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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Abnormalities in these four functions, calculatins, right-left confusion, finger agnosia, and agraphia is typical of what syndrome?
Gerstmann's Syndrome
syndrome of the Parietal lobe
Abnormality with calculations, right-left confusion, finger agnosia, and agraphia is usually localized in what lobe?
Parietal Lobe
The lobe that is mostly responsible for motor and spatial functioning
___________ is most common in lesions of the right (nondominant) parietal lobe, causing patients to neglect the left side.
Think of word for "half"
Hemineglect can be tested using which test?
Extinction on double simultaneous stimulation or construction task
Think of two things being tested at once or Elmo Only Dislikes Stinky Smells
Which test ask for the patient to tap the table with a fist, open palm, and side of open hand and to continue this sequence repeatedly? What does it test for?
Luria manual sequencing task; perseveration
from the word "to persevere"
The _______ ___-___-___ ____ tests one's ability to suppress inappropriate behavior, in which the patient moves one finger to one tap on the table and keeps it still in response to two taps.
Auditory Go-No-Go Test
relies on hearing and tests inhibition
How might the administration of the motor exam be modified for patients with apraxia?
first demonstrate the movement to the patient, or move their limbs through the desired motion before allowing them to continue on their own
practice tests
Posturing reflexes depend on ___________ and ________ circuitry and can be seen in patients with damage to the descending ________ ________ _________ pathways.
brainstem; spinal; upper motor neuron
the cauliflower stalk
When administering the neurologic exam, you can distinguish between ___________ __________ and posturing reflexes by pinching the skin on the extensor and flexor sides of the limb and noting the direction of movement.
purposeful withdrawal
movement will always be away from a painful stimulus
Describe two methods commonly used in the neurologic exam to distinguish a true coma from a pseudocoma.
hand-dropping test in pseudocoma: when a patient is truly in a coma and their hand is released directly above their face, their hand should strike their face on its way down; Saccadic eye movements in pseudcoma: saccades should not be present in a coma (unless the patient is experiencing sleep paralysis or has locked-in syndrome)
hand and eye
What region of the cortex is hidden within the Sylvian Fissure and what structures cover it?
Insular Cortex is covered by the frontal operculum and parietal operculum.
Insullation occurs with Fat and Puffy Comforters (operculum is latin for covering)
What medial structure separates the parietal and occipital lobes?
Parieto-occipital sulcus.
The primary motor cortex is found in the ________ _________ of the _____ lobe, and the primary somatosensory cortex is found in the ________ _________ of the ______ lobe.
Precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe and postcentral gyros of the parietal lobe.
around the central sulcus
How is graphesthesia tested?
By asking patients to close their eyes and identify letters or numbers that are being traced onto their palm or the tip of their finger.
around the central sulcus pg. 71
What condition caused by large lesions to the frontal lobes or their connections resembles a coma, but is in fact different?
Eyes remain open pg 71
What does the presence of papilledema during an ophthalmoscopic exam suggest?
Elevated intracranial pressure
What does swelling do to pressure? pg. 75
Asymetrical or bilateral dilated, unresponsive "blown" pupils indicate what?
Transtentorial herniation or other disorders affecting the midbrain
the cranial nerves that control the pupils are in the midbrain pg 76
What psychological disorder characterized by sensory motor deficits without a coresponding focal lesion in the nervous system mimics neurological illness?
Conversion disorder
Classified under somatoform disorders pg. 78
The cranial nerves arise from which brain structure?
Most basic part of brain 38
What extends throughout the central brainstem from medulla to midbrain?
Reticular formaion
contains nuclei that control heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration 40
Wernicke's aphasia is also called?
receptive or sensory aphasia
input 43
Broca's aphasia is also called?
expressive or motor aphasia
output 43
What's apraxia
abnormalities in motor conceptualization, planning, and execution
caused by diffuse lesions to cortex 43
The Amygdala is part of what system?
limbic system
regulates emotions 42
what are prosopagnosia and achromatopsia?
inability to recognize faces and colors
inability to recognize… 44
Where are Wernicke's and Broca's area located, and what is each area associated with?
Broca's Area: Posterior, inferior region of the left frontal lobe. It is associated with Broca's aphasia: the inability to express language and speech. Wernicke's area: superior posterior of the temporal lobe. It is associated with the inability to comprehend or understand language and speech.
