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84 Cards in this Set

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Most input into the basal ganglia connects to the following two components __________ and ______________.
Caudate, Putamen. (These two structures are collectively known as the "striatum").
Which two structures comprise the "striatum" in the basal ganglia?
Caudate, Putamen. (The striatum is also known, less commonly, as the "neostriatum").
The thalamus, in addition to its role as the "great sensory relay of the brain", has an important __________ role regarding the cerebral cortex. This role is especially apparent in Parkinson's Disease, which causes bradykinesia and bradyphrenia.
activing (alerting, arousal, excitatory)
What do the terms "bradyphrenia" and "bradykinesia" mean?
Bradyphrenia = slowed thinking/cognition
Bradykinesia = slowed movement.

MNEMONIC:
"brady"=slow (as in "bradycardia"=slow heart rate"),
"phrenia" = thinking (as "schizophrenia"),
"kinesia" = movement
Name the four "channels" (input and output) of the basal ganglia. Which two are most important to neuropsychology?
MNEMONIC: "COME" (as in "come here"--implying motor movement):

1) C-ognitive (executive functioning, memory retrieval expecially)
2) O-culomotor movement
3) M-otor (voluntary bodily movement--pyramidal system)
4) E-motional functioning

MOST IMPORTANT to neuropsych: cognitive, emotional
Name the structures of the basal ganglia--cortex feedback circuit, beginning with the cortex, in order.
Cortex=>striatum (caudate+ putamen)=>globus pallidus=>thalamus=>Cortex
The main input to the basal ganglia comes from massive projections from the entire cerebral cortex to the _________.
Striatum
In addition to the basal ganglia's main input from massive projections from the entire cerebral cortex, it also receives important input from the _______________, related to Parkinson's Disease.
substantial nigra. (This pathway is called the "nigrostriatal pathway", and is *dopaminergic*.)
The globus pallidus consists of two parts. These help explain why Parkinson's Disease and Huntington's Disease seem to have different effects on behavior (inhibition vs disinhibition)
1) globus pallidus externa
2) globus pallidus interna
The orbital-frontal region of the frontal lobe (just above the eyes and extending inward on the bottom of the brain) is primarily involved in regulation of _______________ functioning and is part of the _______________ system.
emotion, limbic
EXTRA CREDIT QUSTION: Name two symptoms of the "dorsolateral syndrome" (a type of "dyexecutive"/frontal network dysfunction)
Possible answers:
1) reduced productivity (measured by naming words beginning with specific letters)
2) impaired set-shifting (perseverations--as in the wisconin card sort)
3) memory retrieval, to a lesser extent encoding.
4) problem-solving ability (e.g., Tower of London), poor organizational straties (RCFT).
5) Ability to generate hypotheses about a problem (part of "fluency" or "productivity").
6) ACTIVE working memory (digits backward, number-letter sequencing).
EXTRA CREDIT: Hungtington's disease provides a window into striatal functioning. It begins with medial caudate, proceeding laterally, and ultimately causes what kind of emotional and cognitive problems?
Behavioral & Cognitive problems: Irritability, explosivenes, apathy, "nervousness", OCD, emotionality. Ultimately cognitive deficits: fluency, problem-solving tasks, retrieval.
What is a quick "catchword" phrase which describes/defines "executive functioning"
What you do when "going on automatic pilot is not enough".
In addition to "over-riding automatic pilot", what are two critical characteristics of executive functioning. (Not specific symptoms).
Regulates *goal-oriented* behavior, provides *internal presentations* using images, symbols, language. For example, in the WAIS-III "digits reversed task" or "number-letter sequencing", you use a "mental blackboard" to internally represent and manipulate information.
What two WAIS-III tasks measure "active" rather than "passive" working memory? Why?
digits-backward, letter-number sequencing. Because they require active manipulation of information in one's "mental blackboard" or "mind's eye".
