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19 Cards in this Set

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Westminster Model
A majoritarian and adversarial type of parlimentary government where the party that forms government also holds power in a fused legislative and executive branch. First discussed in the Lijphart reading. It is significant because it was the model used by Britian and many former British colonies. It was also the first type of democratic government and so can give insight into the study of others for comparative politics.
First past the post
a voting system in which a single winner is chosen in a given constituency by having the most votes, regardless of whether or not he or she has a majority of votes. First discussed in lecture. Important for comparative politics because it is a voting system used in some countries and can lead to overrrepresented party majorities that influence policymaking there.
Nation
A group of people with a common identity about their cultural heritage towards a section of territory. First addressed by the book but also discussed in Migdal and lecture. Important because nation-building is one of the 4 steps of state formation.
Structural theories of the state
A theory of the state that has little emphasis on the individual institutions of government. The state stands above society. the theory focuses on the state's capacity, or power to carry out interests
Cultural theories of the state
The State as theatre. Politics are sybolic and reflective of society. Institutions may reflect symbolic roles. First brought up by Migdal and supplemented by lecture.
Historical institutionalism
A theory focused on cultural and historical "moments". Explanations of the state look to the past events of a state to understand motivations, causes, etc.
Rational Choice institutionalism
Institutions are the aggregation of prefrences. Repeated actions of individuals i.e. traditions are counted as institutions. There is little focus on the state as a different body. Outcomes are determined by competition and bargaining.
4 qualities of democratic states
Citizens rights, elections where the outcome is not predetermined. Constitutions. and redistrubution.
Stages of state development
state formation, nation building, equalization of citizenship, welfare states.
Presidential system
Pres is directly elected. Head of government and/or head of state. Responsible for implementation
Semi Presidential
President is directly elected, shares power with appointed PM. Pres can dissolve parliment.
Parlimentary system
Unifed executive and legislative branch. Executive is cabinet. Vote of No Confidence can removed PM and cabinet. PM often not Head of state. Elections not regularly set, only maximun term.
Corpratism
Peak associations. Interest groups brought into policy making and bargaining process, debate parties formally.
Consensual government
A form of government in which minority groups are still included in the policy formation process. There is an effort to represent as many groups as possible.
Constitution
A set of fundamental laws that determines the central institutions and offices and powers and duties of the state
Judicial review
The binding power of courts to provide an authoritiative interpretation of laws, including constitutional law andto overturn executive actions the hold to be illegal or unconstitutional
judicial activism
the courts taking a broad and active view of their tole as interpreters of the constitution and reviews of executive and legislative action
ombudsman
a state official appointed to recieve and investigate claims of malconduct by administration
Legilative oversight
the role of the legislatures that involves the scrutiny or supervision of other branches of government. especially the executive and the public bureaucracy