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56 Cards in this Set

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Protist
Any of a group of eukaryotic organisms belonging to the kingdom Protista according to some widely used modern taxonomic systems. The protists include a variety of unicellular, coenocytic, colonial, and multicellular organisms, such as the protozoans, slime molds, brown algae, and red algae.
Fungus
Any of numerous eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which lack chlorophyll and vascular tissue and range in form from a single cell to a body mass of branched filamentous hyphae that often produce specialized fruiting bodies. The kingdom includes the yeasts, molds, smuts, and mushrooms.
Eubacterium
A genus of bacteria in the family Propionibacteriaceae; obligate anaerobes producing a mixture of organic acids (butyric, acetic, formic, and lactic) from carbohydrates and peptone.
Plant
Any of various photosynthetic, eukaryotic, multicellular organisms of the kingdom Plantae characteristically producing embryos, containing chloroplasts, having cellulose cell walls, and lacking the power of locomotion.
Animal
A multicellular organism of the kingdom Animalia, differing from plants in certain typical characteristics such as capacity for locomotion, nonphotosynthetic metabolism, pronounced response to stimuli, restricted growth, and fixed bodily structure.
Autotroph
An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs.
Heterotroph
An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition.
Unicellular
Consisting of one cell.
Colonial
Several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual benefit.
multicellular
Consisting of more than one cell.
Prokaryote
An organism of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryotae), comprising the bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes. Also called moneran.
Eukaryote
A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving the paired union of special cells (gametes) from two individuals.
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving the paired union of special cells (gametes) from two individuals.
Hemeostasis
The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
cilia
minute hairlike processes that extend from a cell surface, composed of nine pairs of microtubules around a core of two microtubules. They beat rhythmically to move the cell or to move fluid or mucus over the surface. Of particular importance in the respiratory epithelium, contributing greatly to the mucociliary escalator.
contractile vacuole
A membrane-bound organelle found in certain protists that pumps fluid in a cyclical manner from within the cell to the outside by alternately filling and then contracting to release its contents at various points on the surface of the cell. It functions in maintaining osmotic equilibrium.
flagella
A long, threadlike appendage, especially a whiplike extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.
pseudopod
A temporary projection of the cytoplasm of certain cells, such as phagocytes, or of certain unicellular organisms, especially amoebas, that serves in locomotion and phagocytosis.
hierarchy
any system of persons or things ranked one above the other.
taxonomy
The science, laws, or principles of classification; systematics.
Carolus Linnaeus
The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) established the binomial system of biological nomenclature, formalized biological classification, and gave the first organization to ecology.
binomial nomenclature
The scientific naming of species whereby each species receives a Latin or Latinized name of two parts, the first indicating the genus and the second being the specific epithet.
biosphere
The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life.
species
A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding.
anterior
In front of and facing away from the axis or stem.
posterior
Next to or facing the main stem or axis.
dorsal
Of or on the outer surface, underside, or back of an organ.
ventral
Of or on the lower or inner surface of an organ that faces the axis; adaxial.
symmetry
Exact correspondence of form and constituent configuration on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or an axis.
cilia
minute hairlike processes that extend from a cell surface, composed of nine pairs of microtubules around a core of two microtubules. They beat rhythmically to move the cell or to move fluid or mucus over the surface. Of particular importance in the respiratory epithelium, contributing greatly to the mucociliary escalator.
contractile vacuole
A membrane-bound organelle found in certain protists that pumps fluid in a cyclical manner from within the cell to the outside by alternately filling and then contracting to release its contents at various points on the surface of the cell. It functions in maintaining osmotic equilibrium.
flagella
A long, threadlike appendage, especially a whiplike extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.
pseudopod
A temporary projection of the cytoplasm of certain cells, such as phagocytes, or of certain unicellular organisms, especially amoebas, that serves in locomotion and phagocytosis.
hierarchy
any system of persons or things ranked one above the other.
taxonomy
The science, laws, or principles of classification; systematics.
Carolus Linnaeus
The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) established the binomial system of biological nomenclature, formalized biological classification, and gave the first organization to ecology.
binomial nomenclature
The scientific naming of species whereby each species receives a Latin or Latinized name of two parts, the first indicating the genus and the second being the specific epithet.
biosphere
The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life.
species
A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding.
anterior
In front of and facing away from the axis or stem.
posterior
Next to or facing the main stem or axis.
dorsal
Of or on the outer surface, underside, or back of an organ.
ventral
Of or on the lower or inner surface of an organ that faces the axis; adaxial.
symmetry
Exact correspondence of form and constituent configuration on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or an axis.
radial symmetry
Symmetrical arrangement of constituents, especially of radiating parts, about a central point.
bilateral symmetry
Symmetrical arrangement, as of an organism or a body part, along a central axis, so that the body is divided into equivalent right and left halves by only one plane.
Cephalization
An evolutionary trend in the animal kingdom toward centralization of neural and sensory organs in the head or anterior region of the body.
blastula
An early embryonic form produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consisting of a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity.
cladogram
A branching, treelike diagram in which the endpoints of the branches represent specific species of organisms. It is used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships and show points at which various species have diverged from common ancestral forms.
appendages
A part or organ, such as an arm, leg, tail, or fin, that is joined to the axis or trunk of a body.
ectotherm
An organism that regulates its body temperature largely by exchanging heat with its surroundings; a poikilotherm.
endotherm
An organism that generates heat to maintain its body temperature, typically above the temperature of its surroundings; a homeotherm.
amniotic egg
An egg that can be laid on land due to the presence of a fluid-filled amniotic sac (amnion) that cushions and protects the developing embryo; amniote- n. Any of a group of land-dwelling vertebrates that have an amnion during embryonic development, including reptiles, birds, and mammals.
tissue
An aggregation of morphologically similar cells and associated intercellular matter acting together to perform one or more specific functions in the body. There are four basic types of tissue: muscle, nerve, epidermal, and connective.
organ system
A group of organs in the human body that work together to carry out a vital body-function.