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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What are the 2 most important factors for survival?

(Structural Collapse)
The will to survive, and a positive attitude.
How do you determine the length of a diagonal wall support (also known as a Raker) for:
a) 45 degree angle?
b) 60 degree angle?

(Structural Collapse Tech Class)
To determine the length of a 45 degree raker, you have to multiply the height of the insertion point in Feet by 17. This gives you the length in inches.

(Exp. 10 ft insertion point would need a raker of 170 inches.)

For a 60 degree you multiply the height by 14, to give you an answer in inches.

(Exp. 10ft insertion point would need a raker of 140 inches.)
What is High Expansion Foam?
What is it used for?

(Fire Officer's Guide Book)
High Expansion Foams are special purpose foams that are similar to Class A foams. They have Expansion Ratios between 200:1 to 1000:1
They have low water content which minimizes water damage and runoff. It is not affected by freezing or thawing, and is best used in concealed spaces like shipboard compartments. Nor recommended for outside use.
What is a flouroprotein foam?
What is it used for?
How does it differ from regular protein foam?

(Fire Officer's Guide Book.)
This foam is derived from protein foam that has fluorochemical surfactants added to it. The additional chemicals produce a foam that flows across fuel surfaces quickly. It can be subsurface injected into the fuel and will float to the surface, separating fuel from flamable vapors.
It's available in 3% or 6% concentrations.

sur·face-ac·tive a·gent
–noun Chemistry .
any substance that when dissolved in water or an aqueous solution reduces its surface tension or the interfacial tension between it and another liquid.

What are some things Fire Engines Carry that can be used for Confinement Tactics?

(Haz Mat)
Fire Engines usually carry:
Shovels for building earthen Dams.
Salvage Covers for making catch basins.
Charged hose lines for creating diversion channels.
(Lg Spills may need Heavy Equip.)
What actions should be taken when dealing with a corrosive Hazardous Material involving fire?

(Haz Mat)
Immediate concerns are to confine the spread of the material and protect exposures. Ignition sources need to be kept from the material.

Primary Ojectives are to turn off the flow, isolate the area and deny entry. (Some corrosives are strong oxidizers and may ignite organic materials.)
Note: When engaged in firefighting protect exposures but don't extinguish the fire, Water may make spill worse. Smoke can be corrosive and will permeate PPE.
What are T.I.M.'s ?
What make them attractive to terrorists?

(Haz Mat)
TIM's - Toxic Industrial Materials.
Are chemicals that are toxic in certain concentrations. They are produced in greater than 30 tons per year at a facility.

Hi Hazard - Widely produced, High Toxicity and Easily Vaporized.

Med Haz - May rank hi in some areas, but generally lesser.

Low Haz - A material not likely to be a hazard under most conditions.
(Sometime referred to as Toxic Industrial Chemicals or T.I.C.'s) They are not as lethal as nerve agents but are readily available and therefore attractive to terrorists.
What are some guidelines for "Protecting in Place"?

(Haz Mat)
When protecting people inside a structure, direct them to close all windows and doors, as well as turn off all heating, ventilation and air-conditioning units.
Note: Vehicles are not as effective but can offer temporary protection if windows are up and vent system is off.
The National Fire Protection Association (Reg # 472) identifies 3 types of protective clothing. What are they?

(Haz Mat)
#1 Structural Fire Fighting clothing protects from heat, moisture, and ordinary hazards at a structure fire.

#2 High Temp Protective Clothing - Protects wearer from short term hi temps. It's very bulky, doesn't release heat either.
2a) Proximity Suits - close approach like aircraft firefighting.
2b) Fire Entry Suits short term total flame environment up to 2000 degrees F

#3 Chemical protective Clothing (CPC) protects from chemical, physical and biological hazards. (No CPC can protect from all chemicals.)
What is the flash point of a material?

(Fire Science)
A flash point is the minimum temperature at which a liquid or volatile solid gives off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface to flash but not continue to burn. Not to be confused with Fire Point.
What is "Command Presence"?

(Fire Officer's Guide Book)
Command Presence is the complex ability to identify the parts of a situation, assess the need for action or intervention, initiate the action and be perceived as having the ability necessary to take that action.
In other words:
Command Presence - They are able to instill in others the valid belief that everything will be okay simply by their presence at the emergency.
What is Cyanogen Chloride?

(Haz Mat)
Cyanogen Chloride is a colorless highly volatile liquid that desolves readily in organic solvents but is only slightly soluble in water. It's vapors are heavier than air. It has a pungent biting odor. It is normally considered a non-persistant hazard. It irritates the eyes and mucus membranes.
What is Heat Stroke?

(First Responder Book)
Heat Stroke occurs when the body's system of temperature regulation fails and the body temperature rises to critical levels. (Too high = Death)
The Primary Signs and Symptoms Are :
Confusion, Loss of Consciousness, Lack of sweating , Irrational Behavior, Convulsions, Hot Dry Skin, and High Temperature.
How is heat regulated by the body?

(First Responder Book)
A person gains heat through consumption of food, or muscular activity.

The Body Loses heat through the process of convection (sweating), conduction, and radiation to maintain a constant body temperature.
What are the commonly used categories of Explosives?

(Haz Mat Book)
Explosives are rated by the speed of decomposition and sensitivity/susceptibility to initiation.
HIGH Explosives decompose extremely rapidly (almost instantaneously). This is called detonation.
LOW Explosives decompose rapidly (they burn) but do not produce and explosion unless they are confined. This is called Deflagration.
Primary Explosives are very sensitive and are used as detenators to set off other explosives. (Blasting Caps).
Secondary Explosives are less sensitive to heat and flame and are usually set off by the activation energy of a primary explosive.
Note: Primary and Secondary explosives are both considered High Explosives, while propellants are considered Low Explosives.
What is Terrorism?

(Haz Mat Book)
Terrorism is the unlawful use of force against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment there of in the furtherance of a political or social objective.
What are some of the hazards of chlorine?

(Haz Mat Book)
Chlorine gas can cause irritation of the eyes,skin and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels can result in corrosive damage to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissues and could lead to pulmonary edema and even death in extreme cases.
At room temp chlorine is a yellow-green gas that is heavier than air that has a strong irritating odor. Chlorine gas is usually pressurized and cooled to a liquid state for storage and transportation. When released it quickly turns into a gas that is heavier than air. Because of it's physical and chemical properties, it doesn't remain a liquid for very long, so decontamination is not usually required.
Chlorine itself is not flammable, but it can react explosively or for explosive compounds when mixed with other chemicals like turpentine or ammonia. Chlorine is considered a choking agent and was used as a chemical warfare agent in World War 1
What is AFFF Foam?

(Fire Engine Operations Book)
Aqueous Film Forming Foam.

When Flourinated Surfactants were added to Hi Expansion Foam, the water that drained from it floated on the fuel (Jet Fuel) Since this film was Aqueous in Nature it was called Aqueous Film Forming Foam. The film forms ahead of the foam allowing the foam to quickly follow and cover the area. The foam will also heal itself when the surface is broken.
AFFF is the most common foam used today. It is completely synthetic. It's available in 1 to 3 % and 6% concentrations.

It's suitable for subsurface injection and will float to the top.
Websters Dictionary defines Power as the possesion of control over others. Effective leaders recognize the types of power and how they can be used to Motivate Subordinates. What are the 5 types of Power?

(Fire Officers Guidebook)
1) Reward
2) Coercive
3) Identification
4) Expert
5) Legitimate
The 5 types of Power are:

1) Reward Power - this is based on a person's perception of anothers ability to grant rewards. (More Rewards = More Power)

2)Coercive Power - Based on a leaders perceived ability to punish.

3) Identification Power - This power is derived from someones desire to Identify with and Emulate another. (wearing the same sneakers as a celebrity)

4) Expert Power - is based on the perception that the others knowledge and expertise can help in a persons endevours.

5) Legitimate Power - this power is based on the perception that the person/officer holding the power has been deemed worthy of the position in the dept or organization.
What is a Biological Terrorist Attack?

(Haz Mat)
Biological Terrorism is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or their toxins for the purpose of harming or killing citizens.

Potential Means for transmissin - Aerosolization, Food/Water Contamination, or Insects.
The goal of all terrorism is the intimitating or coercing of people to make a political or social point.
When dealing with a chemical attack, what is meant by a Blood Agent?

Note Blood Agents are sometimes called Cyanide Agents.

(Haz Mat Guide Book)
Blood Agents are chemical asphyxiants that interfere with Oxygen Utilization at the Cellular level This keeps the body from being able to use the oxygen in the blood. At sufficent levels, they can quickly saturate the blood and cause death in a matter of minutes.
They cause powerful gasping, violent convulsions, and a painful death, usually as respiratory failure. Blood agents work through inhalation or ingestion. Cyanide agents irritate the eyes, and respiratory tract while arsine in non irritating. (Phosgene, Arsine, etc)
What is the main concern when dealing with matierials that are "Dangerous When Wet"?
Note: This scenario would be with no fire, just a spill of a class 4 material.

