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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When does implantation happen
w/in 1 wk
When is the bilaminar disk formed
w/in 2 wks
When does gastrulation occur
w/in 3 wks
When does the primitive streak begin to form
w/in 3 wks
When does the notochord begin to form
w/in 3 wks
when does the neural plate begin to form
w/in 3 wks
When is the neural tube formed
3-8 wks
when does organogenesis occur
3-8 wks
when is susceptibility to teratogens the highest
3-8 wks
when do the limb buds begin to form
4 wks
when does the heart start to beat
4 wks
what does the surface ectoderm make
adenohypophysis, lens, epithelial lingings, epidermis
what does the neuroectoderm make
CNS but not adenohypophysis (ectoderm)
what do neural crest cells make
1) Nervous: PNS, pia/arachnoid. 2) C cells, Ch cells, EC eclls, melanocytes 3) laryngeal cartilages, skull, odontoblasts
1) dura. 2) ct/vessel/serous linings of body cavities/organs (non GI)
1) thymus, thyroid (follicular), parathyroid. 2) lungs 3) gut tube + organs (liver/panc)
induce ectoderm => neuroectoderm (neural plate => neural tube + crest cells). notochord => nucleus pulposus
teratogen: alcohol
birth defects + MR
teratgoen: ACEi
fetal renal damage
teratgoen: diethylstilbestrol
vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
teratogen: iodine
hypothyroidism or congenital goiter
teratogen: Thalidomide
limb defects (eg flipper limbs)
teratogen: tobacco
preterm labor, placental problems, ADHD
teratogen: antibiotics
SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care. Sulfonamides (kernicterus), Aminoglycosides (ototoxicity), Fluoroquinolones (cartilage), Eryhtromycin (acute cholestatic hepatitis) and clarithromycin (teratogen), Metronidazole (mutagen), Tetracycline (bone), Ribavirin (teratogen), Griseovulvin (teratogen), Chloramphenicol (grey baby syndrome)
teratogen: warfarin
bad stuff.
Monozygotic twins. How many chorions? aminotic sacs? placentas?
1 placenta, 1 chorion, 2 amniotic sacs
Dizygotic twins. How many chorions? amniotic sacs? placentas?
2 placentas, 2 chorions, 2 amniotics sacs
truncus arteriosus =>
ascending aorta + pulmonary trunk
bulbis cordis =>
smooth parts of ventricles
primitive ventricle =>
trabeculated parts of ventricles
primitive atria =>
trabeculated atria
left horn of the sinus venosus
coronary sinus
right horn of sinus venosus
smooth part of right atrium
right common cardinal vein
r common cardinal vein + r anterior cardinal vein => SVC
right anterior cardinal vein
r common cardinal vein + r anterior cardinal vein => SVC
fetal erythropoiesis
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood. Yolk sac (3-8wk), Liver (6-30), Spleen (9-28), Bone marrow (28+)
3 fetal vascular shunts + what they do
1) ductus venosus: blood from combined ubilical/portal vein to IVC, skipping liver. 2) foramen ovale: mostly oxygenated blood from RA to LA. 3) ductus arteriosus: deox blood from pulmonary trunk to descending aorta
How do the fetal vascular shunts close
1) ductus venosus? 2) take breath => pulm circuit P down, R sided P down => foramen ovale closes 3) decreased prostaglandins => close ductus arteriosis
Tx to close a PDA
Tx to keep a PDA open
umbilical vien - post natal derivative?
ligamentum teres hepatis/round ligament of liver
umbilical arteries - post natal derivative?
umbiLical arteries: mediaL ubilical ligaments
allantois - post natal derivative?
allaNtois/urachus: mediaN ubilical ligament. reminants = urachal cyst or sinus.
ductus venosus - post natal derivative?
ligamentum venosum
ductus arteriosus - post natal derivative?
ligamentum arteriosum
foramen ovale - post natal derivative?
