines

journalists will have to work extra hard to make sure they are credible
One reason people may trust online news sources is because?
many of the online news sources are from traditional media parent companies
What practices from traditional publishing have news Web sites tended to drop?
publishing once a day at a set time
The person who broke the President Clinton-Monica Lewinsky scandal on their website is named?
Matt Drudge
Interpersonal communication always takes place in an unmediated enviroment
false
mediated communication refers only to electronic communication such as TV, radio, or the Internet
false
entertainment media can entertain and transmit cultural lvalues
true
James Carey is a leading communications scholar who adopts a cultural view of communication
true
multimedia only exists in a digital enviroment
false
computers can only understand "on" or off states of information, represented by 1s and 0s
true
as the troubles with AOL Time Warner show, convergence is mainly a passing fad among media organizations
false
convergence brings an increase in media consumption by the public
true
on the web, anyone can publish stories and act as a journalsit
true
Live television or radio are examples of what kind of media?
synchronous
The _____ function refers to interpreting aspects of society
correlation
The coming together of computers, media, and telecommunications is known as
convergence
The online equivalent o word-of-mouth advertising is called
viral marketing
What is an example of media literacy
knowing how to open an email attachment

reading a book

expecting something dramatic to happen in a movie when the music changes
Subtext can be defined as
the underlying or implicit message that is being sent by a piece of media content
In the 1960s, some people didn't understand the show _______ was actually fiction
Gilligan's Island
The personalization freatures of the Web amplify
media fragmentation
One of the ways to evaluate if an online sources is trustworthy or not is to?
see if the source is part of a website with an established brand name
There is greater diversity in programming and media channels for which of the following reasons?
the growth of cable and satellite television
The large media audiences for big sporting events such as the Olympics or dramatic news like the World Trade Center terrorist attacks show that?
mass audiences still do gather and share common news
Corporate decisions affect media content in what ways?
pressure from advertisers who threaten to withdraw advertising

budget cutbacks that reduce the numbers of reporters who can cover a beat

complaints from customers who cancel subscriptions
The type of media in which commercial factors are most easily seen as
entertainment
The Hallmark Channel is an example of
corporate sponsership
As of 2003, the largest media merger was
the purchase of Time Warner by AOL
"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" is an example of
the Golden Rule
The decrease in unit manufactoring costs that result from mass production is called
economies of scale
In the United States ________ of the 1500 daily newspapers are the only dailies in their cities
99 percent
The largest global media company is
AOL Time Warner
Avoiding extremes of actions or behavoir is an example of
the Golden Mean
The philosopher who came up with the Cateragorical Imperitive was
Immanuel Kant
Publishing the names of drunk driving offenders unless they are friends or associates of the publisher is an example of not following what ethical principle
the Cateragorical Imperitive
Scientific research on animals or humans to help find cures for diseases is an example of what ethical principle?
the principle of utility
Asking participants to ignore their vested interests and to stake out basic positions on an issue as if they did not know what the outcome would mean for them is an example of what ethical principle?
the veil of ignorance
What is the most common way that advertisers may affect coverage?
pulling ads or threatening to pull ads when a newspaper takes an unpopular editiorial stance
The case of NBC's "Waiting to Explode" news segment in 1992 is an example of
the type fo media influencing what kind of content needed to be created
Developing media literacy skills is a process, not a goal
true
Because reality TV is unscripted, they contain no subject
false
for-profit media models that rely on making money in the commercial marketplace is the most common
true
commercial television is not actually free since consumers pay for the costs of advertising through higher-priced goods
true
In the United States, a large portion of funding for public broadcasting comes from corporate sponsers
true
what is legal what is ethical, and vice versa
false
A box with a small hole in it that could show inverted oustide screens is called?
camera obscura
What is a serious drawback of the daguerreotype?
copies could not be made
What are some of the benfits of digital photography?
cameras are more compact than traditional cameras

no film developing costs

photographers can delete and change photos on the spot
The primary function of movies is?
entertainment
Who invented the Cinematographe, the first movie projector that could show movies to more than one person?
Auguste and Louis Lumiere
What was an advantage of silent films over talkies?
they easily crossed language barriers
The first full-length motion picture was
Birth of a Nation
The first successful commercial talkie film was?
the Jazz Singer
In 2000, the United States had an average of more than ______ movie tickets per citizen
5
Where do movies generate the most revenue?
cable television showings
One of the most feared Hollywood movie moguls, known for ruling the studio with an iron fist and outsing directors and actors he didn't like was
Louis B.Mayer
Paramount Pictures belongs to which media company?
Viacom
Twentieth Century Fox is part of which media company?
News Corp
What was the name of the successful low budget movie that used innovatie marketing tactics on the Internet for its promotion?
The Blair Witch Project
What is the name of the first major studio to open in 50 years?
Dreamsworks SKG
Who is the director with the most blockbusters?
Steven Speilburg
What are the reasons theater owners have been slow to switch to digital systems?
the costs associated with switching to digital systems are very high
What is a benefit of digital film for distributors?
digital film lasts much longer than traditional film