(Haz Mat Book)
The immediate concern at these incidents is to keep the material dry. The primary objective is to isolate and confine the material until it can be removed.
Dangerous quantities of fammable and toxic gases are produced when some water reactive materials get wet.
Some things you should know about SPILL CONTROL at a Hazardous Material Incident.
Spill Control is Defensive in Nature.

The Primary Concern would be the SAFETY of the RESPONDERS.

Responders should have no actual contact with the material.
Spill Control minimizes the contact of the materail with people, propery and the environment by limiting or containing it.
What is "Penetration" with regards to Chemical Protective Clothing?

(Haz Mat)
Penetration occurs when hazardous material enters an opening or a puncture in the protective material.
Rips, tears, and cuts as well as unsealed seams, button holes, and zippers are considered penetration failures.
When referring to Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC) what is the difference between encapsulating and non-encapsulating clothing?

(Haz Mat)
CPC = Chemical Protective Clothing.

Encapsulating Suits are designed to completely cover the responder including the respiratory equipment.
Non Encapsulating Suits are designed to provide protection in conjunction with the wearers respiratory protection atatched to the outside of the suit. Additional, detatchable hoods, gloves, and boots may also be necessary to protect the wearer.
Haz Mat Notification - What is the NRC? When are they notified? Who is the OSC? What does he do?

(Haz Mat)
When the amount of Haz Mat exceeds the established reporting quanitities, the National Response Center must be notified. They notify the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or the US Coast Guard depending on whether the spill is on land or sea.
If the Coast Guard is notified, they will send out an OSC. An On Scene Coordinator. The OSC determines if the local effort is enough, or if Federal Action is necessary
Note: The OSC will continue to monitor the response. He will take over if : 1) the responsible party is unknown/uncooperative. 2) The local effort is not enough to handle the situation. or 3) The problem is a significant threat to public health due to the size or nature of the Haz Mat incident.
What is FFFP Foam?
What is it used for?

(Fire Fighting Techniques)
FFFP is Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam. FFFP Foam is based on Fluoroprotein foam with the fast knockdown ability of AFFF foam and the long lasting Heat Resistance of Fluoroprotein foam.
This foam is available in 3 - 6% concentrations. It stores premixed in water tanks or in extinguishers, and can be used with either salt or fresh water. it is not affected by freezing or thawing and is compatable with dry chemical agents.
What is the "Leadership Continum Theory"?

How does it work?

What are some of the problems with it?

(Officer's Guide Book)
The Leadership Continum Theory is used to determine which leadership style (autocratic or democratic) a leader should apply in a situation. Leaders switch from autocratic to democratic styles, moving along a "continum" depending on the specific situation.
Some weaknesses of this Style are:
1) It requires the leader to be a good judge of the situation and people.
2) Assumes the leader has all of the info needed to make the right decision.
3) Assumes no external forces (political or social) can effect the situation.
4) Oversimplifies complex situation bu making it only 2 dementional.
What is "Principle Centered" leadership?

(Officer's Guide Book)
Principle Centered leadership is Value Driven leadership.
The leader uses "Integrity, Excellence, Loyalty, Faith, Honesty, Courage, Harmony, and Respect for the individual to guide him when making internal and external personal decisions, or creating policy."
This requires that the leader proactively live according to principles instead of enduring a reactive life always feeling controlled by an others actions. How well he stays close to his principles is the determination for success.
What are some of the traits of a "Command Presence"?

(Fire Officer's Guidebook)
Command Presence Traits:
Accepting of Limitations
Self-confidence contributes to others perception of you.

Trustworthiness helps other people trust your decisions.

Consistancy shows that you're dependable and predictable.

Responsiblilty means you're willing to accept the consequences of your actions.

Accepting Limitations = knowing you can't win everytime.

Expertise translates to your skills and abilities based on knowledge and experience.
In a Haz Mat situation, when is it appropriate to use the Controlled Burning Technique?

(Haz Mat)
When Personnel or Environmental Risk is too great for extinguishment, the practice of letting the Hazardous Material burn until it is consumed is appropriate. Especially when the Temperature of the fire will get hot enough to destroy the product. Beware of downwind contamination from smoke.
A controlled burn is a non-intervention control tactic.
When dealing with Radioactive Materials, what does the acronym I.A.E.A. stand for?

What does the IAEA do?
The I.A.E.A. is the International Atomic Energy Agency. The IAEA issues regulations for air transport regarding radioactive materials, particualarly short lived small packaged lightweight radio-pharmaceuticals.
Except for Nuclear Weapons large quantanties of Radioactive Materials are rarely shipped by air. (Exceptions are obviously the Military and Military Contractors.)
The ERG Identifies Spills into 2 classes. What are they? How are they Defined?

Extra Credit - What's the ERG?

(Haz Mat)
The ERG is the Emergency Response Guidebook. It classifies spills as:

Small (approx. 53 Gallons or Less) This would include a single 55 Gallon Drum.)

Large - Anything more than 1 Drum. (Multiple Drums, Tank Cars, Rail Cars, Ton Cylinders, Etc.)
Small - 55 Gallon Drum or less

Large - More than 55 gallons
What is the differences between an absolute, a non absolute, and a HEPA Filter?

(Haz Mat)
Absolute Filters use screening to remove particles from the air. They exclude particles that are larger than the filter pours.

Most Filters are NON-ABSOLUTE, meaning they contain pours larger than the particles to be removed.

HEPA Filters are used for Medical Emergencies an must be 99.97% efficient.
H.E.P.A. stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air filter.
What are some of the external barriers to decision making?

(Officer's Guide Book)
External Barriers/Factors to decision making:
1) Lack of Data
2) Lack of Accurate Analysis
3) Lack of Resources
4) Lack of Management/Member Support
5) Lack of Commitment
6) Lack of Capacity
What are some of the Internal Psychological Barriers to decision making?

(Officer's Guide Book)
Internal Barriers/ Factors to Decision Making:
1) Fear
2) Too much Ego or Self Esteem
3) Indecisiveness
4) Distrust
5) Antagonism
6) Jealousy
7) Unethical Motives.
Fear = Fear of Failure, Fear of Embarassment, Fear of Public Exposure.

Indecisiveness = This allows the event to overtake the need to make the decision.

Distrust = Not trusting ones own ability.

Antagonism = Active opposition to decision.

Jealousy = Causes people to act irrationally.

Unethical Motives = Personal Gain, Enhanced Self Image, Personal Protection at the Expense of Others
What are the steps to making a decision?

(Officer's Guide Book)
1) Classify the problem.
(is the problem routine or exceptional)

2)Define the Problem.
(Examine the prob. Get as much info as possible,)

3)List Alternative Options.
(Determine the best response out of all the available options.)

4)Determine and Best Response and IMPLEMENT it.

The Best Response is one that will fully solve the problem, without causing additional ones.
The process of making a decision should lead to an action. Any decison that is not implemented, is simply a good intention.
Why do people Lie?

(Officer's Guide Book)
Research in the Speech Communications Fields indicate that there are four main reasons for lying.
1) Basic Needs
2) Affiliation
3) Self Esteem
4) Self Gratification

Note: Once the action is justified internally, it becomes easier to commit as well as any further subsequent actions.
Basic Needs - People lie to gain things they need to live like food, money and clothing.

Affiliation - people lie to create prolong, or avoid social relationships

Self Esteem - people lie to be seen as competent in the eyes of others

Self Gratification - people lie to increase personal enjoyment.
Ethics can be described as knowing right from wrong. What determines a person's personal ethics?

(Officer's Guide Book)
Ethics and Ethical Behavior are LEARNED TRAITS.

The Primary Source is the FAMILY which instills values and morals.

Other Sources are:
Organized Religion, Educational Facilities, Society and Peers.
The values that are instilled by these sources REMAIN with the person for life unless they are CONSCIOUSLY Changed.
When communicating, a "fallacy" occurs when someone attempts to persuade others with out sufficient supporting evidence. Describe a "Slippery Slope Fallacy".

(Officer's Guide Book)
The Slippery Slope Fallacy consist of a SERIES OF WORSENING CONSEQUENCES that are ASSUMED will result from the initial action taken.
Example : 'you can never give anyone a break. IF YOU DO they will continue to take advantage of you...'
When communicating, a fallacy occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence.

What is a "Non Sequitur"

(Officer's Guide Book)
Non Sequitur is Latin for "it does not follow.

In communications, the person committing the "non-sequitur" would try to conclude something that simply does not follow the main premise of the argument.

Logic . an inference or a conclusion that does not follow from the premises.
a statement containing an illogical conclusion.
Example : 'the city council should not build a new firehouse because the city can not afford to keep swimming pools open during the summer.'
When communicating, a fallacy occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence.

What is a "Red Herring" Fallacy?

(Officer's Guide Book)
A red herring fallacy occurs when someone uses irrelevant facts to distract the listener from the main issue. Politicians use this tactic to avoid answering questions simply by raising another issue.
When communicating, a fallacy occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence.