What WAIS-III task measures "passive" working memory? Is this a good measure of executive functioning?
digits-forward. No, it's not a very good measure of executive functioning.
What is the internal capsule, and what is its location relative to the basal ganglia?
The internal capsule is a continuation of the corona radiata as it "funnels" down into more compact tracts. Location: Passes through the gaps between cellular bridges, on its way downward.
True or False: When the internal capsule passes through the cellular bridges in the basal ganglia, it passes behind the putamen and in front of the caudate.
True. The internal capsule is always laternal (towards outside) of the caudate and medial (towards center of the brain) to the putamen/globus pallidus.
What structures comprise the lenticular (lentiform) nucleus.
Putamen and globus pallidus (the "hub" in the model which we created).
The putamen and globus pallidus together comprise the _______________________
lenticular nucleus (because it looks like a lentil).
The caudate and putamen together comprise the ______________.
Striatum
Name the structures which comprise the striatum.
Caudate and putamen
The head of the caudate connects primarily to the ___________ lobe, the body of the caudate to the ___________ lobe, and the tail to the ____________ lobe.
frontal, parietal, temporal. (Remember by visualizing what these structures are closest to within the brain.)
The tail of the caudate ends in the _________________.
temporal lobe
Why is the basal ganglia sometimes referred to as the "procedural learning unit" of the brain?
Because it allows the individual to learn preprogrammed routines (procedures). These include routines related to thinking (e.g., learned strategies, rules of arithmetic, rules related to reading) which allow efficient functioning. It ALSO contains preprogrammed routines for purely motor processing--e.g., knowing how to use a knife and fork, how to take a shower, riding a motorcycle.
Why might dyslexia involve *basal ganglia* impairment in addition to the better recognized angular-gyrus impairment?
Basal ganglia has been referred to as a "procedural learning unit"--procedural learning may involve the foundation skills/rules involved in phonics and other rule-oriented aspects of early reading skills. Rules of arithmetic might also be affected.
How might the basal ganglia be involved in basic mechanical arithmetic skills (e.g., long division)?
The basal ganglia includes the ability for "procedural learning". And mechanical arithmetic is basically a set of algorithms (rules/procedures)--for example, the rules involved in long-division, subtraction, and the like.
In addition to the better recognized "prototype" disorders associated with the basal ganglia, what are two other disorders probably associated with basal ganglia abnormalities?
OCD, Tourette's disorder.
What are the two general types of "frontal network syndrome?"
1) Dysexecutive (Cognitive)--e.g., inability to multitask, poor working memory),
2) Emotional/psychiatric (remember Phineas Gage?), involving disinhibition, impulsivity, poor social judgment.
Virtually all inputs to the basal ganglia arrive in the
s_________, which consists of the c______ and
p_______.
Striatum, caudate, putamen
The p________ is the most important input nucleus
for motor control pathways in the basal ganglia.
putamen
Basal ganglia output arises primarily in the g_______p_______
and the s________ n______.
globus pallidus, substantia nigra
Multiple Choice: The substantia nigra is located in the (medulla / pons / cerebellum / midbrain / diencephalon / telencephalon)
Midbrain
Multiple Choice: The basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) is located in the (medulla / pons / cerebellum / midbrain / diencephalon / telencephalon)
telencephalon (Recall that the large top of the brain, which sits on the "stalk" of the midbrain, consists of two parts: diencephalon + telencephalon).
Information is transmitted to the entire frontal cortex
from the basal ganglia via the _______, the great "relay" center of the brain.
thalamus
Loss of the neurotransmitter _________ within the basal ganglia, will result in net inhibition of the
thalamus. This may account for paucity of movement
in patients with Parkinson's disease.
dopamine
The ________ pathway travels from the striatum and has a net
excititory on behavior, while the ________ pathway has a net inhibitory effect.
direct, indirect. (MNEMONIC: "INdirect" = INhibitory").
