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64 Cards in this Set

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Bethanecol (class and application)
direct cholinomimetic, postop and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention;
Bethanecol (class and action)
direct cholinomimetic; Activates Bowel and Bladder smooth muscle; resistant to AChE
Carbachol (class and application)
direct cholinomimetic, glaucoma,
Carbachol (class and action)
direct cholinomimetic, activates ciliary muscle of the eye (open angle glaucoma), pupillary sphincter (narrow angle); resistant to ACHE
pilocarpine (class, application)
direct cholinomimetic, glaucoma,
pilocarpine (class, action)
direct cholinomimetic, activates ciliary muscle of the eye (open angle glaucoma), pupillary sphincter (narrow angle); resistant to ACHE
Neostigmine (class, application)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); postop and nuerogenic ileus and urinary retention, myesthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular junction blockade (postop)
Neostigmine (class, action)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); increased endogenous Ach
Pyridostigmine (class, application)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); myesthenia gravis
Pyridostigmine (class, action)
indirect chlinomimetic (anticholinesterase); increased endogenous Ach; increased strength
Edrophonium (class, application)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); dx of myesthenia gravis (very short acting)
Edrophonium (class, action)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); increased endogenous Ach
Physostigmine (class, application)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); glaucoma (crosses BBB) and atropine overdose
Physostigmine (class, action)
indirect cholinomimetic (anitcholinesterase); increased endogenous Ach
Echothiophate (class, application)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); glaucoma
Echothiophate (class, action)
indirect cholinomimetic (anticholinesterase); increased endogenous Ach
Symptoms of Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning
DUMB BELSS - Diarrhea, Urination, Miosis, Bronchospasm, Bradycardia, Excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, Lacrimation, Sweating and Salivation (also abdominal cramping)
What are parathion and organophosphates?
cholinesterase inhibitors that are likely to poison you
What is the antidote to cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning?
atropine (muscarinic antag) plus pralidoxime (chem antagonist used to regenerate active cholinesterase)
Atropine (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker (muscarinic antag); Eye, produce mydriasis and cycloplegia
tropicamide (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker; Eye, produce mydriasis and cycloplegia
None
Benztropine (class, site of action, application)
cholinoreceptor blocker; CNS; Parkinson's
Scopolamine (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker; CNS; Motion Sickness
Ipratropium (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker; Respiratory; Asthma, COPD
Methscopolamine (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker; Genitourinary; Reduce urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasms
oxbutin (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker; Genitourinary; Reduce urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasms
Glycopyrrolate (class, site of action, application)
Cholinoreceptor blocker; Genitourinary; Reduce urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasms
Actions of Atropine
Blocks SLUD (Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation) also pupil dilation and cycloplegia
ADR of Atropine
hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter. Also rapid pulse, constipation. Can cause glaucoma in elderly, urinary retention in BPH pts, and hyperthermia in infants
Hexamethonium (MOA and application)
Nicotinic Ach receptor antagonist; ganglionic blocker, prevents vagal reflex responses to changes in BP (for experimental models)
Epinephrine (class, selectivity, applications)
catecholamine, direct general agonist (a1, a2, b1, b2), anaphylaxis, glaucoma (open angle), asthma, hypotension
NE (class, selectivity, applications)
catecholamine, a1, a2, b1; hypotension (but decreased renal perfusion)
Isoproterenol (class, selectivity, applications)
catecholamine, b1 = b2; AV block (rare)
Dopamine (class, selectivity, applications)
catecholamine, D1 = D2 > b > a, shock (increased renal perfusion), heart failure
Dobutamine (class, selectivity, applications)
catecholamine, b1 > b2, shock, heart failure
Amphetamine (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, indirect general agonist (releases stored catecholamines); narcolepsy, obesity, ADD
Ephedrine (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, indirect general agonist (releases stored catecholamines); nasal decongestion, urinary incontinence, hypotension
Phenylephrine (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, a1 > a2, pupil dilator, vasoconstriction, nasal decongestion
Albuterol (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, b2 > b1, asthma
Terbutaline (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, b2 > b1, asthma
Cocaine (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, indirect general agonist (uptake inhibitor), causes vasoconstriction and local anesthesia
Clonidine (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, centrally acting a-agonist, decreased central adrenergic outflow; hypertension, especially with renal dz (no decreas in renal perfusion)
a-methyldopa (class, selectivity, applications)
sympathomimetic, centrally acting a-agonist, decreased central adrenergic outflow; hypertension, especially with renal dz (no decreas in renal perfusion)
Phenoxybenzamine (class, application, toxicity)
nonselective, irreversible a-blocker, pheochromocytoma; tox: orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
None
Phentolamine (class, application, toxicity)
nonselective, reversible a-blocker; pheochromocytoma, tox: orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
Prazosin (class, application, toxicity)
a1 blocker; HTN, urinary retention in BPH; tox: 1st dose orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, HA
Terazosin (class, application, toxicity)
a1 blocker; HTN, urinary retention in BPH; tox: 1st dose orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, HA
Doxazosin (class, application, toxicity)
a1 blocker; HTN, urinary retention in BPH; tox: 1st dose orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, HA
Mirtazapine (class, application, toxicity)
a2 blocker; Depression; tox: sedation, increased serum cholesterol, increased appetite
How do beta blockers work to treat HTN?
decreased cardiac output, decreased renin secretion
How do beta blockers work to treat angina?
decreased HR and CTY, resulting in decreased O2 consumption
How do beta blockers work to treat MI?
beta blockers decrease mortality
How do beta blockers work to treat SVT? Which ones?
decreased AV conduction velocity (propanolol, esmolol)
How do beta blockers work to treat CHF?
slows progression of chronic failure
How do beta blockers work to treat glaucoma (which one)?
decreased secretion of aqueous humor (timolol)
What are the toxicities of beta blockers?
impotence, exacerbation of asthma, CV (bradycardia, AV block, CHF), CNS (sedation, sleep alterations), use w/caution in DM
Which beta blockers are partial agonsists?
pindolol, labetolol
Which beta blockers are b1 selective?
A BEAM (Acebutolol Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
MOA of Epi for glaucoma? Side effects?
a-agonist, increased outflow of aqueous humor; ADR: mydriasis, stinging, NOT FOR CLOSED ANGLE
MOA of Brimonidine for glaucoma? Side effects?
a-agonist, decreased aqueous humor synth; no visual adr
MOA of beta blockers in glaucoma? Side effects?
decreased aqueous humor secretion; no visual adr
MOA of acetazolamide for glaucoma? Adr?
decreased aqueous humor secretion due to decreased HCO3- (via CA inhibition); no visual adr
MOA of cholinomimetics for glaucoma? Adr? (name some)
increased outflow of aqueous humor; contract ciliary muscle and open trabecular network; ADR: miosis, cyclospasm (pilocarpine, carbachol, physostigmine, echothiophate)
MOA of latanoprost in glaucoma? Adr?
PGF2alpha agonist, increases outflow of aqueous humor; ADR: darkens color of iris