What is a "Hasty Generalization"?

(Fire Officer Guide Book)
Hasty Generalization - This person makes an argument or conclusion that is based on insufficient or non existing evidence. This can result in STEREOTYPING.
Example of a Hasty Generalization Fallacy :

'My friend Kenny is Lazy, therefore all guys named Kenny are Lazy.'
When communicating, a fallacy occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence.

What is a "Straw Man Fallacy"?

(Officer's Guide Book)
A technique where one person makes a weak argument that is easily refuted to distract from the main point.
Example of a Straw Man Fallacy :

A proponent of a library might say, "There are those who don't care if Children Read..."
When communicating, a fallacy occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence.

What is a "Bandwagon Fallacy"?

(Officer's Guide Book)
A bandwagon fallacy tries to make the argument that EVERYONE is doing it so it MUST BE OK.
When communicating, a fallacy occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence.

What is a "Casual Fallacy"?

(Officer's Guide Book)
A casual fallacy occurs by making a faulty connection between the cause and effect.
Note: Just because one event follows another chronologically, DOESN'T mean the first CAUSED the second to OCCUR.
There are generally four types of reasoning: Inductive, Deductive, Casual, and Analogical.

What is Analogical Reasoning?

(Officer's Guide Book)
Analogical Reasoning is based on a comparison between two similar cases. It INFERS that what is TRUE in the FIRST case WILL happen in the SECOND.

This kind of reasoning is often used in a PERSUASIVE SPEECH STYLE.

1st City REQUIRES sprinklers in New Construction.

Since the requirement was ENACTED, fires HAVE gone DOWN.

Conclusion - IF we ENACT this requirement, our fires WILL go down.
There are generally four types of reasoning - Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, Casual Reasoning, and Analogical Reasoning.

What is Deductive Reasoning?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Deductive reasoning is a process of reaching a specific goal or conclusion BASED on a GENERAL STATEMENT or PRINCIPLE.

Note: Inductive Reasoning relies on Specific Facts (STATS).
Example Statement:
All buildings over 7 stories are considered High Rise Buildings.
The Building code requires that all High Rise Buildings have Sprinklers.

Conclusion: Therefore all new buildings over 7 stories should be sprinkled if they are built to code.
There are generally four types of reasoning - Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, Casual Reasoning, and Analogical Reasoning.

What is Casual Reasoning?

(Officer's Guidebook.)
Casual reasoning (also called CAUSE and EFFECT reasoning) is a process that is based on the relationship between 2 or more events, in such a way that it is obvious one caused the other to occur.
Note: The Key to effective Casual Reasoning is ESTABLISHING A FACTUAL DIRECT LINK between the cause and effect.
There are generally four types of reasoning - Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, Casual Reasoning, and Analogical Reasoning.

What is Inductive Reasoning?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Inductive Reasoning is a process that arrives at a conclusion based on SPECIFIC DATA (Stats). This approach requires specific evidence that consists of statistics.
Note: To stand up to opposing arguments the statistics have to be from a reliable source, valid, accurately interpreted, legible and easily understood. (Graphs and Charts help.)
What is a Statutory Law?

What is Common Law?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Statutory laws are the results of legislative actions. - Laws passed by congress, state or local entities. These laws are called statutes or ordinances (These may be revised or repealled by Congress or Subject to Interpretation.)
Common Law - Also called CASE LAW is the body of law that is based on "Tradition, custom usage, and decisions of the judicial courts". Common Laws are subject to change in society and views of individual members of Judiciary)
What do the 3 Branches of Government do?

(Officer's Guildbook)
1) Legislative Branch - Creates the Laws

2) Judicial Branch - Interprets the Laws

3) Executive Branch - Implements, Enforces and Administers the Laws.
What does the Administration expect from First Line Company Officer.

(Officer Guidebook)
A company officer is not only a supervisor, he's also a subordinate.

He is expected to apply supervisory skill to control the the unit and deploy it to complete assignments. Administration would also expect him to administer policies, rules, and regulations, enforcing them when necessary.
A company officers is responsible for the members of the unit and their actions and activities.
When responding to Emergencies, how does the relationship of the Unit Change?

(Officer Guidebook)
Routine Work Shift - Relationship Oriented.

Emergencies - Task Oriented based on Abilities.
During the majority of the workshift, members of the unit are training, or perfoming routine duties. This kind of supervision is RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED.

The Dynamics of the relationship change during Emergencies. Directions must be given and responded to quickly. This is not the time to question or object to assignments. This type of Supervision is TASK ORIENTED and is based on SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, and ABILITIES.
What are the 7 Behavioral Leadership Styles discussed in the Officer Book?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Basic Leadership Style
Two Dimentional Leadership Style
Contingency Leadership Theory
Contemporary Leadership Theory
Theory X
Theory Y
Theory Z
What does T.R.A.C.E.M.P. stand for when dealing with a Hazardous Situation.

(Haz Mat Book)
Dangers to watch out for:
There are several dangers associated with firefighting. Some of the dangers to look out for are remembered with the acronym TRACEMP.
A good officer should have Values when making his decisions.

What are VALUES?

Why are values important?

(Officer Guidebook)
Values are learned, relatively enduring and emotionally charged moral concepts that help a person in making decisions and planning actions.
(Values influence personal behaviors, actions and responses. )
Facts about Values:

All Values are Learned.

Values are great motivators.

Values are Enduring and difficult to ignore or change.

Values may not be consciously known by the person or society.

Values tend to be consistant with society or the person.

Values establish what is morally desirable in Society.

Values Tend to be Emotionally charged. (They may seem irrational.)
The term R.E.V.A.S. is an acronym used for establishing goals in a firefighting situation. What does R.E.V.A.S. stand for?

(Officer's Guidebook)
RESCUE persons in Danger

protect the EXPOSURES (Stops the spread of fire)

VENTILATE the building (helps everyone in the building by clearing out heat and smoke)

ATTACK the fire at it's base. (puts the fire out.)

SALVAGE victim's belongings.
In a Massive Casualty Situation, First Responders may have to TRIAGE the victims. One technique for doing this is the D.I.M.E. method. What does D.I.M.E. stand for, and how does it work?

(Mass Casualty Management)
Delayed - (Yellow Tag) these people need care, but are not likely to decompensate if treatment is delayed (amp. fingers)

Immediate - (Red Tag) Patient has obvious life threatening injuries, and will die if not treated. (Uncontrolled Bleeding, Unstable Vitals)

Minimal - (Green Tag) patient would not have any serious ill effects even if care were delayed for days. (Cuts and Abrasions)

Expectant - (Black Tag) patient has little or no hope of survival. Resources cannot be spared or diverted to help them.
What are Pyrophoric Materials?

(Haz Mat Book)
Spontaneously combustible material are also know as pyrophoric materials These materials can ignite without an external ignition source. The material can either be liquid or solids.

If exposed to air, as in a container breach, ignition could occur with in 5 minutes. The Immediate and Proper procedure should be to keep the material wet.

What is it good for?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Certification is the result of test or assessments that are given to personnel to determine their abilities to apply their knowledge in various situations.
Career advancement (or mobility) within the profession depends on certification. All officers should attempt to aquire and maintain the appropriate levels of certification. These are sometimes called Job Performance Requirements. (JPR's)
Describe some of the basic Defensive Goals at a Hazardous Material Incident.
1) Isolation of the area.
2) Notification
3) Identification of the material.
4) Protection of people and property
5) Confinement/Containment of Spill or Leak
6) Fire control if necessary
7) Recovery and Termination of the incident.
With regard to chemical attacks what does the acronym S.L.U.D.G.E.M. stand for and what Physiological Symptoms does it describe?

(Haz Mat Book)
S.L.U.D.G.E.M. describes the physiological effects of a chemical attack on the human body. It stands for:
S - salivation (drooling)
L - Lacrimation (tears from eyes)
U - Urination
D - Defecation
G - Gastrointestinal Aggravation (cramping)
E - Emesis (vomiting)
M - Miosis - (pinpoint pupils) or
M - Muscular Twitching
What is secondary contamination?

(Haz Mat Book)
Secondary Contamination (sometimes called cross contamination) is the contamination of people or equipment or the environment outside the Hot Zone.

This contamination is carried from the Hot Zone by personnel's clothing, tools, air currents and run off water.

What are the 21 Chemicals Vapor Protective Suits are tested against?

(Haz Mat Book)
Acetone, Acetonitrile, Anhydrous Ammonia Gas, 1 3 Butediene Gas, Carbon Disulphide, Chlorine Gas, Dicholorlmethane, Diethylamine,
Dimethylformamide, Ethyl acetate, Ethylene Oxide, Hexane, Hydrogen Chloride, Methanol, Methyl Chloride, Nitrobenzene, Sodium Hydroxide, Sulfuric Acid, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetrachlororoethylene and Toluene
What are Class 6 Materials? What should First Responders be concerned with?

(Haz Mat)
Class 6 Materials are POISONS and INFECTIOUS Substances.

