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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Long Parliament
•Sat for 8 years
•Initially it was uniform: wanted historic rights
•Making sure Charles couldn’t not call parliament
•Some members of parliament wanted to move father in the direction of ruling the crown
•Went away from parliaments right
Causes of 1st Civil War
Root and Branch Bill: rooting out episcopacy and putting in Presbyteriansim
Militia Ordinance: wants parliament to control going to war
• Creates a split between those who feel the king should have some rights
• King tries to arrest opposition in parliament
• 1642: ran away to work to fight
• Many left parliament and went to Nottingham
• Split equally
• Roundheads: parliamentarians
• Cavaliers: royalists
First Civil War
• Divided the country
• 1646: Charles defeated militarily
• Alliance with Scotland (still in the north)
New Model Army, 1645: Oliver Cromwells (national)
• Systematic tax assessment
• Army with enough money to finance itself
• Controlled centrally in London
• Soldiers disciplined strictly
• No robbing and raping of civilians
• Its most radical aspect was that Cromwell allowed people to move up because of skill not heredity
• Egalitarian: people begin to reach political conclusions
Levellers
• Manhood suffarage
• Everyone’s vote is equal
• Begin to get development of a more radical political movement in lodnon
• Parliamentary victory but nervous because have powerful army to fight
• Split between army and parliament
• These issues spread to religion
• Parliament wants to have Presbyterian area
o Wants national church group
• Other ideas are spreading in the army
o Don’t want national church
o Individual
o Calvinist
• London: disbanding the army
• Parliament is stuck: even though king has been defeated
• If Charles had been willing to accept he was defeated he may have been able to make some type of agreement with parliament, there may have been a comprlimise
Second Civil War
• New Model army vs. Presbyterian
• New model army wants to be paid, wont leave until they are
• Seizes Charles and invades London
• Victory by the army headed by Oliver Cromwell
• Army moved to the left (more radical)
• Sick of parliament
Rump Parliament
• Army is in control
• Many have left
• Tries Charles the I
Execution of Charles I
• Royalism comes back after this
• Abolish monarchy
• Abolish Anglican church
• Establish republican form of government
Diggers
Second coming would occur when the people dug up and farmed all the land (communal ownership)
Millenairans
most important Fifth Monarchy Men: Believed second coming was about to occur so there was no need for a political settlement at all
Quakers
believed in inner light through God spoke to you
• Radical effects
• People would quake
• Would appear naked in public to testify
• Broke up illegitimate services
• Thought men and women were equal and that women could convert people
• Wouldn’t take oaths
• Very radical
Commonwealth
1649-1653: lasted four years
• Radical political steps had been taken but some believed in monarchy
• How do we establish a government that is effective that the population as a whole an feel loyal to?
• Efficient in some areas
o Suppreses irish rebellion
o Makes peace with major powers in Europe
o Fights another battle with Scotland and get them out of the north
Cant solve the big issues
o Cant decide what to do with the church
o Split into groups
• Oliver Cromwell didn’t believe in monarchy
• They want invite him to be king
• He says no but he will be the Protectorate
Protectorate
• Strong executive
• With council of state to rule when parliament was not in session
• Members of the council of state were appointed for life
• Redistributed the seats in parliament
• Took away veto from protector
• Religious toleration
o Except of Roman catholicsm and Anglicanism
o Government abolishes tithes
o Cromwell dies in 1658
o Begin to think about restoring the monarchy
o Charles II is in France who becomes the next king
Convention Parliament
April 1660: met and reformed House of Lords
• Declared that the proper government of England consisted of a king, House of Lords, and House of commons
• Charles II should be invited back to England to accept his fathers throne
• Army’s support is essential
• Scots came and supported under conditions
Declaration of Breda
1660: Netherlands
• When he returned, that everyone could believe what they wanted
• Pardon for those fighting against his father
• Would protect property settlements in 1642
• Promised to abide by all the settlements his father had signed
• Signed Indemity Oridince: Paying back soldiers for their service with their loyalty
• New church while Anglican had some Presbyterian qualities
• Willing to do anything to not revolt
• Certain things that the king couldn’t do anymore without facing revolt
• Tried to move to absolute roles at times but backed down
James II
brother of Charles II
• Didn’t learn the lesson and revolt happened again
Root and Branch Bill
Eliminate episcopacy root and branch: begins to split the group that had made a revolution
• Ireland rebels because England is having issues