In Parkinson's disease, it makes sense that the ________ pathway is somehow impaired, causing a reduction in excitation to the brain, and slowed movement/thinking.
direct (The excitatory influence of the direct pathway is reduced, causing slowed movement/thinking).
In Hungtington's disease, it makes sense that the __________ pathway is somehow impaired, causing a net increase in movement.
indirect pathway. (The inhibitory influence of the indirect pathway is lost, causing uncontrolled movement).
The slowed movement and the thinking of Parkinson's is called __________ and _________, respectively.
bradykinesia, bradyphrenia
The wild, "flailing" movements of Huntington's are called b______________.
ballismus.
Multiple Choice: Glutamate is primarily an (excitatory/inhibitory) neurotransmitter.
excitatory
Multiple Choice: GABA is primarily an (excitatory/inhibitory) neurotransmitter.
inhibitory
True or False: GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, occurring in 30-40% of all synapses
True.
True or False: The major "workhorse" neurotransmitters of the brain are glutamic acid (=glutamate) and GABA
True
Slow clumsy stiff movements and hyperreflexia resulting from corticospinal, upper motor neuron lesions are called s_________. By contrast, abnormal movements caused by basal ganglia dysfunction may be referred to as dyskinesia, meaning simply “abnormal movement.”
Spasticity
Irregular, uncoordinated movements used by lesions of cerebellar circuitry are generally called a________
ataxia
A "resting tremor" is typical of ___________ disease. This is also called a ________-rolling tremor.
Parkinson's, pill-rolling
True or False: An "intentional" tremor (e.g., tremor when pointing or eating) is typical of Parkinson's Disease
False. A *resting" (pill-rolling) tremor is typical of parkinsons. Intentional tremors are more often associated with cerebellar dysfunction.
Information is transmitted to the entire frontal cortex
from the basal ganglia via the _______, the great "relay" center of the brain.
thalamus
Loss of the neurotransmitter _________, will result in net inhibition of the
thalamus. This may account for paucity of movement
in patients with Parkinson's disease.
dopamine
The ________ pathway travels from the striatum and has a net
excititory on behavior, while the ________ pathway has a net inhibitory effect.
direct, indirect. (MNEMONIC: "INdirect" = INhibitory").
In Parkinson's disease, it makes sense that the ________ pathway is somehow impaired, causing a reduction in excitation to the brain, and slowed movement/thinking.
direct (The excitatory influence of the direct pathway is reduced, causing slowed movement/thinking).
In Hungtington's disease, it makes sense that the __________ pathway is somehow impaired, causing a net increase in movement.
indirect pathway. (The inhibitory influence of the indirect pathway is lost, causing uncontrolled movement).
Woodie Guthrie is probably the best known victem of __________ disease. He also exibited many of the psychiatric symptoms of this disease later in his illness (e.g., paranoia, rage, disinhibition)
Huntington's disease
Which of these disorders is typically caused by a dominant gene (50% of relatives will have the disease): Parkinson's, Huntington's, Wilson's, Gilbert's, Alzheimer's
Huntington's
The pathological hallmark of Huntington’s disease is progressive atrophy of the striatum, especially involving the ____________ nucleus.
caudate.
True or False: Atrophy of the caudate and putamen can lead the lateral ventricles to appear enlarged on the CT and MRI scans.
True. (EXTRA CREDIT: Dilation of the ventricles which is due to atrophy of the brain rather than pressure within the ventricles is called "ex vacuuo" hydrocephalus).
Parkinson’s symptoms nearly always improve after treatment with _______.
Levodopa (increases the amount of dopamine available to the basal ganglia).
The putamen and the globus pallidus (the "hub" of the basal ganglia) together are named the ______________.
Lenticular nucleus
Multiple choice: Ataxia is a movement disorder specific to the cerebellum, and is always (ipsilateral/contralateral) to the side of the cerebellar lesion.
Ipsilateral. (Unlike virtually every other neurological symptom!).
