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56 Cards in this Set

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GERD-enhancing foods
tomato-based products, alcohol, citric juices, chocolate, peppermint, alcohol, colas
COX1 vs. COX2 enzyme
COX1 --> maintains protective gastric mucosa, perfusion of kidneys

COX2 --> prostaglandins production causing inflammatory response and pain
Celebrex which selective of which enzyme?
COX2
H2 blockers for what type of ulcer?
duodenal ulcer
AST high
ALT normal
long-standing Alcohol abuse
Statin
Tylenol
how does excess bilirubin affect drugs?
displaces drugs with high propensity for protein albumin binding, thus increasing free drug --> toxicity of drug
how does sildenafil work?
enhances effects of nitric oxide, which relaxes smooth muscles in penis during sexual stimulation and allows for increased blood flow.

Avoid drugs with nitrates because nitrates can cause hypotension while pt is on sildenafil.
Reiter Syndrome
reactive arthritis
classic tetrad: urethritis, conjunctivitis, mucocutaneous lesions, arthritis
what hepatic enzymes elevated in cholecystitis?
- GGT and ALP
ALT > AST
- viral hepatitis
- drug or industrial-chemical induced hepatitis
L abd pain, flatus, constipation alternating with diarrhea, cramping
diverticuLOSIS
diarrhea, high fever, pain, leukocytosis
diverticuLITIS (no constipation)
You suspect H. pylori. What diagnostic testing do you order?
stool antigen test (or serum titers)
Why is serologic titers for H. pylori not desired?
- may take years to decline even after effective tx

- undetectable titers takes as long as 12-18 months
drug supplements to reduce colorectal CA risk?
ASA
Ca2+
antioxidants
prerenal azotemia causes
DECREASED CIRCULATING BLOOD VOLUME

CHF
dehydration
blood loss
BUN is breakdown of?
Cr is breakdown of?
BUN - food
Cr - muscles
common gram (-) UTI infections.
e. coli
proteus mirabilis
klebsiella pneumoniae
common gram (+) UTI infection
Staph saprophyticus
+ leukocyte esterases in UA microscopic means...?
UTI with common urea-splitting bacteria:
proteus, klebsiella, staph.

E.coli is NOT urea-splitting.
Tx of chancroid
azithro
cipro
ceftriaxone
Tx uncomplicated gonococcal proctitis (inflammation of lining of rectum)
ceftriaxone 125mg IM x1
pathogens causing bacterial prostatitis in older men.
e. coli
pseudomonas species
enterococci (+)
PSA > 10ng/ml makes you suspect?
prostate CA
sequelae of genital HPV in a man
anorectal carcinoma
earliest sign of osteoporosis
back pain
pt can't squat or kneel and has pain, suspect?
meniscal tear (large, complete, bucket-handle)
biggest side effect of SSRIs
sexual dysfunction
glucosamine does what?
- rebuilds damaged joint cartilage
intervention for osteoporosis with joint effusion
corticosteroid injection
type of exercise to stabilize knee joint with meniscal tear
straight-leg raising to strengthen quadriceps
pain during straight-leg test --> which nerves affected
L5-S1
cauda equina syndrome
- compression of lower portion of nerve root inferior to spinal cord, secondary to disk herniation

- rectal or perineal pain, disturbance in bowel and bladder function
teenager c/o excessive SOB with increasing activity (running)
aortic stenosis due to leaflet fusion of a 3-cusp valve, which becomes a congential BIcuspid (instead of TRIcuspid)
what nerve?

loss of posterior tibial reflex
L5
what nerve?

loss of achilles tendon?
L5-S1
Spurling test is elicited how?

It diagnoses?
- apply pressure to top of head with neck bending forward producing pain or numbness in upper extremities while pt lying supine

- acute cervical radiculopathy
common cervical disk lesion site
C5-C6
pt on coumadin still clots, next step?
IVC filter
how long does it take for onset of warfarin's action?
3-5 days
what test must be ordered before going to surgery of LE occlusive disease?
angiography
How long does Troponin I last?

What is the difference between Troponin I and C?
Troponin increases rapidly during MI, and lasts for 198 hrs after MI

Troponin I is more cardiac specific and sensitive to a small-volume myocardial damage

Troponin I results are also quickly available
uncomplicated UTI, resistant to Bactrim and cipro, Rx:
Nitrofurantoin x 7 days and Pyridium
What are medications to add in each COPD stage?
Stage 1: albuterol + flu vaccine
Stage 2: tiotroprium, atrovent (or some long-acting bronchodilator)
Stage 3: ICS
Stage 4: O2 therapy
holosystolic murmur
mitral regurg
crescendo-decrescendo heart murmur
aortic stenosis
late systolic click
MVP
mid-late diastolic low rumble
mitral stenosis
blowing high pitch heart murmur
aortic regurg
diastolic decrescendo
aortic regurg
Heart murmur grade with a thrill
Grade III and up
direct vasodilators for HTN
hydralazine
minoxidil
emphysema definition
PERMANENT ENLARGEMENT of air spaces that are distal to the terminal bronchiole WITHOUT FIBROSIS
When is CK-MB useful?
- limited in detect MI because increases rapidly during first 6-12 hours post-MI

- decreases 24-48 hrs after MI and returns to normal after 60 hrs
- lots of false + and false -
cTnI is consistently high. What will happen to the pt?
increased mortality within 42 hrs
What is raloxifene (Evista)
E receptor modulator

(doesn't not attach to E sites of breast or uterus)