The greatest danger associated with these spills is the health threat, whether on fire or not.
Poisonous Materials are those liquid or solids that are known to be toxic to human or animals (such as pesticides, cyanides, exotic rocket fuels.

Infectious substances (etiological agents) are materials that contain micro organisms that cause human disease. (fluids or tissues infected with HIV, Rabies, Botulism)
What is the differences between Training and Education?

(Officer Guidebook)
TRAINING - is instruction that emphasizes job specific instruction. (Job specific learning objectives and traditional skills.)

EDUCATION involves instruction that emphasizes knowledge based learning objectives that are not tied to a specific job.
What is G.E.B.Mo (pronounced GEBMO)

How does it work?

(Haz Mat)
GEBMO is the General Emergency Behavior Model. The GEBMO deals with containers and how they will breach.

The general model is:

1) Container is put under stress
2)Container Breaches
3) Release
4) Dispersion/Engulfment
5) Exposure/Contact
6) Harm
1) Container is put under stress (internal or external)

2)Container Breaches

3) Release
(Energy, Pieces of container and contents)

4) Dispersion/Engulfment of contents

5) Exposure/Contact with people, property, and environment

6) Harm (Exposure/ Contact may harm
What is an OXIDIZER?

How do they affect
Fire Fighting Actions? (Hint Class 5 Material)

(Haz Mat)
An Oxidizer contains oxygen in it's molecular structure and will easily release that oxygen when heated.

Most oxidizers are non combustible but will greatly accelerate the burning of combustible materials.
When mixed with organic materials (such as a petroleum product) the mixture can ignite spontaneously.
The acronym B.N.I.C.E. is a way to remember different types of terrorist attacks. What does BNICE stand for?
Biological Attack
Nuclear Attack
Incendiary Attack
Chemical Attack
Etiological Attack

When dealing with a building that is unstable, when and where should rakers (diagonal supports) be used?

(Structural Collapse Tech Training)
A raker (diagonal support for a wall) can only be used when a wall is 15 degrees or less out of plumb.

The raker has to be placed at the strongest point on the wall, which for the most part is at the floor line on the other side of the wall.

This insertion point doesn't have to be perfect. It can be up to 2 feet below the floor line. A wall plate should be used so that the raker doesn't poke through the wall instead of supporting it.
What is the difference between a Strategic and Tactical Goal?

(Officer's Guidebook)
STRATEGIC GOALS - are broad statements of what must be done to resolve the incident.

TACTICAL GOALS - are specific operations that must be done to accomplish strategic goals.
A 1st Level Supervisor has several challenges that are common to most supervisory positons.

What are some of the challenges a fire supervisor would face in both emergency and non-emergency situations.

(Officer's Guidebook)
A supervisor faced with a problem in any capacity has to:

Establish Priorities, Anticipate Problems, Establish goals and communicate them effectively,
A supervisor also has to cultivate an interest within in the unit, by motivating group members through dedication, positive attitude commitment and perseverance.
Supervisors manage people.

Managers manage projects.

Leaders lead by example.
What is a "Dirty Bomb"?

What is a R.D.D.?

(Haz Mat Book)
A dirty bomb is an R.D.D. R.D.D. stands for a Radiological Dispersal Device. The idea behind a dirty bomb (or an RDD) is to spread radioactive contamination over the widest area possible. This is done by detonating conventional high explosives wrapped in radioactive materials.
A dirty bomb does not produce a nuclear explosion, and while it does panic people, it is unlikely to release a lethal does of radiation. Since it uses conventional explosives, it will still likely destroy property or kill people like any bomb would.
What are Blister Agents?

(Haz Mat)
Blister Agents will burn or blister the skin or any other part of the body they contact. They act on the eyes, mucus membranes, lung, skin, and blood forming organs.

They damage the respiratory tract when inhaled, and cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested.
Blister Agents are likely to cause casualties, not fatalities.
What is the difference between Closed and Open Circuit SCBA's?

(Haz Mat)
SCBA stands for Self Contained Breathing Apparatus.

A closed circuit SCBA, more commonly called a REBREATHER takes the users exhaled gasses, removes the carbon dioxide and restores the Oxygen content via compressed, liquid O2, or O2 generating solid. (These last longer, but the process can't be stopped once it's started.)

Open Circuit SCBA provides replacement air through a face-piece via compressed air cylinder. The exhaled gasses are exhausted to the open atmosphere.
During the Developmental stages of team building the 5 parts are FORMING, STORMING, NORMING, PERFORMING, AND ADJOURNING.

What do the terms mean?

(Officer Guidebook)
Forming stage - Employees are uncertain of their role on the team. Cuncertain of what to expect, uncertain of each other.

Storming stage - Conflicts result from differences in personality and influences. (It's important to get over this phase quickly.)

Norming stage - The group begins to establish a set or norms and values. Members become more cohesive. The officer guides the team.

Performing stage - The group has become a team. The supervisor works to maintain team spirit as the team moves toward it's goals.

Adjourning stage - The team eventually disbands. Participants can feel satisfied by the results that have been achieved.
Adjourning stage is not always voluntary.
Why is it important for the company officer (or supervisor) to maintain priorities?

(Officer Guidebook)
Having Priorities helps the company officer MAINTAIN FOCUS on the important activities.

TIME and ENERGY can be directed toward the GOALS and OBJECTIVES that provide the GREATEST GOOD.
What are the definitions of Logic and Ethics? Where and when were the terms coined?

(Officer's Guidebook
Logic (or Logos) and Ethics (or Ethos) were terms coined by the ancient Greeks in the 6th Century BCE.

Logic is the ability to reason and present a strong argument. Logic also allows you to find fault with another's reasoning.

Ethics is the analysis of principles of human conduct in order to determine right and wrong.
Both Logos and Ethos were considered by philosophers to be essential to a strong human character.
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) places fire service officers into 4 categories. What are they? What distinguishes one from another?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Level I Officer - First line supervisor. (Lieutenant)

Level II Officer - Mid Level Supervisor (Captain)

Level III Officer - First Line Manager (District/Deputy Chief)

Level IV Officer - Department Manager (Chief of Department)
Level I - Supervisor
Level II - Supervisor/Manager
Level III - Managerial/Administration
Level IV - Administrator
What is Gross Decontamination?

(Haz Mat)
The idea of Gross Decontamination is to get the worst parts of the contaminate off the victim quickly. This is usually done by flushing, with copious amounts of water.

(Usually from a low pressure hose stream, safety shower, or other water source.)
When coming across an unconscious person, we have to assume the person is a trauma victim. We have to maintain inline stabilization, then check the A, B, C's.

Once that's done, we can start a physical exam, using the memory trick "D.C.A.P.-B.T.L.S.

What does that stand for?

(First Responder Book)
Things to look for:
D - Deformities
C - Contusions (bruising)
A - Abrasions (scrapes)
P - Punctures
B - Burns
T - Tenderness (person guards)
L - Lacerations (torn skin)
S - Swelling (accumulation of fluid)
DCAP-BTLS should be checked from the head to the feet. Then a quick check under the patient (the back of the patient) should be done to complete the exam.
When you come across a person lying on the street, after checking to see if they are responsive, you should check the A, B, C's.

What are the A, B, C,'s ?

(First Responder Book)
A - Airway
B - Breathing
C - Circulation
Make sure their airway is open and unobstructed. (Head/Tilt Chin/Lift or Jaw Thrust Maneuver.)

Look Listen and Feel if they are breathing.

Check pulses, starting with carotid then distal.
When checking to see someone's awareness level, we use the acronym AVPU.

What is A.V.P.U.?

(First Responder Book)
A - Alert
V - Verbal Commands
P - Painful Stimuli
U - Unresponsive
Alert - an alert patient will know you're there when you enter the room.

Verbal - a patient who is aware of verbal commands will respond to words like (open your eyes)

Painful - a person who is aware of only painful stimuli may only react to a sternum rub.

Unresponsive - an unresponsive patient will not have any response to any stimuli.
When referring to chemical attacks,

1) What are Chemical Warfare Agents?

2) What are T.I.M.'s?

(Haz Mat Book)
Chemical Attack - is the deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid or solid, that can poison people and the environment.

1) Chemical Warfare Agents are chemical substances that are intended for use in war to kill, seriously injure, on incapacitate people through physiology.

2) T.I.M.'s are Toxic Industrial Materials that are normally used by various industries. The materials are particularly hazardous and could kill, injure, or incapacitate people when used by terrorist.
In the United States, the U.S. Constitution is the "Law of the Land". What does the Constitution describe?

(Taken from Chapter 5 of the Officer's guidebook - Legal Responsibilities and Liabilities)
The Constitution is the Law of the Land. It describes the organization of the Federal Goverment, the powers consigned to each branch of the government (Legislative, Executive, and Judicial) and the powers ascribed to each state.
It also contains the Bill of Rights which defines the indivual rights and freedoms of the citizens in broad and general terms.

All the laws in the land, enacted by Congress, State, or Local Entities, MUST be consistent with the Federal Constitution.
What is a law?

What is a legal system?

