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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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DNA polymerase III vs I
III--5'->3' synthesis, 3'->5' exonuclease (proofread); I--degrades RNA primer (5'->3' exonuclease), fills in gap w/DNA
nucleotide excision repair vs base excision repair
nuc--releases damaged OLIGOnucleotides (ex, in XP); base--specific glycosylases recognize and remove damaged BASES
poison from a mushroom; inhibits euk RNA pol II (mRNA); initially GI problems, rapidly results in death
different RNAs of the euk RNA polymerases
RNA pol I--rRNA; RNA pol ii--mRNA; RNA pol III--tRNA
mRNA stop codons
site where negative gene expression regulators bind
amino acid binds to which end of tRNA?
3' end (CCA end)
I cell dz
failure of addition of mannose-6-phosphate to lysosome enzymes-->enzymes secreted outside cell; get coarse facial features, clouded corneas, restricted jnt movement, high plasma lysosomal enzymes; often fatal in childhood
vesicular trafficking protein--COPI-->
retrograde, Golgi->ER
vesicular trafficking protein COPII--> ?
anterograde, RER->cis-Golgi
vesicular trafficking protein clathrin--> ?
trans-Golig-> lysosome, plasma membrane-> endosomes
type III collagen
reticulin; in skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissue, granulation tissue. Most common type of Ehrlos-Danlers involves this
type IV collagen found where?
basement membrane, basal lamina
steps of collagen synthesis
1. synthesis of preprocollagen (rER); 2. hydroxylation (ER, requires vit C); 3. glycosylation (Golgi); 4. exocytosis (still as procollagen); 5. proteolytic processing (tropocollagen); 6. crosslinking (lysyl oxidase, collagen fibrils)
which type of osteogenesis imperfecta is fatal in utero or in neonate?
type II
vimentin stains?
connective tissue
desmin stains?
cytokeratin stains?
epithelial cells
all enzymes except 1 of TCA are WHERE and where/what is the exception?
all but succinate DH are in mitochondrial MATRIX; succinate DH is in inner mitochondrial membrane (along with ETC)
irreversible enzymes in gluconeogenesis (4)
pyruvate carboxylase (mit; pyruvate->oxaloacetate); PEP carboxykinase (cyt; oxalo->PEP); F1,6BPase (cyt; F1,6BP->F6P); G6Pase (er, G6P->glucose)
most potent activator of PFK? (rate limiter of glycolysis)
F2,6BP (overrides inhibition by ATP, citrate)
what are the only purely ketogenic amino acids?
lysine, leucine
how much ATP produced per acetyl CoA in TCA cycle?
12 (3/NADH, 2/FADH2, 1/GTP)
what is rotenone
fish poison that complexes with NADH DH (complex I of ETC); NADH accumulates; but can still get electrons into ETC from FADH2
what is antimycin A?
abx that blocks passage of electrons through cytochrome b-c1 complex (ETC)
why is cyanide poisonous?
combines with cytochrome oxidase and blocks electrons->O2 in ETC; (CO does this also)
what is dinitrophenol (2,4DNP)?
ionophore that uncouples ETC
what is the enzyme of the irrerversible/oxidative reaction of PPP (HMP shunt)?
glucose phosphate DH
what is the enzyme of the reversible/nonoxidative reaction in PPP (HMP shunt)?
transketolase (requires thiamine)
essential fructosuria
defect in fructokinase (F->F1P); however, this is benign and asymptomatic, only get fructose in blood and urine
aldolase B deficiency--> ?
(AR) fructose intolerance; F1P accumulates and decreases available phosphate. This inhibits glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis; get hypoglycemia, jaundice, cirrhosis, vomiting
which 5 essential amino acids are glucogenic?
met, thr, val, arg, his
(Argh, This Here Mnemonic is Vile)
which essential amino acids are glucogenic and ketogenic?
Ile, Phe, Trp
Phe is precursor for?
tyrosine, thyroxine, DOPA, melanin, DA, NE, Epi
Tryptophan is precursor for?
niacin, serotonin, melatonin
glycine is precursos for?
porphyrin; (succinyl CoA+ glycine-> ALA, via ALA synthetase)
arginine is precursor for?
creatine, NO, urea
glutamate is precursor for?
GABA, your mom
cystinuria is inherited defect for renal transport of which amino acids?
cystine, ornithine, lysine, arginine
which GLUT is insulin responsive?
GLUT 4 (adipose, sk mm)
which GLUT is in RBCs, brain?
GLUT 2 is where?
beta islet cells, liver, kidney
which enzyme affected in a)Pb poisoning b) AIP c) PCT
a)ferrochelatase, ALA dehydrase; b) porphobilinogen deaminase (formerly known as: uroporphyrinogen I synthase); c) uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase