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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alzheimer's disease
most common cause of demential in the elderly
What histological findings is Alzheimer's disease associated with?
senile plaques (beta-amyloid core)
neurofibrillary tangles (abnormally phosphorylated tau protein)
Pick's disease
clinically resembles Alzheimer's disease, however, atrophy can be unilateral
What is Pick's disease characterized by?
marked cortical atrophy (esp. temporal & frontal lobes) - knife-like gyri
swollen neurons
Pick bodies (round intracytoplasmic inclusions consisting of neurofilaments)
Huntington's disease
atrophy of caudate nucleus (loss of GABAnergic neurons)
Chromosome 4 - expansion of CAG repeats
loss of ACh and GABA
Parkinson's disease
Lewy bodies, depigmentation of SN (loss of dopaminergic neurons)
What are the clinical signs of Parkinson's disease?
Tremor at rest
cogwheel Rigidity
Postural instability
Exposure to MPTP has been linked to what disease?
Parkinson's disease
epidural hematoma
rupture of middle miningeal artery
often secondary to fracture of temporal bone
subdural hematoma
rupture hematoma
venous bleeding w/ delayed onset of symptoms
In what population are subdural hematomas more frequently seen?
elderly, alcoholics, blunt trauma
subarachnoid hemorrhage
rupture of an aneurysm (usually Berry aneurysm) or an AVM
pts. complain of the "worst headache ever"
bloody xanthochromic spinal tap
parenchymal hematoma
HTN, amyloid angiopathy, DM, tumor
Berry aneurysm
occur at bifurcations in circle of Willis (most common site is bifurcation of ant. communicating artery)
What happens in a Berry aneurysm rupture?
hemorrhagic stroke/subarachnoid hemorrhage
What are Berry aneurysms associated with?
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Marfan's syndrome
multiple sclerosis
demyelinating disease
increased prevalence w/ increased distance from equator
What is the classic triad of multiple sclerosis?
Scanning speach
Intention tremor
Multiple sclerosis affects what population the most?
women in 20s and 30s
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
most often caused by JC polyoma (papovavirus)
rapidly progressive multiple foci of demyelination in the brain
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with what disease?
immunodefficiency (2-4% AIDS)
Guillian-Barre syndrome
AKA idiopathic polyneuritis
inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves and motor fibers of ventral roots (sensory effect less severe than motor)
associated w/ infections (e.g., herpesvirus, Campylobacter jejuni)
What is seen clinically w/ Guillian-Barre syndrome?
symmetric ascending muscle weakness beginning in distal lower extremities
What lab findings are seen in Guillian-Barre syndrome?
elevated CSF protein w/ normal call count
elevated protein -> papilledema
infection by poliovirus (transmitted fecal-orally)
destruction of cells in ant. horn of spinal cord -> LMN lesion
What are the major causes of seizures in children?
genetic, infection, trauma, congenital, metabolic
What are the major causes of seizures in adults?
tumors, trauma, stroke, infection
What are the major causes of seizures in the elderly?
stroke, tumor, trauma, metabolic, infection
Broca's aphasia
nonfluent aphasia w/ intact comprehension
Where is Broca's area?
left inferior frontal gyrus
Wernicke's aphasia
fluent aphasia w/ impaired comprehension
Where is Wernicke's area?
left superior temopral gyrus
Horner's syndrome
Ptosis - slight drooping of eyelid
Anhidrosis - absence of sweating
Miosis - pupil constriction
What tumor is Horner's syndrome associated with?
Pancoast's tumor
enlargement of the central canal of spinal cord -> damages crossing fibers of spinothalamic tract
What does syringomyelia cause?
bilateral loss of pain and temp sensation in upper extremities w/ preservation of touch sensation
Syringomyelia often presents in patients w/ what malformation?
Arnold-Chiari malformation
At what spinal level are syringomyelia's most common?
Chiari malformation
extra cerebellum crowding the outlet of thee brainstem/spinal cord from the skull
tabes dorsalis
degeneration of dorsal columns and dorsal roots due to tertiary syphilis -> imparied proprioception and locomotor ataxia
Tabes dorsalis is associated w/ what clinical signs?
Charcot's joints
shooting (lightening) pain
Argyll robertson pupils (reactive to accommodation but not to light)
absence of deep tendon reflexes