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35 Cards in this Set

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What is Self Aid?
Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
* Bayonet
* Rifle
* Entrenching tool
* Tent poles and stakes
* Web belt
What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
What is the object of first aid
1. To stop bleeding
2. Overcome shock
3. Relieve pain
4. Prevent infection
What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11
When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
1. Open the airway and restore breathing
2. Stop the bleeding / Protect the wound
3. Prevent shock
When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
How should the ends of an improved pressure dressing be tied?
Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. DO NOT tie so tightly that it has a tourniquet-like effect.
What is manual pressure?
If bleeding continues after applying the sterile field dressing, direct manual pressure may be used to help control bleeding. Apply such pressure by placing a hand on the dressing and exerting firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes. The casualty may be asked to do this himself if he is conscious and can follow instructions.
Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding
Where is a tourniquet applied?
Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart). Never place it directly over a wound, a fracture, or joint. Tourniquets, for maximum effectiveness, should be placed on the upper arm or above the knee on the thigh.
Name 3 categories of heat injuries
1. Heat cramps
2. Heat exhaustion
3. Heat stroke
What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
1. Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs)
2. Abdominal Cramps (stomach)
3. Excessive Sweating
What is the treatment for heat cramps
1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
2. Loosen his clothing (if not in a chemical environment)

In a chemical environment, transport the heat casualty to a noncontaminated area as soon as the mission permits.

3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water. (The body absorbs cool water faster than warm or cold water; therefore, cool water is preferred if it is available.)
4. Seek medical assistance should cramps continue.
What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
1. Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
2. Headache
3. Weakness
4. Dizziness
5. Loss of appetite
6. Cramping
7. Nausea (with or without vomiting)
8. Urge to defecate
9. Chills (Gooseflesh)
10. Rapid Breathing
11. Tingling of Hands/Feet
12. Confusion
What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
2. Loosen or remove his clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment); pour water on him and fan him.
3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water.
4. Elevate his legs.
5. If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day.
6. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives.
What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
1. Skin is red, hot and dry
2. Weakness
3. Dizziness
4. Confusion
5. Headaches
6. Seizures
7. Nausea
8. Stomach pains or cramps
9. Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak.
10. Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.
What would the treatment be for heat stroke?
1. Moving him to a cool, shady area or improvising shade if none is available.
2. Loosening or removing his clothing (except in a chemical environment).
3. Spraying or pouring water on him; fanning him to permit the coolant effect of evaporation.
4. Massaging his extremities and skin, which increases the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding the cooling process.
5. Elevating his legs.
6. Having him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water if he is conscious.
7. Seek medical assistance immediately
If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway?
The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
What are two basic types of fractures?
1. Open (compound)
2. Closed (simple)
What are some signs of an open fracture?
* Bleeding.
* Bones sticking through the skin.
* Check for pulse.
What are some signs of a closed fracture?
* Swelling.
* Discoloration.
* Deformity.
* Unusual body position.
* Check for pulse.
How tight should tourniquet be?
Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
What are the three types of bleeding?
1. Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat
2. Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream
3. Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
Name 4 common points for checking pulse
1. Carotid- The side of the neck
2. Femoral- The groin
3. Radial- The wrist
4. Posterial Tibial- Ankle
What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
* Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
* Restlessness and nervousness
* Thirst
* Loss of blood
* Confusion
* Fast breathing
* Nausea or vomiting
* Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips)
* Often perspires freely
* May pass out.
What is the treatment for shock?
“P.E.L.C.R.N.” (Pronounced Pell-Crin)

* Position the casualty on their back
* Elevate the Legs
* Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
* Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
* Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
* Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
How do you stop bleeding?
* Apply a field dressing
* Manual pressure
* Elevate the limb
* Apply a pressure dressing
* Digital Pressure
* Apply a tourniquet
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
* Head injury
* Abdominal wound
* Fractured (unsplinted) leg
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
1. Responsiveness
2. Breathing
3. Pulse
4. Bleeding
5. Shock
6. Fractures
7. Burns
8. Possible concussions (head injuries)
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods?
* Two-Man Support Carry
* Two-Man Arms Carry
* Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry
* Four-Hand Seat Carry
* Two-Hand Seat Carry
Name the four types of burns
1. Thermal
2. Electrical
3. Chemical
4. Laser
What are the three categories used in medical evacuation?
1. Urgent- within 2 hours
2. Priority- within 4 hours
3. Routine- within 24 hours
What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?
1. The jaw thrust
2. Head tilt/chin lift methods