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343 Cards in this Set

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"Abdominal pain, acites, hepatomegaly"
Budd-Chiari Syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Familial hypercholesterolemia
"Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC"
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)
"Arachnodactyly, lenns dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints"
Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
"Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss"
Pott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)
Big toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape
Babinski's sign (UMN lesion)
"Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis"
Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)
Blue sclera
Osteogenisis imperfecta (collagen defect)
Bluish line on gingiva
Burton's line (lead poisoning)
"Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis"
Paget's disease of bone (Increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)
"Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamaratoma)"
Neurofibromatosis type I (+ bilateral acoustic neuromas = type II)
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Muscular dysrophy (most commonly duchenne's)
"""Cherry red spot"" on macula"
"Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation, no hepatosplenomegaly) or Neimann-Pick (lysosomal storage disease)"
"Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub. Persisten fever following MI"
Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post MI fibrinous pericarditis)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Gower's sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy: X linked recessive deleted dystrophin gene)
Child with fever developes red rash on face that spreads to body
"""Slapped cheecks"" (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)"
"Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration"
Huntington's disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)
"Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps"
McArdle's disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency)
Cold intolerance
Hypothyroidism
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy horizontal diplopia
"Internuclear opthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral [stroke])"
"Continuous ""machinery"" heart murmur"
PDA (close with indomethacin; open with misoprostol)
Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connecive tissue deposition
"Myxedema (hypothyroidism, Graves' disease)"
Dark purple skin/mouth nodules
Kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS patients [gay men]: associated with HHV-8)
Deep labored breating/hyperventilation
Kussmaul breathing (diabetic ketoacidosis)
"Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea"
Pallagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)
"Dialted cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy"
Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Pasturella multicoda
"Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis"
Sjogren's syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)
"Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia"
Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)
"Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints"
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (collagen defect)
"Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node"
Virchow's node (abdominal metastasis)
"Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells"
Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)
"Fat, female, forty, and fertile"
Acute cholecystitis (bile duct blockage)
"Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis"
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)
"Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash"
Measles (Morbillivirus)
"Fever, night sweats, weight loss"
B symptoms (lymphoma)
Fibrous plaques on soft tissue of penis
Payronie's disease (connective tissue disorder)
"Gout, mental retardation, self mutilating behavior in a boy"
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency)
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)
"Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands"
Peutz-Jegers syndrome (genetic benign polyposis can cause bwel obstruction; Increased cancer risk)
"Hepatosplenomealy, osteoporosis, neurological symptoms"
Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)
"Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts"
Alport's syndrome (collagen mutation)
Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasulitis)
Trousseau's sign (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)
"Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility"
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)
"Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis"
Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism)
"Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia"
"""Blue bloater"" (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)"
"Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion (nonpainful)"
Chancre (primary syphilis: Treponema pallidum)
"Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration"
Neimann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)
"Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive and hepatomegaly"
"Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency, type III glycogen storage disease)"
"Infant with microcephaly, rocker bottom feet and structural heart defect"
Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)
"Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever"
Charcot's triad 2 (ascending cholangitis)
Keratin pearls on a skin lesion
Squamous cell carcinoma
Lage reash with bull's eye appearance
Erythema chronicum migrans from tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)
Lucid interval after treaumatic brain injury
Epidural hematoma
"Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B-cells"
Bruton's disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)
Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (defet in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)
"Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumary teeth"
"Gardner's syndrome (Autosomal dominant, type of FAP, predisposes to colon cancer)"
Necrotizing vascultits (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegner's and Goodpasture's syndromes (hemoptysis and glomerular dsease)
Neonate with arm paralysisfollowing difficult birth
"Erb-duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury ""waiter's tip"")"
"No lactation post-partum, absent menstration, cold intolerance"
Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction
"Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech"
Charcot's triad 1 (multiple sclerosis)
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF of increased intracranial pressure)
"Painful, blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia"
"Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis)"
"Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes"
Raynaud's syndrome (vasospasm in extremities)
"Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles"
Osler's node (infective endocarditis)
Painless Jaundice
Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
"Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)"
Henoch-Scholein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)
"Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors"
"Wermer's syndrome (MEN I, Autosomal dominant)"
"Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation"
"""Pink puffer"" (emphysema: centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [a1-antitrypsin deficiency])"
"Polyostic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spors, short stature in a young girl"
McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation [GNAS1])
"Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances"
"Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect), Bicarbonate loss can lead to renal tubular acidosis"
"Positive anterior ""drawer sign"""
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
"Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis"
Horner's syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)
Pupil accommodate but does not react
"Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis), Prostitute's pupil"
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Guillain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)
Rash on palms and soles
"Secondary syphilis, Rocky mountain spotted fever"
"Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE, ""cold"" staph infections"
Job's syndrome (hyper-IgE syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality [IFN-gamma deficiency])
"Red ""currant jelly"" sputum"
Klebsiella pneumoniae
"Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple.areola"
Paget's disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)
Red urine in the morning
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
"Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma"
von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation [chromesome 3p25)
"Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability"
Parkinson's disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)
"Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise tolerance, hepatomegaly"
Pompe's disease (lysosomal glucosidase deficiency [glycogen storage disease type II])
Retinal hemorrages with pale centers
Roth's spots (bacterial endocarditis)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Crigler Najjir syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
McBurney's sign (apendicitis)
"Short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia"
Fanconi's anemia (genetically inherited [AR]; often progresses to AML)
Single palm crease
Simian crease (Down syndrome)
"Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis"
Katagener's syndrome (dynein defect affecting cilia)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Addison's disease (primary adrenocortical insufficiency of autoimmune or infectious etiology)
"Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys"
"Becker;s muscular dystrophy (X-linked, defective dystropin; less severe than Duchenne's)"
"Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers"
Koplik spots (measles)
"Small, nontender, erthematous lesions on palms/soles"
Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis)
"Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals"
Condylomata lata (secondary syphilis)
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails (bacterial endocarditis)
Bacterial endocarditis
"""Strawberry tongue"""
"Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome"
"Stread ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney"
"Turner syndrome (XO, short staure, webbed neck, lymphedema) Coartation of aorta, bicuspid aortic valve"
"Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi"
Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)
"Swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin"
Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)
"Swollen, hard, painful finger joints"
"Ostearthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard's nodules], DIP [Heberden's nodules])"
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Aortic valve stenosis
"Thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal tumors"
Sipples syndrome (MEN 2A [AD])
Ulcerated genital lesion with exudate (painful)
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi [gram negative coccobacilus])
Unilateral facial drooping
(Bell's palsy (LMN CN VII palsy)
"Urethritis, conjuntivitis, arthritis in a male"
Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27)
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
"Hamgioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)"
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Schwartzman reaction (following second exposure to endotoxin)
Vomiting blood folloing esophagogastric lacerations
Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholics and eating disorders)
"""Waxy"" casts with very low urine flow"
Chronic end stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine
Acute pyelonephritis
"Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy"
Whipple disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
"""Worst headache of my life"""
Berry aneurism (associated with adult polycystic kidney disease
Anticentromere antibodies
Scleroderma (CREST)
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and lung hemorrhage)
Antihistone antibodies
Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies
"Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutoniere deformity)"
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)
"Primary biliary cirrhosis (female, chelestasis, portal hypertension)"
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
"Vasculitits (Wegner's, microscopic polyangiitis, glomerulonephritis)"
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Antiplatelet antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (bleeding diathesis)
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Anti-transglutaminase/antigliadin antibodies
"Celiac disease (diarrhea, distension, weight loss)"
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
Auer rods (acute myelogenous lesukemia: especially the promyelocytic type)
"""Bamboo spine"" on x-ray"
Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
Howell-Jolly bodies (due to spenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs
Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Bloody tap on LP
Subarachnoid hemrrhage
"""Boot-sheped"" heart on x-ray"
"Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH"
"Branching gram-positive rods with yellow pigment in cells (pus, not sulfur?)"
Actinomyces israelii
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor
Pancoast's tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)
"""Brown"" tumor of bone"
"Hemorrage (hemosiderin causes brown color of osteolytic cysts.
