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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Source of Gastrin?
G cells (antrum of stomach)
Source of CCK?
I cells (duodenum, jejunum)
Source of Secretin?
S cells (duodenum)
Source of Somatostatin?
D cells (pancreatic islets, GI mucosa)
Source of GIP?
K cells (duodenum, jejunum)
Source of VIP?
Parasympathetic ganglia in sphincters, gallbladder, SI
Source of Motilin?
SI
Source of Histamine?
ECL Cells
Source of Intrinsic factor?
Parietal Cells
Source of Gastric Acid?
Parietal Cells
Source of Gastric Acid?
Parietal cells (stomach)
Source of Pepsin?
Chief cells (stomach)
Source of HCO3?
Mucosal cells (stomach, duodenum, salivary glands, pancreas and Brunner's glands in the duodenum)
Action of Gastrin?
Increase gastric H+ secretion
Increase growth of gastric mucosa
Increase gastric motility
Action of CCK?
Increase pancreatic secretion
Increase gallbladder contraction
Decrease gastric emptying, sphincter of Oddi relaxation
Action of Secretin?
Increase pancreatic HCO3- secretion
Increase Bile secretion
Decrease Gastric Acid secretion
Action of Somatostatin?
Decrease GA and pepsinogen secretion
Decrease pancreatic and SI fluid secretion
Decrease gallbladder contraction
Decrease insulin and glucagon release
Action of GIP?
Exocrine: Decrease gastric H+ secretion
Endocrine: Increase insulin release
(Glucose and Gastrin Inhibitory!)
Action of VIP?
Increase intestinal water and electrolyte secretion
Increase relaxation of intestinal SM and sphincters
Action of NO?
Increase SM relaxation, including LES
Action of Motilin?
Produces Migrating Motor Complexes (MMCs)
Action of Intrinsic Factor?
Vit B12 binding protein (required for uptake in terminal ileum)
Action of Gastric Acid (GA)?
Decrease stomach pH
Action of Pepsin?
protein digestion
Action of HCO3-?
neutralizes acid
Gastrin secretion is increased by what?
Increased by stomach distention/alkalinization, AA, peptides, vagal stimulation
Gastrin secretion is decreased by what?
Decreased by stomach pH of < 1.5
CCK is increased by what?
FA, AA
Secretin is increased by what?
acid, FA in lumen of duodenum
Somatostatin is increased by what?
Acid
Somatostatin is decreased by what?
Vagal stimulation
GIP is increased by what?
FA, AA, oral glucose
VIP is increased by what?
Distention and vagal stimulation
VIP is decreased by what?
adrenergic input
Motilin is increased by what?
fasting
Gastric Acid is increased by what?
Histamine, ACh, gastrin
Gastric Acid is decreased by what?
somatostatin, GIP, prostaglandin, secretin
Pepsin is increased by what?
vagal stimulation, local acid
HCO3- is increased by what?
pancreatic and bilary secretion with secretin
What GI hormone is > in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
Gastrin
What 2 amino acids are potent stimulators of gastrin?
Phenylalanine and Tryptophan
Source of histamine in the GI tract?
ECL Cells
Action of histamine in the GI tract?
stimulate acid secretion via H2 receptors on parietal cells; > cAMP in parietal cells
RF for Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)?
Alcohol/Achalasia and Cigarettes
(SAC)
RF for Adenocarcinoma?
Barret's, Esophageal web/Esophagitis, Diverticula (Zenkers)
(BED)
Where does SCC show up in the esophagus?
Upper 2/3
Where does adenocarcinoma show up in the esophagus?
Lower 1/3
RF for Barretts
chronic GERD
Explain the metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus and in what part of the esophagus?
Glandular metaplasia: replacement of nonkeratinized (Stratified) squamous epithelium with intestinal (columnar) epithelium in the distal esophagus
Name the retroperitoneal structures
SAD PUCKER:
Suprarenal (adrenal) gland, Aorta and IVC, Duodenum, Pancreas, Ureters, Colon, Kidneys, Esophagus (lower 2/3) and Rectum (upper 2/3)