Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/134

Click to flip

134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Actinic (solar) keratosis
Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Cushing's ulcer (increase ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)
Aneurysm, dissecting
Hypertension
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
Atherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending
Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer
H. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria
meningitidis (kids)
Benign melanocytic nevus
Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder with Gplb deficiency
Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von
Willebrand's factor)
Brain tumor (adults)
Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma
multiforme) >meningioma> schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids)
Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or
supratentorial : craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast cancer
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, l in 9
women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass
L Fibrocystic change
2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign)
Fibroadenoma
Cardiac lº tumor (kids)
Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis
Cardiac manifestation of lupus
Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides
of mitral valve)
Cardiac tumor (adults)
L Metastasis
2 . 1° myxoma (4:lleft to right atrium; "ball and valve")
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive
hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
Chronic arrhythmia
Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious
anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
Compression fracture
Osteoporosis (type I : postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly
man or woman)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension
21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete
conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis
Tuberculosis (developing world) ; systemic lupus
erythematosus (developed world)
Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
LAD > RCA > LCA
Cretinism
Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
l. Corticosteroid therapy
2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
3. Small cell lung carcinoma
Cyanosis (early; less common)
Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus
arteriosus
Death in CML
Blast crisis
Death in SLE
Lupus nephropathy
Dementia
l . Alzheimer's disease
2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease in young women
Multiple sclerosis
DIC
Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn
trauma
Dietary deficit
Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx
Zenker's d iverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click
Aortic /pulmonic stenosis
Esophageal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide) ; adenocarcinoma
(U. S.)
Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)
S. aureus, B. cereus
Glomerulonephritis (adults)
Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy
Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U. S.); cervical
carcinoma (most common worldwide)
Heart murmur, congenital
Mitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid ( IV drug abuse), aortic
(2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infection (U.S.)
l . Enterobius vermicularis
2. Ascaris lumbricoides
Hematoma- epidural
Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform
shaped)
Hematoma-subdural
Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
Hemochromatosis
Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can
result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and i risk of hepatocellular
carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder
von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice
Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated
hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27
Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis,
psonas1s
HLA-DR3 or -DR4
Diabetes mellitus type l, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Holosystolic murmur
VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Hypertension, 2°
Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism
Accidental excision during thyroidectomy
Hypopituitarism
Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
Infection 2° to blood transfusion
Hepatitis C
Infections in chronic granulomatous disease
Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)
Kidney stones
l . Calcium = radiopaque
2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgarism or Staphylococcus)
3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L - R becomes R - L)
Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results
in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
Liver disease
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lysosomal storage disease
Gaucher's disease
Male cancer
Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor
Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation
l . Down syndrome
2. Fragile X syndrome
Metastases to bone
Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Metastases to brain
Lung, breast, skin (melanoma) , kidney (renal cell carcinoma) ,
GI
Metastases to liver
Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
Mitochondrial inheritance
Disease occurs in both males and fem ales, inherited through
females only
Mitral valve stenosis
Rheumatic heart disease
Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease
ALS
Myocarditis
Coxsackie B
Neoplasm (kids)
l . ALL
2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
Minimal change disease (associated with infections/
vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Neuron migration failure
Kallmann syndrome
Nosocomial pneumonia
Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Obstruction of male urinary tract
BPH
Opening snap
Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDS
Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Osteomyelitis
S. aureus
Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease
Salmonella
Osteomyelitis with IV drug use
Pseudomonas, S. aureus
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)
Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant)
Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatitis (acute)
Gallstones, alcohol
Pancreatitis (chronic)
Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML
ALL: child, CLL: adult> 60, AML: adult - 60, CML: adult
30-60
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor
I. Prolactinoma
2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Primary amenorrhea
Turner syndrome (45XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults)
Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism
l . Adenomas
2. Hyperplasia
3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis,
hemochromatosis, a-l antitrypsin)
Pulmonary hypertension
COPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor
Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau
and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes
(EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
Cor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
increase ventricular filling (L to R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV
failure [CHF])
S4 (presystolic gallop)
Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive
cardiomyopathy)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease
Chlamydia (usually connected with gonorrhea)
SIADH
Small cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticula
Sigmoid colon
Sites of atherosclerosis
Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancer
Adenocarcinoma
t(l4;l8)
Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)
Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)
Temporal arteritis
Risk of ipsilateral blindness clue to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
Thyroid cancer
Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women
Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
Tumor of infancy
Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin's
Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic
predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Type of non-Hodgkin's
Diffuse large cell
UTI
E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe
HSV-1
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)
Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only
3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
Testicular tumor
Seminoma
Cyanosis (late; more common)
VSD, ASD, PDA