making copies from digital film onto celluliod film doesn't degrade the quality of the image
Photographic images continue to become sharper than early photographs as technology improves
false
Putting photographs on paper was NOT invented until the early 20th century
false
Photographers of battle scenes in the 19th century sometimes arranged their dead subjects for better photos
true
despite the growing popularity of digital cameras among the public, professional photographers never use digital cameras because of their poor picture quality
false
the arrival of talkies ruined some stars careers and changed how movies were written and made
true
the U.S. movie began on the East Coast
true
movie companies immediately saw the potential for extra revenues from television when TV became widespread
false
digital filmmaking and digital distribution promise to revolutionize the movie industry
true
the photographer famous for his Civil War photographs and portraits of well-known figures of his day is
Mathew Brady
High-budget Hollywood movies that are heavily marketed are called
blockbusters
People in industrial countries are estimated to spend how much of their time as leisure time? P. 347
30% of their time
The typical child in US spends average of how many hours a day consuming various types of media? P. 350
5 and a half hours a day
When did PBS in the United States begin? P. 352
1969
What are the typical main division within commercial television networks? P. 355
entertainment sports and news
The popularity of the prime time game show was revived with what show? P. 356
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire - 1999
What is a common complaint against professional wrestling? P. 358
it glamorizes violence while some of its mostly young male fans injure themselves as they attempt similar wrestling techniques at home with friends
Which is the largest group of movie-goers? P. 359
People over 40 --40% of the total audience
Who was important documentary filmmaker who won Academy Award for Bowling for Columbine? P. 361
Michael Moore
Summarize the relationship between movie studios and videotapes. P. 364
at first the movie industry strongly resisted the video cassette recorder models in the 1970s even taking Sony to court citing encouragement of copyright infringement claiming that videotapes would ruin the movie industry as people illegally copied movies. Video sales and rentals bring in more revenue now than box office receipts . In 2001 consumers spent 16 billion dollars buying and renting videos up 20 percent since 2000 and double the revenue from the box office. Lower production costs for the videocassetts created opportunities for aspiring filmakers who would otherwise have been unable to make videos
What is second only to watching television in terms of time spent with media? P. 367
music
Rock and roll took form and emerged as a popular sensation around when? P. 369
from 1954 to 1959
What is a common complaint regarding MTV? P. 370
for promoting violent or sexual imagery, sexism, antisocial behavoir, and Satanism
What is current primary reason hampering development of the Web as a entertainment medium? P. 372
limited bandwidth
Which are the reasons media companies have sought to regulate themselves? P. 373
Self regulation can be a responsible form of self discipline which can improve the actions of the media

In the court of public opinion of self regulation can improve the reputation of the media by signalling a willingness to act responsibly

slef-regulation can avoid or reduce the possibility of unwanted government regulation by solving or reducing problems before they produce the need for government action
What did the Hays Code do? P. 374
it created guidelines for filmmakers that involved depictions of violence, sex, and crime

Three moral principles:
Intention to prevent any motion picture from being produced that would lower the moral standards of those who see it

Second, Every picture was supposed to present correct standards of life, subject only to the requirements of drama and entertainment

