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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What histone octamers is DNA looped twice around?
H2A, H2B, H3, H4 (nucleosome bead)
What ties nucleosomes together in a string?
H1
Heterochromatin is transcriptionally (inactive/active)
Inactive (condensed)
Euchromatin is transcriptionally (inactive/active)
Active (less condensed)
What are purines; how many rings
A, G (2 rings)
What are pyrimidines; how many rings
C, T, U (1 ring)
nucleotides linked by what bond
3'-5' phosphodiesterase bonds
what is transversion?
purine for pyrimidine, or pyrimidine for purine
what is transversioni
purine for pyrimidine, or vice versa (different type)
4 features of genetic code
unambiguous, degenerate, commaless/nonoverlapping, universal
silent mutation
same aa, often base change in 3rd position of codon
missense
changed aa
nonsense
changed aa resulting in early STOP codon
frame shift
change resulting in misreading of all nucleotides downstream
Prokaryotes have (single/multiple) origins of replication
single
What histone octamers is DNA looped twice around?
H2A, H2B, H3, H4 (nucleosome bead)
What ties nucleosomes together in a string?
H1
Heterochromatin is transcriptionally (inactive/active)
Inactive (condensed)
Euchromatin is transcriptionally (inactive/active)
Active (less condensed)
What are purines; how many rings
A, G (2 rings)
What are pyrimidines; how many rings
C, T, U (1 ring)
nucleotides linked by what bond
3'-5' phosphodiesterase bonds
what is transition?
purine for purine, or pyrimidine for pyrimidine (same type)
what is transversioni
purine for pyrimidine, or vice versa (different type)
4 features of genetic code
unambiguous, degenerate, commaless/nonoverlapping, universal
silent mutation
same aa, often base change in 3rd position of codon
missense
changed aa
nonsense
changed aa resulting in early STOP codon
frame shift
change resulting in misreading of all nucleotides downstream
Prokaryotes have (single/multiple) origins of replication
single
fxs of RNA pol I, II, III (eukaryotes)
I -> rRNA, II -> mRNA, III -> tRNA
What inhibits RNA pol II
alpha-amanitin (in death cap mushrooms)
how many RNA pol in prokaryotes
one (makes all 3 kinds of RNA)
mRNA initiation codon
AUG (inAUGurates); for met or f-met
stop codons
UGA (U Go Away), UAA (U Are Away), UAG (U Are Gone)
what are regulators of gene expression
promoter, enhancer, operator
fx of promoter
where RNA pol and multiple transcription factors bind to DNA (upstream of gene locus)
fx of enhancer
alters gene expression by binding transcription factors (close to, far from, or within gene)
fx of operator
where negative regulators (expressors) bind
fx of exons
actual genetic info for protein
fx of introns
noncoding segments of DNA
what is splicing
removal of introns from primary mRNA transcripts
what binds to primary mRNA transcripts and forms spliceosomes
snRNP
Steps in RNA processing
Capping on 5' end, polyadenylation on 3' end, splicing out of introns
Initial transcript is called ___; capped and tailed transcript is called ___
hnRNA, mRNA
All tRNAs have ___ at 3' end along with a high percentage of chemically modified bases
CCA
The AA is covalently bound to the __' end of the tRNA
3'
this enzyme adds AA to tRNAs
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
A ___ tRNA reads usual codon but inserts wrong AA
mischarged
what is tRNA wobble
codons may differ in 3rd "wobble" position but still code for same tRNA/AA