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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Afrocentric perspective
Emphasizes the customs of African Cultures and how they pervaded the history, culture, and behavior of Blacks in the U.S. and around the world
The process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage
2nd Pattern
An indigenous group is incorporated into another society
The process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group and is eventually accepted as part of that group
Five Reasons Assimilation would take longer for some groups
Differences between minority and majority are large
Majority is not receptive or minority retains its culture
Minority group arrives over a short period of time
Minority group residents are concentrated rather than dispersed
Arrival is recent and the homeland is accessible
The Pluralist Perspective
The use of two or more languages in places of work or education with each language being treated as equally legitimate
Biological Race
Idea of Biological Race is based on mistaken notion of a genetically isolated human group
Genetic traits are continuous so it is impossible to state where one group begins and ends and another starts
Within group, variations are greater than differences between groups
Each trait is independent from the other
Human species contain no subgroups
Blaming The Victim
portraying the problems of racial and ethnic minorities as their fault rather than recognizing society’s responsibility
People who share similar wealth, according to Weber’s definition
Upward mobility may be difficult for subordinate group members faced with lifelong prejudice and discrimination
Ethnic and racial stratification
The structure and process by which race and ethnicity determines life chances and access to socially desirable resources such as housing, justice, education, wealth, power, etc.
3rd Pattern
The political, socio-cultural and economic domination of an indigenous population by a foreign power
Leaving your native country to settle in another.
Occurs when a minority and majority group combine to form a new group
Gender Groups
such as women who are set apart on the basis of sex
Systematic extermination of subordinate group at the hands of the dominant group
increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence
1st Pattern
Immigration may be voluntary or it may be involuntary
Populations usually migrate because of a combination of push and pull factors
within the same ethnicity, race or gender group
Internal Colonialism
inequalities between regions within a single society
Labeling Theory
Attempt to explain why certain people are viewed as deviant and others engaging in the same behavior are not
Majority Group
group with most individuals, can be in terms of race, gender or ethnicity
Melting Pot
Diverse racial or ethnic groups form a new creation, a new cultural identity
1st Pattern
Immigration may be voluntary or it may be involuntary
Populations usually migrate because of a combination of push and pull factors
Minority Group Characteristics
Members experience a pattern of disadvantage or inequality
Share a visible trait or characteristic that differentiates them from other groups
Self-Conscious social unit
Membership determined at birth
Marry within group
The structured ranking of entire groups that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society
boundaries expand beyond
national origins to encompass a range of groups perceived to share some structural or cultural
Implies that various groups in a society have mutual respect for one another’s culture, a respect that allows minorities to express their own culture without prejudice or hostility
Pull and Push Factors
negative and positive factors that compel someone or hinder them from moving
Racial Formation
process by which individuals are defined
Racial Group
are groups that are set apart on the basis of obvious physical differences within a society
What is obvious is relative to the group or society
The feeling that certain groups or races are inherently superior to others
Stratification by Class and Gender
A group ceases to be a subordinate group when it secedes to form a new nation or moves to an established nation, where it becomes dominant
The physical separation of two groups in residence, workplace, and social functions, generally imposed by the dominant group
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true
World Systems Theory
an approach to social analysis and social change, derived from two key intellectual sources, the neo-Marxist literature on development and the French Annales School
All-Weather Bigot
Prejudiced Discriminator
All-Weather Liberal
Unprejudiced Non-Discriminator
Authoritarian Personality
number of qualities that predict one's potential for fascist and antidemocratic leanings and behaviors
Bogardus Scale
measures people's willingness to participate in social contacts of varying degrees of closeness with members of diverse social groups
Contact Hypothesis
a way to create harmony among groups that are experiencing conflict
Behavior that deprives a group of certain rights or opportunities
the viewpoint that “one’s own group is the center of everything,” against which all other groups are judged
Ethnic slurs that include derisive nicknames and include speaking about or to members of a particular group in a condescending way
Exploitation Theory
Prejudice is rationally and economically motivated on the basis of self interests
The dominant group benefits from prejudice in that it is rooted within the exploitation of a group
Criticisms of Exploitation Theory
Not all subordinate groups are exploited equally
Prejudice occurs for reasons other than economic
Prejudice is not necessarily rational and may undermine dominant group interests
Intergroup Hostility
Content and extent of prejudice and stereotypes between ethnic - racial groups
Members of oppressed groups have adopted the widely held beliefs of the dominant culture concerning oppressed groups
Preconceived notions that we give to those that surround us
LaPiere's study
Exposed the relationship between racial attitudes and social conduct
Traveled with a Chinese couple across the United States
Despite alleged intolerance, couple was treated courteously at hotels, motels, and restaurants
Merton's typology
points out that people do not always act as they believe
normative approach
prejudice is patterned into the cultural norms and values of a group or society
Prejudice is a function of conforming to group norms of intolerance
Negative attitude that rejects an entire group
• Four theories: Scapegoating
Authoritarian Personality
racial profiling
Any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the person’s behavior
Can be an explicit use of stereotypes
reluctant liberal
unprejudiced, discriminator
scapegoating theory
occurs when an individual (group) projects and blames their own inadequacies or problems onto another group
social distance
The tendency to approach or withdraw from a racial group
Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account
Stereotypes are often exaggerated and negative images of a group
Stereotypes come from a variety of sources
a kernel of truth
the media
but power plays a role in their effect
timid bigot
prejudiced nondiscriminator
absolute deprivation
Implies a fixed standard based on a minimum level of subsistence below which families should not be expected to exist
affirmative action
The positive effort to recruit subordinate-group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
Today, has become a catchall term for racial preference programs and goals
Lightning rod for opposition to any programs that suggest special consideration of women and racial minorities
Brown v. Board of Education
separate but equal
The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons
Disparity in income between Black women and White men has remained unchanged for over fifty years
dual labor market model
According to this model, minorities have been relegated to the informal economy
Informal economy offers few safeguards against fraud or malpractice
Few fringe benefits such as stability, wages, health insurance, and pension
Criticized for promoting unfair and dangerous working conditions
Workers are ill prepared to enter the regular economy permanently
glass ceiling
Refers to the barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership
Barriers contribute to women not moving into ultimate decision-making positions in the nation’s corporate giants
glass escalator
Refers to the male advantage experienced in occupations dominated by women
Men who chose to enter female-dominated occupations are often rewarded with promotions and positions of responsibility coveted by their fellow female workers
glass wall
Additionally, they face glass walls that block lateral moves to areas from which executives are promoted
informal economy
Consists of transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government
institutional discrimination
The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
Institutional forms of discrimination are committed collectively against a group
May be unconscious - in that it is
not a function of awareness of
irregular or underground economy
Consists of transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government
The regular labor market operates according to the principles of the conventional labor market
Irregular economy
operates outside the boundaries of the regular economy as it relates to job stability, wages, working conditions or benefits
The pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods
relative deprivation
The conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities
reverse discrimination
An emotional term because it conjures up the notion that somehow women and minorities will subject White men in the U.S. to the same treatment received by minorities during the last three centuries
Supporters of affirmative action
As long as businesses rely on informal social networks, personal recommendations, and family ties, White men will have a distinct advantage built on generations of being in positions of power
total discrimination
=past+current labor market
Past discrimination carries into the present and future
No inherited wealth is element of the past
Less opportunity of Blacks to accumulate assets