(Officer's Guidebook, Legal Responsibilities and Liabilities.)
Legal Definitions:

Law - Rule of Conduct or Procedure established by custom, agreement or authority.

Legal System - Body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political /judicial authority.
Interesting Note:

While some people may argue that society has too many laws, restraining freedoms of it's members, it can also be argued that the members of society are too erratic and independant to live in communities without restrictions imposed by legal framework...
Company Officers can be faced with a lot of expectations and challenges. Some expectations are unreasonable and some challenges are improper.

What are some solutions to these problems?

(Officer's Guidebook)
1) Communicate Effectively
2) Use appropriate supervisory techniques.
3) Manage Effectively
4) Project a Command Presence
5) Develope an appropriate leadership style.
6) Show respect for others
7) Be loyal to the company, organization, and community.
8) Be a positive and ethical role model
9) Live by a code of ethics at all times
10) Set high, yet achievable goals.
11) Value deversity
12) Praise accomplishments
13) Listen to others
14) Commit to Educations and Training
15) Remain Humble
The Fire Department and Emergency Services Organizations are based on a scalar structure.

What is a Scalar Structure?
A scalar structure is one that assigns rank in a hierarchy of authority. The authority having juristition (AHJ) determines the job criteria, assigned duties, and responsibilities for all positions.
Similar to a Pyramid. The Base of the pyramid would be the firefighters and the top would be the chief. In between would be the 1st level company officers (in charge of a single unit or work group) Lieutenants The persons with more authority then 1st level company officers would be the captains.
What is liquid splash protective clothing?

(Haz Mat)
Primarily liquid splash protective clothing protects against chemical liquid splashes, but is not designed to protect against chemical gasses or vapors.

This kind of C.P.C. can be either encapsulating or non-encapsulating. The clothing is often NOT resistant to heat or flame.
Note: Non-encapsulating suits do not provide full body coverage. Often parts of the head and neck are exposed.
What is the differences between absorption and adsorption?

(Haz Mat)
Absorption is a physical and or chemical event occuring during contact between materials that have and attraction for each other. The Material being absorbed enters the cell of the absorbing medium, retaining the properties of the Hazardous Materials.

Adsorption happens when the molecules of the Hazardous Material adheres to the adsorbent material rather than being "sucked" into it. Adsorbent materials bend not to swell.
What is Hypothermia?

(First Responders Book)
Hypothermia occurs when the body's temperature falls to a level where normal MUSCULAR and CEREBRAL FUNCTION are IMPAIRED.
If you suspect someone might be suffering from hypothermia look for actions ending with the suffix "UMBLES" (ex. Stumbles, Mumbles, Fumbles and/or Grumbles). These actions show how the cold is affecting a persons muscles and nerves.
What is meant by Job Performance Requirements? How do J.P.R.'s relate to abilities?

(Officer's Guidebook)
Job Performance Requirements are standards that are set to establish the criteria and abilities need to perform the job to satisfaction.

While Knowledge and Skills can be learned from manuals and courses -
What are some important facts, that should be noted about both Level I and Level II officers?

(Officer's guidebook)
Level I and Level II Officers are the largest single officer group.

They provide 1st level supervision for fire suppression, search and rescue, EMS, fire prevention, public and life safety education as well as arson investigation

They supervise and manage staff functions like - planning, training, logistics, administration, and finance.

They also have contact with the general public. (citizens).
Note : Since they have contact with citizens, they should have skills in - Interpersonal Communications, Leadership, Basic Administration, and planning /organizing.
What are the 3 types of respiratory equipment classifications?

(Haz Mat Book)
#1 Positive Pressure Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

#2 Supplied Air Respirator (SAR)

#3 Air Purifying Respirator (APR)
Note : SCBA and SAR are both classified as Atmosphere Supplying Respirators as opposed to just an Air Purifying type.
What is Vapor Protective Clothing?

What are some of the disadvantages of it?

(Haz Mat Book)
Vapor Protective clothing offers greater protection than Splash Protective Clothing. It is designed to protect the wearer from gases and vapors. It provides the highest protection against Hazardous Materials. Totally Encapsulating Chemical Protective suits (TECP suits) must be worn with positive pressure SCBA's
Vapor Protective Clothing still does not protect against all chemicals.

The suits impair mobility, vision and communications.

The suits do not allow generated heat to escape, increasing the possibility of Heat related illnesses.
What is contamination? How does it affect the first responder?

(Haz Mat Book)
Contamination is the transfer of a Hazardous Material to a person, peice of equipment, and/or the environment in greater than acceptable levels/quantities.
First responders can become contaminated while working at the scene, then end up bringing it back on them without realizing it. This cross contamination can end up harming them later.
What are the 4 levels of Chemical Protective Clothing as recognized by the EPA?

Extra Credit - What's the EPA?

(Haz Mat Book)
The 4 classes of CPC protection are:

EPA Level A - a fully encapsulated, vapor protective suit with an SCBA united enclosed on the inside.

EPA Level B - a liquid splash protective suit with SCBA on the outside.

EPA Level C a liquid splash protective suit with an Air Purifying Respirator (APR)

EPA Level D - consist of a work uniform, street clothes or coveralls.
The EPA is the Environment Protection Agency.
What is Permeation?

(Haz Mat Book)
Permeation is a process that occurs when a chemical passes through a fabric on the molecular level. In most cases there is no visible evidence .

The Rate of Permeability depends on the chemical and the protective barrier.
What is Heat Exhaustion? What are the signs?

(First Responder Book)
Heat Exhaustion is similar to Heat Stroke, but will respond to Prompt Treatment.

Signs of Heat Exhaustion are : Head aches, Nausea, Vertigo, Weakness, Thirst, Giddiness and Fainting.
Heat Exhaustion can lead to Heat Stroke.
What is AFFF Foam?

(Engine Company Operations)
When flourinated surfactants were added to Hi Expansion Foam the water that drained from it floated on the fuel (Jet Fuel). This film was aqueous in Nature. This became known as Aqueous Film Forming Foam AFFF

The Film forms ahead of the Foam allowing the foam to quickly follow and cover a large area. The foam also has the ability to heal itself when broken.
AFFF is the most common foam used today, it's completely synthetic. Available in 1 - 3 and 6% Concentrations.

This foam in suitable for sub surface injection.
What are some of the concerns about Leak Control? What does leak control involve?

(Haz Mat Book)
A leak is a physical breach in the container though which the product is escaping.

The goal of leak control is to limit or contain the release. Both leak control and containment in considered an Offensive Operation requiring training above the Technician Level.
Training above the Technician level is not necessary under all circumstances. These circumstances include -
1) if the leak can be turned off at a remote location (remote valve).
2) The situation involves gasoline, diesel, LPG or Natural Gas
What are the 3 Major Tactical Priorities on the Fire Ground?

(Engine Company Ops)
1) Life Safety Concerns
2) Extingusihment
3) Property Conservation Concerns

Fire-ground priorities may be occuring simultaneously to ensure the protection and safety of both occupants and firefighters.
Other firefighting tasks my be intertwined among these priorities such as water supply, protecting exposures, and overhaul operations.
Why is the Engine Company considered to be the Basic Unit of a Fire Department?

(Engine Co. Ops)
The Engine Company provides the primary firefighting agent (Water) and the personnel to apply it properly on the fire ground.
Personal protective equipment, SCBA and technical advances made on equipement allow for more effective fire attack, but to supply water properly, the firefighter must have considerable knowledge, skill and a certain amount of brawn to withstand the physical and mental stress on the fire ground.
In a structural fire situation, the fuel and oxygen are generally in plentiful supply. When a fire burns unchecked the heat production increases.

What are the 4 ways in which heat travels?

(Engine Co. Book)
Convection - The travel of heat the the motion of heated matter (ie through the motion of smoke, hot air and heated gases)

Radiation - is the travel of heat through space (No material substance required).

Conduction - is the travel of heat through a solid body.

Direct Flame Impingement - The flames contact and heat the materiral
Convection is the main reason for ventilation requirements in F.D. operations.

Within the confines of a building, radiant heat quickly raises the temperatures of materials both near and far.

In many cases operating a hose stream cools and therefore stop conduction.
What is the danger of a smoldering fire?

How is this danger caused?

(Engine Co. Ops)
The main danger in a smoldering fire is a situation called "backdraft".

A backdraft is caused a fire that has used up all of it's oxygen, but still retains it's heat, fuel supply and flammable gases. When oxygen is suddenly added (by opening a door or window) the fire explosively re-ignites.
Note: The more INCOMPLETE the combustion, the carbon monoxide is produced. Since carbon monoxide is explosive and flammable, it would just need oxygen and heat to explode.
What are the dangers of Carbon Monoxide?

(Fire Science)
Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. It is also explosive and flammable. It is produced through incomplete combustion, so it is as ever present as smoke during a structural fire.
What are the primary responsibilities of an Engine Company during an Interior Fire Operation?

(Engine Company Operations)
The primary responsibilities of an engine company during interior operations are Life Safety and applying water onto the fire.