"Broca's broken boca" Z-16-18
What is agnosia?
Agnosia is the ability to recognize an object but the inability to name it.
agnosia="without knowledge" Z-18
What is agnosognosia?
The inability or refusal to acknowledge that a person has a disease or a disorder
agnosognosia="no knowledge of the disease Z-20
What is equipotentiality?
Equipotentiality is the idea that if enough cortical material is intact, the material that is there will take over the functions of the missing tissue.
"equal" "potential" Z-19
What is pluripotentiality?
Pluripotentiality is an extension of the localization theory which states that although a specific role may take place in a certain area of the brain, the brain is also multifunctional in that any given area of the brain can be associated with few or many behaviors.
Multifunctional Z-24
Glutamate and Histamine are _________ while GABA and Glycine are _______.
Excitatory, inhibitory
start, stop B-20
Name nine principle neurotransmitters
Glutamate, GABA, Norepinephrine, Acetylcholine, Glycine, Serotonin, Histamine, Dopamine, Peptides.
Good Grief, Neuroscientists And Graduate Students Have Delightful Personalities! B-20
_______ amnesia is when a patient cannot remember events for a period of time immediately before the lesion onset while _______ amnesia is when a patient has difficulties rembering new facts and events that occurred after the lesion occurred.
Retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia.
Think of Anterograde as being derived from the same root as Anterior which we know means "in front." So Anterograde amnesia is a problem with forming memories about events that occured "in front" of the time that the lesion happened.
Anterograde amnesia is often caused by damage to the limbic memory structures in the _____ _____ lobes and in the _______ _______.
Medial temporal lobes, medial diencephalon.
The amygdala and hippocampal formation are located in the Medial temporal lobes and these structures are often thought of as being involved in forming new memories. The thalamus, the central relay station, is part of the diencephalon so many connections involved in creating new memories likely pass through this region.
Gerstmann's Syndrom is an impairment in what 4 functions?
Calculations, Right-Left confusion, finger Agnosia, agraphia.
CALF : C=Calculations, A= Agraphia, L=Left-Right Confusion, F=Finger Agnosia
Perseveration, motor impersistence, and abilia are all signs of damage to the _______ lobe.
These are all problems that arise from the ability to plan and make decisions which we know are functions of the frontal lobe.
When a patient is unaware that they have a problem, such as paralysis, it is termed _______.
Gnosia is the abliity to recognize objects so when you combine it with "no" (refusal/denial) you get "a refusal/denial of perceiving objects."
_______ is the inability to follow motor commands not due to a primary motor or language impairment.
When you have apraxia you cannot practice movements on command so think of it as a-practice-ia.
When a patient is unable to perform tasks requiring logic and abstraction, such as the similarities subtest on the WAIS, this is an indication of damage to what area of the cortex?
Higher-order association cortex.
These tasks, logic/metaphore/simili, are tasks that require a person to make "associations" which require the forebrain cortex present in more evolved or "Higer-Order" species.
The hypothalamus is an important region for control of ______, ______, ______, and other circuits.
autonomic; neuroendocrine; limbic
ANI--Annie's got a New Lamp 36
about 85% of the fibers in the corticospinal tract cross over to control movement of the opposite side of the body called _____ _____.
Pyramidal decussation
PD--Pyramids are in Deserts 32
____ ____ ____ form synapses onto the ____ ____ ____, located in the anterior horns of the central gray matter.
Upper Motor Neurons (UMN); Lower Motor Neurons (LMN)
UMNLMN-- U May Never Like Moody Neighbors 33
Thalami are grey matter structures located deep within the cerebral white matter just above the ___ ___ and behind the ___ ___.
Brainstem; Basal Ganglia
BBG--Brainy Boucy Geeks 35
___ ___ detect the amount and rate of stretch in muscles, which is conveyed via the dorsal roots into the spinal gray matter
Muscle spindles
**it works as an afferent fiber 37
Where do most cranial nerves originate from?
The Brainstem pg38
This structure is composed of the Midbrain, Pons, and medulla
What is the name and function of CN I
Olfactory Nerve and its function is olfaction (smell) pg40, 2.5
You should NO this Nerve is part of the five senses.
Lesions on the brainstem can have devastating effects on these two functions?
Sensory and Motor function pg 40
I Sense you want to Walk.
The association cortex assists in what processes?
