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34 Cards in this Set

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How effective are sprinkler systems and why?
They are 96% effective due to control of combustion products in early stages and it limits spread to other areas.
List some factors that can affect a sprinkler systems reliability:
-Partially or completely closed valves
-Poor maintenance
-Improper design
-Hazards of the occupancy
-Distribution obstruction
-Deficient water supply
-Partial sprinkler protection
-Frozen or broken pipes
-Damage or painted sprinkler heads
-Tampering or vandalism to sprinkler system
Sprinkler systems water supply come from what three sources?
Public water supply (most common), gravity tanks, or fire pumps.
List basic piping for sprinkler system:
Supply main, riser, feed main, cross mains, and branch lines.
Sprinkler system piping:
riser
The vertical piping which runs from the water supply to cross mains and also which the sprinkler valve, one-way check valve, FDC, alarm valve, main drain, and other components are attached
Sprinkler system piping:
cross mains
Directly service a number of branch lines on which the sprinklers are in staled. Cross mains extend past the last branch lines and are capped to facilitate flushing.
Sprinkler system piping:
branch lines
The smaller pipes extending from the cross mains which sprinklers are installed.
List the flow of the water from the water supply to the sprinkler head:
Water supply, main control valve, alarm check valve, riser, cross main, branch lines, and than sprinkler head.
Fusible link sprinkler head color-code:
Uncolored or black
white
blue
red
Uncolored or black-135 to 170 degrees
white-175 to 225 degrees
blue-250 to 300 degrees
red-325 to 375 degrees
Frangible bulb heads color-code:
Orange or red
yellow or green
blue
purple
Frangible bulb heads color-code:
Orange or red-135 to 170 degrees
yellow or green-175 to 200 degrees
blue-250 to 300 degrees
purple-325 to 375 degrees
List the different release mechanisms for sprinkler heads:
-Fusible link
-Chemical pallet
-Frangible bulb
-Quick-response which has a specially designed fusible link with an increased surface area
Explain how fusible sprinkler head operates:
-The two lever arms press against the frame arms and valve cap hold back the water
-The fusible link holds the levers together
-When enough heat melts the link water pushes the levers and cap out of the way
-Water strikes deflector and becomes a spray
Explain how frangible bulb sprinkler head operates:
-The bulb filled with liquid and a bubble holds the orifice shut
-When enough heat expands the liquid in the bulb it shatters and the orifice is open
-Water strikes the deflector and becomes a spray
List and explain the different type of sprinkler head positions:
-Pendant:extends down from the underside of the piping
-Upright:sits on to of the piping
-Sidewall:extends from the side of the pipe and the special deflector a fan-shaped pattern
-Special purpose:may be recessed (up a little in ceiling, may drop down), corrosive-resistant coated.
Valves:OS&Y
Outside screw and yoke has a yoke on the outside with a threaded stem which controls the opening and closing of the valve gate. IF you can see the threaded steam it is open.
Valves:PIV
Post indicator valve has a small window on the post where "OPEN" or "SHUT" is displayed.
Valves:WPIV
Wall post indicator valve is similar to PIV but extends through the wall.
Alarm test valve
simulates activation of the system
Inspector's test valve
Equiped with a same size opening as a sprinkler head to simulate activation of a head.
Main drain valve
Used to drain the water from the system for work.
Water flow alarms
Either hydraulically or electrically operated to alert occupants and passerby that water is flowing through system.
The electrical operated may transmit an alarm company.
FDC
Fire department connection, usually a clapper siamese with at least two 2 and 1/2 " female connections, which is used to add water flow to sprinkler system. Has a check valve to prevent water flow from flowing out of FDC.
FDC support should include:
-Supply pumper with a capacity of at least 1,000 gpm
-Using a different water main than the sprinkler system
-A minimum of two 2 and 1/2" or larger lines attached to FDC
-Water supplied at 150 psi unless otherwise advised
List the different types of sprinkler systems:
Wet pipe, dry pipe, preaction, deluge, and residential.
Wet pipe sprinkler system
Is not used in areas subject to freezing, as water is in the system at all times. Sprinkler heads will discharge immediately on activation.
Retard chamber
Use on wet pipe to catch excess water that may come through the alarm valve in water pressure surge, reducing chances of false alarm.
Dry pipe sprinkler system
Used in areas subject to freezing, and contains air under pressure instead of the water. When sprinkler head opens, air leaves and pipe fills with water.
Preaction sprinkler system
Used in properties where it is important to prevent water damage, even if pipes are broken. Pipes are dry until water is release into system in response of detector.
Deluge sprinkler system
Used in areas with extra hazardous occupancies, all sprinkler heads are open, and system actives manually or off of detector causing water flow from all sprinkler heads.
Residential sprinkler system
Used to prevent fire involvement in area of origin and allow occupants to escape. Typically equipped with quick-response sprinkler heads.
Standpipe systems
Allow for connection of hoses on various levels of a high rise structure to avoid having to lay hose up several levels of stairs. Always use wye.
Class I standpipe
Is just a hose pipe connection for use by fire fighters.
Class II standpipe
Design for use by occupants, has a 1 and 1/2" single hose with nozzle attached.
Class III standpipe
Design for use by building occupants or fire fighters, has 2 and 1/2" connection and 1 and 1/2" single hose with nozzle attached.