The Engine Company must be able to:
Place the hoseline between the fire and the victims.

Maintain the integrity of the interior stariways for entrance and egress.

Provide a primary search when advancing the hose line.

Advance he hose line to the seat of the fire for extinguishment.
During Defensive Operations - The Engine Company must be able to:

Set up and operate master stream devices to protect exposures.

Extinguish the main body of fire.
What is a Divided Hose Bed?

(Engine Company Operations)
A divided hose bed is one htat is separated into two supply hose compartments running the length of the hose bed.
This arrangement permits two separate hose lines to be laid simultaneously. It also allows for two different types of hose lays.
NFPA 1901 is the he standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus.

What is the minimum requirement (in feet) for 1-1/2, 1-3/4 or 2 inch house line on an Engine Company?

(Engine Company Operations)
NFPA 1901 requires a minimum of 400 feet of attack line on an Engine Company.
1-3/4 attack line has become the most widely used within the fire service.

Both 1-1/2 and 1-3/4 can be quickly advanced for rescue, interior exposure coverage and direct fire attack.

When the size of the fire dictates a larger line should be used. (Basic rule - if you have a big fire, you operate a big line).
What are Cross-lays or Transverse Hose beds?

(Engine Company Ops)
The Cross-lay or Transverse hose beds are usually located behind the crew compartment. The configuration of the hose bed allows the attack lines to be deployed from either side of the pumper.
These cross laid hose lines are usually preconnected. Preconnected hose lines or either 1-1/2 or 1-3/4 inches should not exceed a length of more than 250 feet due to excessive friction loss.
NFPA 1901 is the he standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus.

What is the minimum requirement (in feet) of 2-1/2 inch attack hose line on a Fire Engine?

(Engine Company Ops)
NFPA 1901 require a minimum of 800 Feet of 2-1/2 inch or bigger attack line on an Engine.
The 2-1/2 inch hose line is recommended for fires that cannot be controlled by smaller hose lines. Although the 2-1/2 inch line is bulkier, more difficult to maneuver and operate, it's water delivery capacity is absolutely necessary for attacking large intense fires.
What is Supply Hose, and what is it used for?

(Engine Co. Ops)
A supply hose is designed for the movement of water between a pressurized water source and a pump that is supplying water to attack lines.
A supply hose is an Large Diameter Hose of 3-1/2 inches or larger. LDH's provide the movement of amounts of water to the fire ground from a water source with less friction loss and fewer firefighters to establish a permanent water supply. Most larger diameter hoses are 4 to 5 inches.
What is the purpose of a nozzle on a fire hose? What are the two generalized types of nozzles and what are their advantages?

(Engine Company Operations)
The purpose of a nozzle is to shape the stream and convert pressure energy into velocity energy.

Many specialized nozzles exist, but they can be classified as either solid stream or spray (fog) nozzles.

Solid Streams are useful where extreme range or penetration is needed. Solid streams don't degrade as much from thermal degradation or wind.

Spray nozzles do not penetrate as far, but are more effective at absorbtion of heat than a solid stream. The rapid absorption will produce a lot of steam that will spread throughout the building (possibly endangering occupants and firefighters)
Solid Stream nozzles are classified according to the nozzle diameter. Solid Stream nozzles up to 1-1/4 are still considered Hand-Lines.

A 1-1/8 tip on a 2-1/2 inch line is considered a Standard Fire Dept Stream. (250 Gallons Per Min)
What is a Master Stream Appliance?

(Engine Company Ops)
A master stream appliance is a portable unit that can be used either mounted on or detached from the pumper. It is capable of immediate application of a heavy stream. (1000 GPM) Since this will quickly empty the tank water, continued operation requires a quick connection to a water system.
Any solid stream nozzle that is more that 1-1/4 would normally be used on a master stream device.
What is Flashover?

(Engine Company Ops)
Flashover is the ignition of combustibles in an area heated by convection, radiation, or a combination of the two. The action may be one of sudden ignition in a particular location followed by rapid spread or one of a "Flash" of the entire area.
The "Flash" of the entire area scenario is more likely to happen in an open area. (Radiation energy may contribute to flashover in areas that do not block heat travel, however radiation alone does not generally cause flashover.)
When dealing with a fire, what is "Rollover"?

(Engine Company Ops)
Rollover is a condition where unburned products of combustion from a fire accumulate at the ceiling level in a sufficient concentration that they ignite momentarily.
When dealing with an engine company, what's a Forward Lay?

(Engine Company Ops)
A forward lay is when the Fire Engine lays the supply line (LDH) from the hydrant to the fire. The advantage is that the engine can go to the fire and set up on any side of the building. The Engine Company can begin working immediately with the tank water. After the supply line is charged the engine will have its own uninterrupted supply line.
When referring to an Engine Company, what is a Direct to Fire approach.

(Engine Company Ops)
In this approach, the first pumper to arrive at the fire ground lays no supply line. It proceeds directly to the fire and begins working off the water in it's tank. The second arriving pumper lays an adequate supply line from the first pumper to the hydrant and charges the line.
When referring to an Engine Company, what is a Reverse Lay?

(Engine Company Ops)
In a reverse lay, the pumper lays the firefighting hose, (example: 2-1/2 inch attack line) from the fire then drives to the hydrant for it's water supply. The advantage is that the pumper is moved away from the fire building, allowing ladder truck or elevated platforms to perform firefighting and rescue operations.
The Engine Company using the reverse lay may use a 2-1/2 inch line with a "playpipe" allowing up to 100ft of 1-1/2 or 1-3/4 inch attack line to be attached to the end.
When dealing with the a building fire, where should the first engines and ladder companies be positioned?

(Engine Company Operations)
The first fire engine should be positioned in the front of the building.

The second fire engine should be at the water supply/backup line in the front of the building.

The third engine goes to the back of the building.

The first ladder company should be in the front of the building, and the second ladder should be at the rear.
The first engine company should drive passed the building to allow the officer and crew to see three side of the building. It also allows the ladder truck to have access to the front of the building for firefighting operations.
When positioning in front of a wide frontage buildings (like warehouses, garden apartment buildings or large factories) where should the Engine Company park?

(Engine Company Ops)
Pumpers should be positioned by the main entrance to allow access for attacking the fire.
When positioning the first due Fire Engine, where should it stop if it is traveling in the same direction as the first due Ladder Truck?

Where would it stop if it was traveling in the opposite direction as the first due Ladder Truck?

Extra Credit, what should the second due engine be sure not to do?

(Engine Company Ops)
If the first due Engine Company is traveling in the same direction as the ladder company it should travel passed the building to allow room for the truck.

If traveling in opposite directions the Engine should stop short of the building to allow the truck to again have the front of the building.
Extra Credit - The second due Engine Company should be sure not to pull directly behind the ladder truck which would prevent them from taking ladders out of the rear compartments.
Operating at emergency incidents poses an inherent risk of injury or even death. During the Risk Assessment Phase, what are some basic rules regarding:
Savable Lives
Savable Property
Unsavable LIves or Property
Firefighters will risk their lives a lot in a calculated manner to rescue savable lives.

Firefighters will risk there lives a little in a calculated manner for savable property

Firefighters will not risk their lives at all for Lives or propery that is already lost.
Every firefighter know that the rescue of an endangered person is the primary objective at a fire.

Carrying a fire victim to safety is rescue work in the purest form, but rescue is also accomplished by placing a ladder for use by entrapped people, assisting or directing people to leave the building as well as seaching a building for victims.
What is the 2 in 2 out rule?

(Engine Company Ops)
During the intial stages of an incident firefighers working inside a hazard area must work with a crew of atleast 2 members.
(The rule also states that they should be backed up by at least 2 members outside the fire area who are fully protected and able to go to the aid of the members inside if the need arises.
What is a RIT Team? What does a R.I.T. Team do?

(Engine Company Ops)
R.I.T. stands for Rapid Intervention Team.

A R.I.T. must be provided from the initial stages of an incident until its conclusion.

The objective of the R.I.T. is to have a fully equipped rescue team on site, in a ready state, to immediately react and respond to injured or trapped firefighters or civilians. If possible, the R.I.T should be a crew of at least 4 firefighters with one Officer.
RIT members should be in full Personal protevtive Equipment, and have all necessary tools and equipment needed.

(Equipment may consist of: Search rope, ground ladders, power tools, ventilation equipment, and if needed protective hose lines.)
During a rescue operation at a structural fire, what is the Engine Company's Primary Function?

(Engine Company Ops)
The primary function of the engine company in a rescue situation is to support the primary search, contain the fire and keep it from jeopardizing anyone within the fire building.
The search for victims is normally the function of ladder or rescue companies. The engine company advances its hose lines an places steams into operation to support the Primary Search, however if the ladder or rescue company is not available, or hasn't arrived yet, the engine company must begin the search.

(It doesn't matter who performs the search, but every firefighter at the scene should know there is search going on.)
If a multiple floor single family dwelling is involved in a fire on the first floor, which occupants would be in the most danger and why?