Association cortex carry out higher-order information processing between primary and sensory areas. pg41
We use a memo at work to accomplish this process.
This structure is arched shaped and connects the Hippocampal Formation to the Hypothalamus and Septal Nuclei.
Fornix pg41
I cheer For the Nix!
What memory process may be effected by a lesion in the Limbic System?
Consolidation of immediate recall into long term memories. pg41
This is common with Dementia patients.
What are Frontal Release signs? Evidence of these may be indicative of what in adulthood?
Frontal lobe lesions and the reflexes of grasping, rooting, sucking, and snout pg44
These are considered primitive and are normal in infants.
What do (Acomm) and (Pcomm) stand for?
Anterior Communicating Artery and Posterior Communicating Artery pg45
Areas within the brain that allow blood to circulate.
What arteries form the posterior blood supply to the brain?
Vertebral arteries join together into a single Basilar artery. Pg44
Vertebrobasilar System
_________are eye movements used to rapidly refixate from one object to another
think "soccer" the ball needs to move rapidly and also shares similar spelling with “saccades”
_________is an abnormality in language production or comprehension.
A is for Abnormal and Phasia in Greek is talk, speak, or say
__________is an abnormal pronunciation of speech
The word looks difficult to pronounce
__________ are reduced reflexes and __________ are increased reflexes.
Hyporeflexia, hyperreflexia
Hypo= below normal and hyper=above normal
Diplopia means________________
Double vision
DI=2 (double)/Opia= (vision)
The ________ -________ reflex is often the only way to test eye movements with patients in coma.
Vestibular=orientation in space/Ocular= vision
What is the Sylvian Fissure?
The deep sulcus that seperates the frontal lobes from the temporal lobes laterally and inferiorlly
Fissure is a divide pg. 24
Put together, what do the following structures make: the rostrum, genu, body and splenium
the corpus callosum
It connects the two hemispheres of the brain pg. 25
Numbered 44 in Broadmann’s classification, this area is involved in speech and movement planning
Broca’s area
Located in the inferior frontal gyrus ( frontal operculum) pg.31
Which layer of the neocortex contains dendrites and axons from deeper layer?
Layer 1
Also known as the molecular layer pg. 29
Layers II and III of the neocortex, also known as the external granular layer and the external pyramidal layer, contain neurons that project where?
Mainly to other area of the cortex
External layers= project externally pg. 29
What subcortical structure do the layer V cells not project to?
Also known as Grand Central Station pg. 29
Which layer of the neocortex receives the majority of the input from the thalamus
Layer V also known as the internal granular layer
Internal= inputs pg.29
The most important motor pathway in humans is the ______ tract. 32
Corticospinal tract.
The majority of fibers in this tract cross over to control movement in the opposite side of the body.
Upper motor neurons form synapses into the ______ ______ ______, which are located in the ______ ______ of the ______ ______ ______ of the spinal cord, or in brainstem motor nuclei. 33
Upper motor neurons form synapses into the LOWER MOTOR NEURONS, which are located in the ANTERIOR HORNS of the CENTRAL GRAY MATTER of the spinal cord, or in brainstem motor nuclei.
Opposite of UMNs; a name of ventral gray matter; a type of matter
The _____ ______ _______ convey proprioception, vibration sense, and fine, discriminating touch. 34
Posterior column pathways
One of two main somatosensory pathways
What is proprioception? 34
Limb or joint position sense
Where are your arms and legs?
The _________ ________ convey pain, temperature sense, and crude touch. 34
Anterolateral pathways
The pathway in front and away from midline
The ______ are gray matter structures located deep within the white matter structures just above the brainstem and behind the basal ganglia. 35
Appearance is similar to robins’ eggs
If higher centers of their descending pathways are damaged, the stretch reflex may become _____ or ______. 38
Hyperactive of hypoactive
Too much or too little activity
1. anterior communicating artery (AComm)
2. anterior cerebral artery (ACA)
3. internal carotid artery (ICA)
4. posterior communicating artery (PComm)
5. posterior cerebral artery (PCA)
6. basilar artery (BA)
7. vertebral artery (VA)
8. posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)
9. anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)
10. superior cerebellar artery (SCA)
11. middle cerebral artery (MCA)
label the following arteries
AComm, PComm, ICA, ACA, MCA, PCA, 2VA to 1BA, 3 cerebellar arteries: SCA, PICA, AICA , there are 11! (p. 45)