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chagas' diseas (Trypanosoma cruzi)
Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule
Rapidly progressve crescentic glomerulonephritis
"""Chocolate cyst"" of ovary"
Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
"Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)"
Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
Cystic fibrosis (CFTR mutation in Caucasians resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
Tabes dorsalis (Tertiary syphilis)
Depigmentation of neurons in substancia nigra
"Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tumor, bradykinesia)"
Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
Curshmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
"""Owl's eye"" appearance of CMV"
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei
"""Orphan Annie"" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)"
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
Lewey body (Parkinson's disease)
Eosinophilic globule in liver
"Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)"
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)
"Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (""owl's eye"")"
Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk-sac tumor)
"""Hair-on-end"" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray"
"B-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoesis)"
hCG elevated
"Choriocarcinoma, hydratidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)"
Heart nodules (inflammatory)
Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Heterophile antibodies
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
"Hexagonal, double pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions"
Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers
"DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC"
"""Honeycomb lung"" on x-ray"
Interstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils
"Megaloblastic anemia (B12, folate deficiency)"
"Hypochromic, microcytic anemia"
"Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)"
Increases a-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
"Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)"
Increased uric acid levels
"Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuetics"
Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies
Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or yellow fever)
Iron containing nodules in alveolar septum
Ferruginous bodies (abestosis: increased chance of mesothelioma)
"Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunocompromised"
Chediak-Higashi disease (failure of phagolysosome formation [defect in microtubular function])
Low serum ceruloplasm
Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
"Lumpy-bumpy"" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence"
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
"Lytic (""hole-punched"") one lesions on x-ray"
Multiple myeloma
"Mammary gland (""blue-domed"") cyst"
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Monoclonal antibody spike
"(1) Muliple Myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA)
Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine
"Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine]), Waldemstom's macroglobinemia (IgM)"
Mucin filled cell with peripheral nucleus
Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium enema
"""String sign"" (Crohn's diesese) "
Needle shaped negatively birefringent crystals
Gout (hyperuricemia)
Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
"""Nutmeg"" appearance of liver"
Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
"""Onion skin"" periosteal reaction"
Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round cell tumor)
"Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area"
"Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)"
Podocte fusion on EM
Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
"Polished ""ivory-like"" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion"
Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease and CJD)
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement
Glioblastoma multiforme
RBC casts in urine
Acute glomerulonephritis
"Rectangular, crystal-like inclusions in Leydig cells"
Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
Renal epithelial casts in urine
Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
"Rhomboid crystals, positively bifringent"
Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
Rib notching
Coartation of aorta
"Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells (""starry sky"" appearance on histology) "
"Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV)"
Silver staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
"Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's [fronto-temporal atrophy])"
Small granulomatous lesion in lungs (can calcify)
Ghon focus (primary tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bacilli)
"Small, round RBC inclusions"
"Heinz bodies (G6PD deficiency, a-thalassemia, chronic liver diease)"
"""Soap bubble"" on x-ray"
Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
"""Spikes"" on basement membrane, ""dome-like"" endothelial deposits"
Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome) (BM only as opposed to BM and mesangium in MPGN)
Stacks of red blood cells
Rouleaux formation (high ESR: multiple myeloma)
Stippled vaginal epithelial cells
"""Clue cells"" (Gardenerella vaginalis)"
"""Tennis racket""-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells"
Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
Thrombi made of white/red layers
"Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)"
"""Thumb sign"" on lateral x-ray"
Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
Thyroid-like appearance of kidney
Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
"""Tram track"" appearance on LM"
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Triglyceride accumultion in liver cell vacuoles
Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
"WBCs that look ""smudged"""
CLL (almost always B cell; aggects the elderly)
"""Wire-loop"" glomerular appearance on LM"
Lupus nephropathy
Yellow CSF
Xanthochromia (subarachnoid hemorrhage [bilirubin])
Actinic (solar) keratosis
Squamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Cushing's ulcer (increased ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflamation and normal colon
Skip lesions (Crohn's disease: autoimmune)
"Aneurism, dissecting"
Hypertension
"Aortic aneurism, ascending"
Tertiary syphilis
Atrophy of mammillary bodies
"Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia, and confusion)"
Autoslenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteremia/pneumonia (IV drug user)
Staphlococcus aureus
Bacteria associated with stomach cancer
H. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
"Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)"
Benign melanocytic nevus
Spitz nevus (more common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion)
Brain tumor (adults)
Supratentorial: mets>astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme)>meningioma>schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids)
Inratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supra tentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast cancer
"Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)"
Breast mass
(1) Fibrocystic change (2) Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign)
Fibroadenoma
"Bug in debilitated, hospitalized, pneumonia patient"
Klebsiella
Cardiac primary tumor (kids)
Rhabdomyoma
Cardiac manifestation of lupus
"Libman-Sacks endocarditis nonbacterial, affecting mitral)"
Cardiac tumor (adults)
"(1) Metastasis (2) Primary myxoa (4:1 left to right atrium, ""ball and valve"")"
Cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy (40% are familial)
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Arnold-Chiari malformation (often causes hydrocephalus)
Chronic arrhythmia
Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis in developing world
Tuberculosis
Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
LAD>RCA>LCA
Cretinism
Iodine deficiency/hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
(1) Corticosteroid therapy (2) Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary (Cushing's disease)
Cyanosis (early; less common)
"Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus"
Cyanosis (late; more common)
"VSD, ASD, PDA"
Death in CML
Blast crisis
Death in SLE
Lupus nephropathy
Dementia
(1) Alzheimer's disease (2) Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease
Multiple sclerosis
DIC
"Gram negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma"
Dietary deficit
Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx
Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click
Aortic/pulmonary stenosis
Esophageal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma
Food poisoning
S. Aureus
Gene involved in cancer
p53 tumor suppressor gene
Glomerulonephitis (adults)
Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecology malignancy
Endometrial carcinoma
Heart murmur
Mitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
"Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)"
Helminth infection (US)
(1) Enterobius vermicularis (2) Ascaris lumbercoides
Hematoma - epidural
Rupture of middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)
Hematoma - subdural
Rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
Hemochromatosis
Multiple blood transusions (can rsult in CHF and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder
von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice
Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjegated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27
"Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis"
HLA-DR3 or DR4
"Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE"
Holosystolic murmur
"VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation"
"Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis"
Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
"Hypertension, secondary"
Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism
Thyroidectomy
Hypopituitarism
Adenoma
Infection in blood transfusion
Hepatitis C
Kidney stones
"(1) Calcium = radiopaque
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L to R becomes R to L)
"Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)"
Liver disease
Alcoholic liver disease
Lysosomal storage disease
Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)
Male cancer
Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor
Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation
(1) Down Syndrome (2) Fragile X syndrome
Mets to bone
"Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney"
Mets to brain
"Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI"
Mets to liver
"Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, lung carcinomas"
Mitral valve stenosis
Rheumatic heart disease
Motor neuron disease
ALS
Myocarditis
Coxsackie B
Neoplasm (kids)
(1) ALL (2) Cerebellar medulloblastma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
Membranous glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Obstruction of male urinary tract
BPH
Opening snap
Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDS
Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Organ receiving mets
Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
Organ sending mets
"Lung>breast, stomach"
Osteomyelitis
S. Aureus
Osteomyelitis in patents with sickle cell disease
Salmonella
Osteomyelitis in patents with IV drug use
Pseudomonas
Ovarian metastasis from gastic carcinoma or breast cancer
Krukenberg tumor (mucin secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign)
Serous cystadenoma (ciliary epithelium)
Ovarian tumor (malignant)
Serous cystadenocarcinoma (ciliary epithelium)
Pancreatic tumor
Adenocarcinoma (head of the pancreas)
Pancreatitis (acute)
EtOH and gallstones
Pancreatitis (chronic)
"EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)"
Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
"ALL: child, CLL: adult>60, AML: adult<60, CML: adult 35-50"
Patient with Hodgkin's disease
Young male (except nodular sclerosis type: female)
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philidelphia chromesome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor
"(1) Prolactinoma (2) Somatotrophc ""acidophilic"" adenoma"
"Pneumonia, hospital aquired"
Klebsiella
Primary amenorrhea
"Turner syndrome (XO, short staure, webbed neck, lymphedema) Coartation of aorta, bicuspid aortic valve"
Primary bone tumor (adults)
Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism
(1) adenomas (2) Hyperplasia (3) Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (also known as hepatoma)
Pulmonary hypertension
COPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor
"Renal cell caricnoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease;
Right heart failure die to a pulmonary cause
Cor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
"Incresased ventricular filling (L to R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure[CHF])"
S4 (presystolic gallop)
"Stiff/hyoertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)"
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease
Chlamydia
SIADH
Small cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticula
Sigmoid colon
Site of metastasis
(1) regional lymph node (2) Liver
Sites of atherosclerosis
Abdominal aorta>coronary>popliteal>carotid
Stomach cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
t(14;18)
Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activaton)
t(9;22)
"Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)"
Temporal arteritis
Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
Testicular tumor
Seminoma
Thyroid cancer
Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women
Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
Tumor of infancy
Hemangioma
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin's
"Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)"
Type of non-Hodgkin's
Difuse large cell
UTI
"E.Coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)"
Viral encephalitis
HSV
Vitamin deficiency (US)
Folic acid (pregnant woman are at high risk; body stores only -4 month supply)