Engine Company Ops
The occupant in the most danger are those that are close to the fire on the first floor, and those directly above the fire on the floor above.

The ones closest to the fire would be affected by radiant heat, and thouse above would be affected by convected heat, smoke, hot air and gasses.
The main body of fire should be attacked immediately with the proper sized hose line, at the same time, firefighters should be sent to the area above the fire to begin ventilation and searching for possible victims.
For a large Multiple-Family Residence, why being aware of the direction and flow of smoke important?

Engine Company Ops
For any large occupied residential building the location of the fire and smoke should be noted during size up.

The smoke indicates the area into which the fire will most likely spread.the path that it will take and allows us to anticipate where the occupants in the most danger will be.
What is one key defensive operation that Engine Companies can perform to assist with rescue operations in a Large Multi-Family Residence?

Engine Company Ops
To aid in the primary search and the evacuation of victims, open stairways must be protected. The fire must be driven away from them or knocked down if the stairway is already on fire.

A search above the fire should be started as soon as possible to ensure all occupants are located and removed from exposure and products of combustion.

As will all building fires, search and resuce must be coordinated with a properly mounted fire attack.
Most victims are overcome by carbon-monoxide rather than burns - therefore while stairways and corridors are being controlled, every effort should be made to advance hose lines into the upper areas to ventilate the building.
With regard to rescue operations, what are some of the main concerns with places like hospitals, shcools and institutions?

Engine Company Ops
The search and rescue problems my be compounded by the larger number of people and their age and physical conditions.

In all cases it's the job of the engine company to contain the fire, open passageways, and extinguish the fire.

Note - Officers may delay calling for help because of fear of being replaced by another engine company while assisiting with rescue duties.
Schools should be evacuated completely, while it may be easier to move patients to other locations in the building because of weather conditions, physical conditions, or the continuing of care that some patients may need.
What are some concerns about "Fire Resistant Contruction"?

Engine Company Ops
Fire resistant structures are built to resist the spread of fire but also tend to hold in the heat rather than let it escape. These buildings also hold in large volumes of smoke given off by the burning contents . This smoke can quickly overcome occupants who may collapse just about in any location.

Engine companies advancing hose lines should search every area they pass though.
Note - Fire companies should be prepared to use 2-1/2 inch hose lines. There is usually less fire spread in fire resistant buildings so less lines are needed, but the build up of intense heat may make it impossible for smaller hose lines to deliver enough water fast enough to absorb the heat and control the fire.
When operating a Pump on a Fire Engine, what is meant by "Static Pressure"?

What is Residual Presssure?

Engine Company Ops
Static pressure is the pressure of the hydrant water at rest. (No water flowing through the pump.)

Residual pressure is the pressure in the hydrant with water flowing from the hydrant through the pump.
How do you estimate the number of attack lines based on Static vs Residual pressure?
A drop of about 5% from static to residual pressure means that about 3 more equal lines or equivalent flows from the water main system can be delivered.

A drop of of 10% from static to residual indicates about 2 more equal or eqivalent flows can be delivered.

A drop of 20% indicates that about 1 more equivalently flowing hose line could be delivered from the water main system.
What are the 9 Basic Duties assigned to a Ladder Company?
1) Search and Rescue
2) Ventilation
3) Laddering
4) Forcible Entry
5) Checking for Fire Extension
6) Salvage
7) Ladder-pipe Operations
8) Utility Control (Lock Out)
9) Overhaul
What is “Head Loss when referring to pumping pressure?

How much “Head Loss” would have to be compensated for to pump to the third floor of a high –rise building?

(Engine Company Operations)
Head loss (HL), the loss in pressure caused by gravity, is the second encumbrance that hinders pumping operations. It is generally measured at 0.5 psi per foot of rise or five psi per story. Head loss increases with the height, regardless of the hose's diameter or the number of gallons being raised.

At five pounds of head loss per story, how much head loss would occur when supplying water to the top floor of a three-story building? The answer is 10 pounds-five pounds to get the water from the ground floor to the second floor and five pounds to get the water from the second floor to the third floor.
These numbers are rather small, but head loss is an important consideration when operating at high-rise fires. Note: When operating at a high-rise, consider also system loss (SL)-the pressure loss in the Siamese and piping. It is usually considered to be 15 psi.
What is Phosgene Gas?

What dangers are associated with Phosgene gas?

(Haz Mat)
Phosgene is a colorless nonflammable gas that has the odor
of freshly cut hay. It is a manufactured chemical, but small
amounts occur naturally from the break down of chlorinated
Phosgene is used in the manufacture of pesticides
and pharmaceuticals. Phosgene can also be used to
separate ores.
Exposure to phosgene in the air can cause eye and throat irritation. High
amounts in the air can cause severe lung damage.
What is the Plague? What different types of Plague are there? How are they transmitted?

(Center for Disease Control)
Plague is an infectious disease that affects animals and humans. It is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This bacterium is found in rodents and their fleas and occurs in many areas of the world, including the United States.
Y. pestis is easily destroyed by sunlight and drying. Even so, when released into air, the bacterium will survive for up to one hour, although this could vary depending on conditions.
• Pneumonic plague occurs when Y. pestis infects the lungs. This type of plague can spread from person to person through the air. Transmission can take place if someone breathes in aerosolized bacteria, which could happen in a bioterrorist attack.

• Bubonic plague is the most common form of plague. This occurs when an infected flea bites a person or when materials contaminated with Y. pestis enter through a break in a person's skin.

• Septicemic plague occurs when plague bacteria multiply in the blood. It can be a complication of pneumonic or bubonic plague or it can occur by itself
What is Ricin? What effects does it have on the body?
What ricin is
• Ricin is a poison that can be made from the waste left over from processing castor beans.
• It can be in the form of a powder, a mist, or a pellet, or it can be dissolved in water or weak acid.
● It is a stable substance. For example, it is not affected much by extreme conditions such as very hot or very cold temperatures

How ricin works
• Ricin works by getting inside the cells of a person’s body and preventing the cells from making the proteins they need. Without the proteins, cells die. Eventually this is harmful to the whole body, and death may occur.
• Effects of ricin poisoning depend on whether ricin was inhaled, ingested, or injected.
How you could be exposed to ricin
• It would take a deliberate act to make ricin and use it to poison people. Accidental exposure to ricin is highly unlikely.
• People can breathe in ricin mist or powder and be poisoned.
• Ricin can also get into water or food and then be swallowed.
• Pellets of ricin, or ricin dissolved in a liquid, can be injected into people’s bodies.
What is the "Fire Resistance" of a building?

(Building Construction)
Fire resistance is the ability of the building assembly to maintain its integrity under fire conditions.
Assemblies include, floors, beams, partitions, walls, etc.
What is the "Fire Resistance Rating" of a structural component?

(Building Construction)
The quantitative measure of a structural component's fire resistance is called the Fire Resistance Rating.
The fire resistance rating is measured in hours or minutes before failure.
What standards govern the fire-resistance testing for assemblies and building materials?

(Building Construction)
NFPA 25.
What does Fire Resistance Testing do?

(Building Construction)
Fire-resistance testing evaluates the ability of an assembly to carry a structural load under fire conditions.
What is a "restrained floor /ceiling assembly", and what is its primary advantage in a fire?

(Building Construction)
A floor/ceiling assembly constructed with the ends restrained in the wall assembly so that the floor ceiling assembly will not rotate or deflect in a fire.
What is the common name for Type IV construction?

(Building Construction)
Heavy Timber Construction
What is the common name for Type III Construction?

(Building Construction)
Ordinary Construction
What is the fundamental vulnerability of Type III and Type V construction that Type IV construction is less susceptible to?

(Building Construction)
Concealed spaces between joists and floor/ceiling coverings.
What is the fundamental vulnerability of a prolonged fire in a Type III (ordinary) and Type IV (heavy timber) building?

(Building Construction)
Collapse of exterior masonry walls due to consumption of supporting combustible structure.
What fire-resistive advantage does Type IV construction have over Type III construction?

(Building Construction)
The timber framework in Type IV construction is slower to ignite and will not burn through as quickly as the interior framing in Type III construction.
What is the common term for Type V construction?

(Building Construction)
Wood Frame Construction
Which pitched roof consists of two inclined roofs that meet at a high ridge?

(Building Construction)
Gabled Roof.
Which roof slopes only in one direction?

(Building Construction)
Shed Roof.
Which roof type can be slightly pitched or flat and has a plunging break at the wall line that often serves as avenue for fire communication?
Mansard Roof. (Barn Style)
Which type of roof assembly has inclined surfaces that pitch towards center ridgepole of the building?
Butterfly Style Roof.
A roof constructed of triangular sections arranged in three dimensions to form a spherical surface is called a:

(Building Construction)
Geodesic dome.
What types of roofs are characterized by firefighters as "spongy" underfoot just before they fail?

(Building Construction)
Wood Joisted Flat Roofs.