Third, no picture is to ridicule natural or human law

created the rating system : G, PG, PG 13 , R and NC 17
In the United States, as in most industrialized countries, is more time is spent on leisure time or on work? P. 347
more time is spent on leisure than work
If current media trends continue, children will have spent how much of their lives watching television by the time they are 75? P. 351
12 full years
Today, do videos bring in more revenue for movies than box office receipts? P. 364
yes
Were industry experts right in that video games have proved to be an inherently limited market that is confined largely to young male teens P. 367
kind of although those that have grown up with them continue to play and some females have joined in the playing....however that is still primarily the case
Does interactivity promises to revolutionize all aspects of digital entertainment? P. 372
no
What is the most prevalent form of media content? P. 38
ADVERTISING
The roots of persuasive communication go back at least to Aristotle. What term did he use to describe persuasive communication in an interpersonal setting? P. 383
rhetoric
What are the AIDA elements? P. 383
attention (sometimes, awareness), interest, desire, and action
Describe the effect that audience fragmentation has on mediated persuasion. P. 383
National media channels grew dramatically in number and variety over the course of the 20th century, with a resulting splintering of the audience. People used to have less options of what channels to watch now people have more options. So, it has become more difficult and complicated for strategic communicators to reach large audiences
What is "strategic" communication? P. 383
media-based communication campaigns that are designed to influence the audience in some way. (Advertising does this by purchasing media space or time where commercial messages can be presented to the public)
What is "persuasive" communication? P. 383
the process of using messages to influence others to adopt a new position, opinion, attitude, or behavior
What are the main factors that affect mediated persuasion? P. 383
media difference, message characteristics, audience fragmentation, individual characteristics and conditions
Which demographic is highly sought after by advertisers? P. 384
teens
What is the definition of "advertising?" P. 384
an ancient form of human communication generally designed to inform or persuade members of the public with regard to some product or service
What is narrowcasting? P. 384
specialized media channels used to deliver messages to highly targeted audiences that can be defined by interests, demographics, or some other specific focus
What does CPM stands for? P. 385
cost per thousand – the standard unit for measuring advertising rates for publications, based on circulation
What is the term used in broadcast media to explain the numbers of households that watched a particular show?
rating
What is it called when advertisers pay for results of online ads instead of page views on a Web site? P. 385
performance-based advertising
Who is the largest advertiser today? P. 386
the automobile industry
What are infomercials? P. 387
aka paid programming – these are 30 or 60 minute television shows that seek to sell a product and that usually involve a celebrity spokesperson and testimony from customers about how good the product is
What is the earliest type of advertising on the Internet known as? P. 38
banner ad
Which is the most common type of advertising? P. 388
product/service
What are advertising-like messages for which the media donate time or space to groups with a worthy purpose? P. 389
public service announcements (PSA)
What is a public information campaign? P. 389
media program often funded by the government and designed to achieve some social goal, or what might be called social engineering
What is branding? P. 389
the process of creating in the consumer’s mind a clear identity for a particular company’s product, logo, or trademark
What are the two types of advertising in print media classified as? P. 390
advertising formats??????
Are advertising rates ever negotiable?
– true
What is the type of advertisement that is created to look like an article in the publication? P. 390
advertorial
What is a listing of advertising rates by size, placement, and other characteristics used by most publications? P. 390
rate card
What is the name of having a company's items placed in a movie or TV show as part of the surroundings? P. 392
product placement
What is the proper name for what is often called "junk mail" delivered to homes and businesses? P. 393
direct mail marketing
What is "viral marketing?" P. 394
spreading news and information about media content through word-of-mouth, usually via online discussion groups, chats, and emails, without utilizing traditional advertising and marketing methods
Purchasing online ads as well as complementary space or time on the parent media company's other media properties such as magazines or television stations is called? P. 400
convergent media buying
When is false advertising illegal? P. 402
only if it is deceptive
Who was the famous showman who had a knack for creating events that attracted widespread public interest and who later started a traveling circus? P. 404
P.T. Barnum
What is "press agentry?" P. 404
the practice of getting publicity for clients by getting them mentioned in media outlets, such as news stories or feature articles, as well as on television or radio
Who did Nazi Germany leaders hire as a PR professional to help improve the image of "the new Germany." P. 405
Ivy Ledbetter Lee
What is the name given to a model of public relations that emphasizes a system of managing relationships between organizations and their many publics? P. 406
two-way symmetric public relations
What is a "morgue"? P. 410
an archive of news articles or photographs from a publication and other publications on various topics that can be used as a background reference source for a journalist doing a story
PRSA stands for? P. 412
Public Relations Society of America
Has journalism's public service mission made the profession immune from commercial pressures? P.: 310 --
No
Have digital technologies and the Internet changed how reporters cover and write about news and what constitutes news? P.: 316-317
No, digital technology will leave how reporting is done relatively the same because reporters still need to visit people and places in order to get the story...digital technology does not change that
The Hutchins Commission is notable for what reason? P.: 317
for writing a report called A Free and Responsible Press that criticed the press in the US.Made many recommendations and stated that the public has a right to inofrmation that affects it
Is there is a big difference in the types of front-page stories in the average newspaper today compared to 20 years ago? P.: 319