Truncal ataxia (wide-spaced, "drunken" gait/walking) can be caused by lesions in what part of the cerebellum
cerebellar vermis (part of the flocculonodular lobes).
The cerebellum is attached to the brainstem by the superior, middle, and inferior _________ __________.
cerebral peduncles (also known as the "crus cerebri")
True or False: The cerebellum has more neurons than the *cerebral* cortex.
True!
The major recognized function of the cerebellum is ___________ planning. However, it also appears to have an important role in intellectual functioning (such as planning), as well.
motor
Which part of the cerebellum is primarily responsible for motor planning?
The lateral part (also the largest part).
Like the cerebellum, the basil ganglia provide complex feedback loops that influence descending m__________ p___________.
motor pathways (they smooth and refine movements, making them more exact.)
The intrinsic connections of the basal ganglia circuitry can be divided into a ________ pathway from the striatum to the output nuclei and an __________ pathway that reaches the output nuclei via a detour through the _____________.
direct, indirect; the subthalamic nucleus
The striatum includes the _________ and _________, while the lentiform nucleus includes the _________ and the _________ __________.
caudate and putamen; putamen and globus pallidus
Multiple choice: The striatum tends to be primarily (input/output), while the globus pallidus is primarily (input/output).
input, output.
In addition to the general motor functions, the basal ganglia are also involved in what other types of functions?
Eye movements, frontal executive functioning and limbic pathways
Of the four basal ganglia functions described in the text (mnemonic: COME), which function is BY FAR the most important for neuropsychology?
cognitive (executive) functioining. (This typically involve the caudate nucleus, which has MASSIVE connections with the frontal lobe).
Which component of the basal ganglia is BY FAR the most important for neuropsychology?
The caudate, because of its role in executive functioning.
The input of the general motor channel primarily enters what part of the basal ganglia?
Putamen
The ______ ______ is important in the limbic circuitry and is often considered part of the striatum because of its similar embryological development and input and output connections.
Ventral striatum (especially the "nucleus accumbens", located where the putamen and caudate meet, bottom side).
________________ Disease is hereditary and usually begins between 30 and 50 years of age, whereas _______________ Disease is much less hereditary, and primary causes are largely unknown.
Huntington's Disease, Parkinson's Disease
Asymetrical resting tremor, "cogwheel" rigidity, unsteady gait and postural instability are symptoms of _____________ disease.
Parkinson's Disease
Why might the basal ganglia be involved dyslexia (along with the recognized role of the angular gyrus).
Because the basal ganglia are involved in "procedural learning". (EXPLANATION: Like riding a motorcycle, learning to read involves *automatic* foundational skills, such as automatically sounding out words, syllables and letters. If this automaticity fails, then the child may have reading problems.)
Why might the basal ganglia be involved in the ability to plan and think "strategically" (e.g. in chess), Tower of London test.
Because they allow the individual to develop a set of automatic routines/strategies/approaches to problem solving. For example, grand-master chess champions can automatically "see" a series of moves, far in advance of a new player.
Why do you think that the basal ganglia atrophy involved in Huntington's disorder might cause psychiatric symptoms (e.g., paranoia, rage, obsessive compulsive disorder).
The basal ganglia is connected with the limbic system (especially the nucleus accumbens), and the limbic system is involved with emotional functioning.
Why do you think Tourette's Disorder and OCD are probably related to basal ganglia disorder?
Because both involve disorders of motor movement and planning--specifically, invocation of *stereotyped motor routines*.
True or False: OCD and Tourette's are probably related to basal ganglia disorder (at least in many cases)
True. Basal ganglia influence is especially well recognized in Tourette's Disorder.
What are the three most common symptoms of Tourette's Disorder.
Motor/vocal "tics", OCD, ADD
Why do you think that Tourette's disorder might be associated with attentional difficulties (e.g., ADD)?
Because the basal ganglia (the probable focus of Tourette's) has a major role in cognitive funtioning--so strategic regulation/modulation of attention may be affected.