fossa ovalis
1st aortic arch derivates
maxillary artery ("1st = max")
2nd aortic arch derivates
Stapedial + hyoid arteries ("Second => Stapedius"
3rd aortic arch derivates
common carotid + proximal internal carotid ("3rd letter = C => Common Carotid)
4th aortic arch derivates
R: proximal R subclavian. L: aortic arch. ("4th = 4 limbs = systemic distribution")
6th aortic arch derivates
pulmonary stuff. 1) pulmonary truck. 2) L: ductus arteriousus
From which germ layer? branchial pouches, clefts, arches
"CAP cover outside to inside". Cleft = ectoderm. Arch = mesoderm + neural crest. Pouches = endoderm
branchial arch derivatives: 1
a/w CN5. (A) Meckel's cartilage: 1) mandible + spenomandibular ligament 2) malleus + incus. (B) m: 1) masticationx4 2) myohyoid 3) tensor veli palatini + tensor tympani (malleus) 4) ant belly digastric, ant 2/3 tongue
branchial arch derivatives: 2
a/w CN7. (A) Reichert's cartilage: 1) Stapes 2) Styloid process, lesser horn hyoid, stylohyoid ligament (B) m: facial, stapedius, stylohyoid, post belly digastric
branchial arch derivatives: 3
a/w CN9 (glossoPHARYNGEUS). (A) greater horn hyoid. (B) m: styloPHARYNGEUS
branchial arch derivates: 4+6 (combo only)
a/w CN 10. (A) laryngeal cartilages: thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform
branchial arch derivatives: 4 only
a/q CN 10: superior laryngeal branch. (B) m: 1) pharyngeal m EXCEPT stylopharyngeus (arch 3). 2) cricothyroid 3) levator veli palatini
branchial arch derivatives: 6 only
a/w CN 10: recurrent laryngeal branch. (B) m: all intrinsic larynx EXCEPT cricothyroid (arch 4).
meckel's cartilage - branchial arch?
arch 1. 1) mandible + spenomandibular ligament 2) malleus + incus.
myohyoid - branchial arch?
arch 1.
reichert's cartilage - branchial arch?
arch 2. 1) Stapes 2) Styloid process, lesser horn hyoid, stylohyoid ligament
stylohyoid - branchial arch?
arch 2
posterior belly digastric - branchial arch?
arch 2
ant 2/3 tongue - branchial arch?
arch 1
post 1/3 tongue - branchial arch?
arch 3+4
stylopharyngeus m - branchial arch/
arch 3
crycothyroid - branchial arch?
arch 4
levator veli palatini - branch arch
arch 4
ant 2/3 tongue - sensation + taste
sensation V3. taste 7.
post 1/3 tongue - sensation + taste
sensation + taste = 9. (10 extereme post)
1st branchial cleft
external acoustic meatus
branchial clef 2-4
temporary cervical sinus. if persist => branchial cyst (neck)
1st branchial membrane
ear drum + eustachian tube
what forms the ear drum
1st branchial membrane
what forms the eustachian tube
1st branchial membrane +1st branchial pouch
branchial pouch 1 derivatives
middle ear canal, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells
branchial pouch 2 derivatives
epithelium of palatine tonsils
branchial pouch 3 derivatives (ventral and dorsal wings)
ventral wings: thymus. dorsal wings: inferior parathyroid (superior is from pouch 4!).
branchial pouch 4 derivatives
superior parathyroids (inferior is from pouch 3, dorsal wings!)
thyroid diverticulum originates where?
floor of primitive pharynx. then descends.
if thyroglossal duct persists…
pyramidal lobe of thyroid + foramen cecum
mc site of ectopic thyroid tissue
cleft lip results from
failed formation of 1° palate: failed fusion of: maxillary + medial nasal processes
cleft palate results from
failed formation of 2° palate: failed fusion of: lateral palatine processes w/ medial palatine processes or nasal septum
origin of the diaphragm
"Sloane Patented the Butt Diaphragm" Septum transversum, pleuriperitoneal folds, body wall, dorsal esophogeal mesentary
ventral pancreatic bud becomes…
head, uncinate process, main pancreatic duct
dorsal pancreatic bud becomes…
body, tail, isthmus, accessory pancreatic duct
spleen comes from…
dorsal mesentary but it's supplied by forguy artery
mesonephric/wolfian duct becomes…
SEED. epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct
paramesonephric/mullerian duct becomes…
fallopian tubes, uterus, upper part vagina (meso)
what does SRY do
sry => TDF => testes. sertoli make MIH. leydig makes T.
genital tubercle becomes
glans penis, glands clitoris
urogenital sinus
1) corpus spongiosum vs. vestibular blubs 2) bulbourethral glands of cowper vs. greater vestibular glands of bartholin 3) prostate gland vs. urethral and paraurethral glands of Skene
Urogenital folds
ventral shaft of penis (penile urethra) vs. labia minora
labioscrotal swelling
scrotum vs. labia majora