Yes
Which type of journalism has become more prominent in newspapers and in television news in recent years? P.: 324
Arts and Entertainment Journalism
Journalists in which type of journalism face a double challenge in terms of getting the public's attention and clearly explaining stories? P.: 325
Science and Technology Journalism
Which type of journalism combines techniques of fiction such as first-person narrative and point of view with journalistic techniques? P.: 326
New Journalism
Have journalists been some of the earliest adopters of new digital technologies in their work? P.: 328
No, they were slow to adopt the digital technology although since 2000 they have been more willing to see the value in one product of digital technology - the Internet
What is a common criticism of civic journalism? P.: 328
Critics say that it is little more than boosterism or advocacy journalism and weakens the role of the press as a sometimes unpopular and critical voice of a community's conscience beacuse it tends to pander its audience
Do a majority of journalists say they or their colleagues participate in online discussions or exchange e-mails with readers? P.: 329
Yes - 70% -- up from 54% in 1999
Providing highly personalized news and raw data to the audience is an important part of what online journalism can do, but in addition consumers will especially want what feature? P.: 332
Additions to the crime map program like finding a certain crime, location, increasing decreasing...etc... also, hyperlinks for the news of the crimes...also,
Which is a benefit that omnidirectional imaging has for online journalism? P.: 333
It offers a 360 degree view of where a journalistic story is taking place. For example, at a crime scene, a reporter can take a picture of the entire area surrounding so that others can get a beter feel than just the view that the reporter chose
Which technology currently used by the military and law enforcement can be a useful tool for journalism? P.: 333
Unmanned air vehicles (UAV's)
Superimposing media or information over real-world scenes in real time is called ________. P.: 334
Mobile Journalist's Workstation
Providing highly personalized news and raw data to the audience is an important part of what online journalism can do, but in addition consumers will especially want what feature? P.: 332
Additions to the crime map program like finding a certain crime, location, increasing decreasing...etc... also, hyperlinks for the news of the crimes...also,
Is the public's right to know guaranteed in the First Amendment? P.: 335
no
Which is a benefit that omnidirectional imaging has for online journalism? P.: 333
It offers a 360 degree view of where a journalistic story is taking place. For example, at a crime scene, a reporter can take a picture of the entire area surrounding so that others can get a beter feel than just the view that the reporter chose
Providing highly personalized news and raw data to the audience is an important part of what online journalism can do, but in addition consumers will especially want what feature? P.: 332
Additions to the crime map program like finding a certain crime, location, increasing decreasing...etc... also, hyperlinks for the news of the crimes...also,
What is one of the most difficult tasks for journalists? P.: 335
gathering proof of wrongdoing
Which technology currently used by the military and law enforcement can be a useful tool for journalism? P.: 333
Unmanned air vehicles (UAV's)
In which medium can people not expect to have their privacy protected? P.: 335
written
Superimposing media or information over real-world scenes in real time is called ________. P.: 334
Mobile Journalist's Workstation
Is the public's right to know guaranteed in the First Amendment? P.: 335
no
Do journalists have special constitutional protections (beyond those of common citizens) when trying to secretly record or intercept communications? P.: 335
no
What is one of the most difficult tasks for journalists? P.: 335
gathering proof of wrongdoing
The FCC prohibits broadcast news organizations from using wireless microphones in all but which of the following locations? P.: 336
public places
What is an ethical consideration in covering crimes and victims of crimes? P.: 336
not revealing the names of the victims and being careful about what information regarding the events of the crimes that are included in the story so that you don't have a copycat crime
In which medium can people not expect to have their privacy protected? P.: 335
written
Do journalists have special constitutional protections (beyond those of common citizens) when trying to secretly record or intercept communications? P.: 335
no
In the Food Lion case with ABC/Disney, who did the jury find in favor? P.: 337
Food Lion
The FCC prohibits broadcast news organizations from using wireless microphones in all but which of the following locations? P.: 336
public places
What are the major elements in SPJ's code of ethics? P.: 338
1) seek truth and report it
2) journalists should be honest, fair, and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information
3) test the accuracy of information form all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertant error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
4) Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing
5)Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on souces reliability
6) Make certain that headlines, news teases, promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites, and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents outside of context
7) Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancements for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
8) Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a stroy, label it
9) Support the open exchange of views, even if views the journalist may find repungenant
10) Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditonal or open methods will not yield information vital to the public.
Summarize the state of media businesses in the early 21st century. P.: 338-339
The 21st century has been especailly challenging. Seen a downturn in advertising avenues. U.S. media enterprises laid off 100,000 workers. Many organizations have made the effort to make changes that have resulted in a large loss but still they are hopeful that they just went too fast and that the change will come. A really big factor has been the war on terrisom. The war causes a declining economy and high costs of reporting. Now news places will be using different types of methods to cut costs.
What is an ethical consideration in covering crimes and victims of crimes? P.: 336
not revealing the names of the victims and being careful about what information regarding the events of the crimes that are included in the story so that you don't have a copycat crime