(Masonry walls bearing wooden joists and supporting wooden or metal decking.)
The inclined joists used to support many types of pitched roofs are called:

(Building Construction)
Rafters. The typical dimensions of rafters are Between 2" x 4" and 2" x 14"
Trusses have become very popular with builders, but less than popular with the fire service. Why?

(Building Construction)
Trusses are subject to much earlier failure in a fire than traditional rafter systems.
What is a Bowstring Truss?

(Building Construction)
A truss used in arched or curved roof applications.
What should concern a firefighter about entering an involved room where tie rods are visible between the walls supporting a vaulted or arched roof?

(Building Construction)
Tie rods exposed to the fire can fail resulting in an outward collapse of the arched roof.
What is the sequence of materials used in constructing a roof covering for a flat roof, beginning at the roof deck and ending at the wearing course?

(Building Construction)
1) Vapor barrier, 2) insulation, 3) membrane, 4) drainage layer.
When dealing with roof construction, what is the purpose of the drainage layer?

(Building Construction)
To facilitate the movement of rainwater to the roof drains and scuppers.
What is the greatest hazard to firefighters seeking to ventilate a pitched roof?

(Building Construction)
Lack of secure footing due to steepness and roof surface conditions.
What's a lamella roof?

Building Construction
lamella roof, Vaulted roof consisting of a crisscrossing pattern of parallel arches skewed with respect to the sides of the covered space, composed of relatively short members (lamellae) hinged together to form an interlocking network in a diamond pattern.
What are End Piles?

(Building Construction)
Pile foundations that are designed to rest on bedrock or compacted soil.
What is the "heat of hydration"?

(Building Construction)
The heat radiated when concrete cures.
What is Active Soil Pressure?

(Building Construction)
Pressure exerted by soil against the building's foundation.
What is Aerodynamic Drag?

(Building Construction)
The retarding force exerted by wind moving over the surface of an object.
What is an Air Supported Structure?

(Building Construction)
A membrane (fabric) structure that is held up by internal air pressure either in whole or in part.
What is an Area of Refuge?

(Building Construction)
A protected area inside or outside a building where people who can not use stairs as an evacuation route, can wait for fire service rescue.
Areas of refuge are often provided for the infirmed or disabled.
What is an Atrium?

(Building Construction)
A multi-story internal, vertical opening designed to provide light air and a dramatic interior space. Often used as a lobby or internal courtyard.
What is an Axial Load?

(Building Construction)
The load directed along the structural members axis, as a load applied to the top end of a structural column.
What is a Beam?

(Building Construction)
A horizontal structural member designed to carry loads perpendicular to its longitudinal axis.
What is a Beam Pocket?

(Building Construction)
The indentation in a massonary wall constructed to receive and carry the load of a horizontal beam. Gravity rather than fasteners are used to hold the beam in place
What are bearing walls?

(Building Construction)
The vertical wall designed to carry loads of spanning framework such as beams, trusses and flooring.
What is the downward force exerted on a cantilevered beam?

(Building Construction)
Bending Moment or Bending Force
What is Nozzle Reaction?

(Pump Operator)
The force pushing back on firefighters as water is discharged from the nozzle at a given pressure.
What is the Operating Pressure of a Solid Stream Nozzle Master Stream Device?
80 Pounds Per Square Inch at the Tip
What is a Deluge Set?
A short length of LDH with a large nozzle or large play-pipe supported at the discharge by a tripod.
This master stream device cannot change the angle or direction of the stream while discharging water.
When dealing with Fire-Ground Hydraulics, what is the "Hand Method", and how is it used for 2-1/2 inch hose line?

(Pump Operators Hand Book Pg 258)
The Hand Method is a way to quickly figure out friction losses in hose lines when the GPM flow is known. The method works for both 1-3/4 inch and 2-1/2 inch hose lines. The method for 2-1/2 is covered in slide #3
2-1/2 Hose Line :Starting with the Thumb of the Left hand the bottom of each finger count as GPM starting at 100 and increasing per finger until 500 GPM at the pinky finger. (GPM 100,200,300,400, and 500 respectively)

The tips of the finger starting with the thumb as 2 and ends with the pinky as 10. (2,4,6,8, and 10 respectively)

The method works by multiplying the numbers on the on the tips of the fingers by the first number on the bottom of the finger.

Example: if 300 Gal. Per Min. is flowing through a 2-1/2 inch line multiply the 3 at the base of the finger by the 6 at the tip to get 18. 18 PSI Friction Loss through a 2-1/2 hose line flowing 300 GPM.
When dealing with Fire-Ground Hydraulics, what is the "Hand Method", and how is it used for 2-1/2 inch hose line?

(Pump Operators Hand Book Pg 259)
The Hand Method is a way to quickly figure out friction losses in hose lines when the GPM flow is known. The method works for both 1-3/4 inch and 2-1/2 inch hose lines. The method for 1-3/4 is covered in slide #3
1-3/4 Hose Line: Starting with the thumb of the left hand assign it 100 GPM, increase the GPM per finger until you end with the pinky at 200 GPM. (100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 GPM)

Again starting with the thumb, assign the tips of the fingers 1-5

The base of every finger is assigned the number 12.

Once the flow rate is determined multiply the flow finger's number at the tip by it's base (12).

Ex: An 1-3/4 inch flowing 150 GPM would by the third finger. Multiply 3 time 12 the number at the bottom of the finger and get 36.

36 PSI friction loss per 100 feet of 1-3/4 inch hose flowing 150 gallons per minute.
What is a "Pump Chart"?

(Pump Operators Guide Book)
Pump charts are used by some fire departments to reduce the need for calculations on the emergency scene. Pump charts contain the required pump discharge pressures for various hose lays and assemblies used within that jurisdiction. Pump charts may be laminated sheets, or on plates that are affixed to the pump panel.
The pump chart should have the hose layouts, nozzle pressures, gallons per minutes, and hose lengths used by the department. Round the nearest pump discharge pressure to the nearest 5 psi.
What is the GPM Flowing Method for figuring out Friction Loss in a 2-1/2 inch hose line?

(Pump Operators Guide Book)
2-1/2 inch hose lines seldom flow less than 160 Gallons per Minute.

Simply subtract 10 from the first two numbers of the flow to get the friction loss per 100 Feet.

Ex: 250 GPM flowing through a 2-1/2 inch hose line has 15 psi per 100 feet. (25 - 10 = 15 psi)
What is a CFR?

(Haz Mat)
The abbreviation for "the Code of Federal Regulations"
What is the Flame Spread Rating?

How is the "Flame Spread" rate determined?

(Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement)
The flame spread rating is a numerical value assigned to a material based on the speed and extent to which flame travels over its surface. The higher the flame spread rate the more flamable.

To derive the flame spread rating, the flame spread along the test material is compared to two standard materials: asbestos cement board, and red oak wood.
What is combustion? What is rusting?
What is fire?
Combustion is the self-sustaining process of a rapid oxidation of a fuel.

Rusting is the term for very slow

Fire is a rapid, persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied by flame.
What is Fire Damper?

(Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement)
Fire Damper - A device that interrupts airflow through part or all of an air handling system, there by restricting the passage of heat and the spread of fire.
What is a Fire Load?

(Fire Inspection Book)
Fire Load - The maximum amount of heat that can be produced if all of the materials in a given area burn.
What is a Fire Partition?

What is a Fire Wall?

(Fire Inspection Book)
Fire Partition - A fire barrier that extends from the floor to the bottom of the floor above or to the underside of a fire rated ceiling assembly. A fire partition give a lower level of protection than a Fire Wall

Fire Wall - a wall with a specified degree of fire resistance that is designed to prevent the spread of fire within a structure or between adjacent structures.
What is a Fire Point?

(Fire Inspection Book)
Fire Point - The temperature at which a liquid produces enough vapors to support combustion once the fuel is ignited. The fire point is usually a few degrees above the flash point.
What is Flameover?

(Fire Inspection Book)
Flameover - A condition that occurs when a portion of the fire gases trapped at the upper level of a room ignite, spreading flame across the ceiling of the room.
The Universal Building Code groups building occupancy by the following letters : Group A, Group B, Group E, Group F, Group H, Group I, Group M, Group R, Group S and Group U. What do the letters mean?
Group A - Assemblies - places used for people gathering for entertainment, worship, and eating or drinking.

Group B - Business -places where services are provided (not to be confused with mercantile)

Group E - Educational - schools and day care centers up to the 12th grade.

Group F - Factories - places where goods are manufactured or repaired (unless considered "High-Hazard")

Group H - High Hazard - places involving production or storage of very flammable or toxic materials. Includes places handling explosives and/or highly toxic materials (such as fireworks, hydrogen peroxide, and cyanide).

Group I - Institutions -places where people are physically unable to leave without assistance (hospitals, nursing homes)

Group M - Mercantile -places where goods are displayed and sold.(Stores, gas stations)

Group R - Residential - places providing accommodations for overnight stay (excluding Institutional).houses, hotels.

Group S -Storage - places where items are stored (unless considered High-Hazard).warehouses, parking garages

Group U - Utility/Miscellaneous - others. Examples: water towers, barns, towers.