In the Food Lion case with ABC/Disney, who did the jury find in favor? P.: 337
Food Lion
What is usually the first area to get cut down when a news organization wants to cut costs? P.: 339
Investigative journalism
What are the major elements in SPJ's code of ethics? P.: 338
1) seek truth and report it
2) journalists should be honest, fair, and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information
3) test the accuracy of information form all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertant error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
4) Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing
5)Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on souces reliability
6) Make certain that headlines, news teases, promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites, and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents outside of context
7) Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancements for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
8) Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a stroy, label it
9) Support the open exchange of views, even if views the journalist may find repungenant
10) Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditonal or open methods will not yield information vital to the public.
What is the reason there has historically been antagonism between the business sides and editorial sides of news organizations? P.: 339
The editorial side is looking to "comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfotable" and the business side is the comfortable so they often tell the editorial staff to not do a certain story or pull it so that it will not offend someone that they are on the inside with
Summarize the state of media businesses in the early 21st century. P.: 338-339
The 21st century has been especailly challenging. Seen a downturn in advertising avenues. U.S. media enterprises laid off 100,000 workers. Many organizations have made the effort to make changes that have resulted in a large loss but still they are hopeful that they just went too fast and that the change will come. A really big factor has been the war on terrisom. The war causes a declining economy and high costs of reporting. Now news places will be using different types of methods to cut costs.
What is usually the first area to get cut down when a news organization wants to cut costs? P.: 339
Investigative journalism
What is the reason there has historically been antagonism between the business sides and editorial sides of news organizations? P.: 339
The editorial side is looking to "comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfotable" and the business side is the comfortable so they often tell the editorial staff to not do a certain story or pull it so that it will not offend someone that they are on the inside with
Which is a benefit that omnidirectional imaging has for online journalism? P.: 333
It offers a 360 degree view of where a journalistic story is taking place. For example, at a crime scene, a reporter can take a picture of the entire area surrounding so that others can get a beter feel than just the view that the reporter chose
Which technology currently used by the military and law enforcement can be a useful tool for journalism? P.: 333
Unmanned air vehicles (UAV's)
Superimposing media or information over real-world scenes in real time is called ________. P.: 334
Mobile Journalist's Workstation
Is the public's right to know guaranteed in the First Amendment? P.: 335
no
What is one of the most difficult tasks for journalists? P.: 335
gathering proof of wrongdoing
In which medium can people not expect to have their privacy protected? P.: 335
written
Do journalists have special constitutional protections (beyond those of common citizens) when trying to secretly record or intercept communications? P.: 335
no
The FCC prohibits broadcast news organizations from using wireless microphones in all but which of the following locations? P.: 336
public places
What is an ethical consideration in covering crimes and victims of crimes? P.: 336
not revealing the names of the victims and being careful about what information regarding the events of the crimes that are included in the story so that you don't have a copycat crime
In the Food Lion case with ABC/Disney, who did the jury find in favor? P.: 337
Food Lion
What are the major elements in SPJ's code of ethics? P.: 338
1) seek truth and report it
2) journalists should be honest, fair, and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information
3) test the accuracy of information form all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertant error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
4) Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing
5)Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on souces reliability
6) Make certain that headlines, news teases, promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites, and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents outside of context
7) Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancements for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
8) Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a stroy, label it
9) Support the open exchange of views, even if views the journalist may find repungenant
10) Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditonal or open methods will not yield information vital to the public.
Summarize the state of media businesses in the early 21st century. P.: 338-339
The 21st century has been especailly challenging. Seen a downturn in advertising avenues. U.S. media enterprises laid off 100,000 workers. Many organizations have made the effort to make changes that have resulted in a large loss but still they are hopeful that they just went too fast and that the change will come. A really big factor has been the war on terrisom. The war causes a declining economy and high costs of reporting. Now news places will be using different types of methods to cut costs.
What is usually the first area to get cut down when a news organization wants to cut costs? P.: 339
Investigative journalism
What is the reason there has historically been antagonism between the business sides and editorial sides of news organizations? P.: 339
The editorial side is looking to "comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfotable" and the business side is the comfortable so they often tell the editorial staff to not do a certain story or pull it so that it will not offend someone that they are on the inside with
Which news organizations pay journalists the most on average? P.: 340
televison
Which minority is most prevalent in U.S. newsrooms? P.: 341
African Americans