• Ireland is Catholic and they face tons of rebellions in history
• Charles says that he needs an army and the Parliament wonders if they can trust the king (will he attack them)
• Decided they would provide funds but wouldn’t give it to king
Nineteen Propositions
June 1642
• Ask him to sign (after Grand Remonstrance)
• Last attempt
• Pg 346 PS
• King wont give power to people that the parliament doesn’t trust
• King cant choose teachers of their children that the parliament doesn’t approve of
• Charles withdraws from London and goes to Nottingham
• Some of the conservative members of Parliament get nervous
o Don’t want to take the Kings powers away from him
o Get Loyalist party : follow the king
o Parliamentary party: rooted in London trying to get the king to pass these things
Grand Remonstrance
• Try to get the King to sign without going to war
• Doesn’t agree
• Pg 340 PS
Militia Orinance
July 1642: Charles wouldn’t sign it
• Splits group again because they feel it’s going to far
• Revolution in London: people in opposition of Charles take London (important because it has all the wealth)
Oliver Cromwell
• Emerged as an organizer of a type of army that no one had ever seen before
• New Model Army: committed to Calvinism
o Army that people promoted on basis of their competence as soldiers not by family
o Paid, disciplined
o Fought because they thought it would change the whole order of society and the nature of the church
o Supported itself by carefully worked out plan of taxation that parliament controlled
o Raised much more in taxes that Charles I ever dreamed of
o Nothing Charles could do to stop it
o Borrowing and money raised in the city
o Charles didn’t know when he had lost
o Parliament won the war but didn’t know how to deal with it
Presbyterianism Vs. Independency
(Congregationalism in colonies)
• Some people loyal to Anglican church
o Nervous about the new model army and the people with new rank at all
o Army wanted to be paid
o Worried that the King would kill them so Parliament must pass a law pardoning them for fighting in the civil war
o Split in new model army and parliament
• Then there are Calvinists but the Calvinists begin to split
o Presbyterian like the Scots: Scots wont leave because they think that it might show up if they stay
o Independency: Congregationalism: each congregation saw itself as independent and had the right to call his own minister or to have to choose the minister ordained by the Presbyterian church
o Beginning to be a split
Putney Debates
first statement of democracy
Charles I
Charles I (1625-1649): Incompetent king: eventually gets beheaded
• 1625: takes the throne when James I his father dies
• 1625-29: rules with parliament
• 29-40: rules without parliament
• 40-49: Revolution and civil war which leads to his execution
Problems Charles I inherits from his father
• Religion
• Advisors
• How to collect money without parliament
• Went with the Duke of Buckingham to Spain to get a princess but didn’t get one,
Duke of Buckingham
• Charles declares war on Spain
• Made Buckingham his advisor
• Buckingham was awful in foreign affairs so bad for Charles, assisnated
• Encourages king to declare war on Spain and France
• Buckingham still dominates but at his assassination in 1628: the queen steps in she tries (because of her French background of absolutism) to go around Parliament
• Agreement in their wedding was that the wife would be able to have Catholic chapel at court, and it becomes fashionable: the ambassadors would come to the legal chapel
Parliament vs. Charles I
o It is normal for parliament to give the king export and import duties for life (full cunnage and poundage: dealing with wine)
o Parliament only grants it to him for one year: their purpose was so they can meet again
o Charles keeps collecting it after the year is over
o Led to a series of crises with parliament
Forced Loan of 1526
never a loan that would be repaid: many important people refuse to pay
 27 people in house of commons
 Thrown into Tower of London
 5 of these members sued for the writ of habeous corpus: someone must show why they are being held and the king says that they are being held on his prerogative so they had no right
o Raises two issues
 Should they pay?
 Can they have habeious corpus?
 Parliament rules in his favor, this causes huge problems
Divine Right
Charles I
answerable only by God
o Heredity
o Didn’t accept that he is answerable to parliament
Puritanism
left: want to reform church: Calvinist in doctrine
 Didn’t want to kneel in church and didn’t want wedding rings, etc.
Anglican
Church of England: under Elizabeth had become Calvinist in doctrine (middle)
 But the book of common prayer wasn’t exactly Calvinist
 Purposely vague
 Many who are brought up in the church of England: so many are attached to church
Armaianinism
Claimed to be protestant but is a theology that rejected heart of Calvinism
• Rejected predestination
• Biblical fundamentalism rejected
• Reemphasized the importance of the clergy in residing over religious
• Wanted to redecorate churches with crucifix’s wanting to reintroduce organs
• Different visually and with doctrine
• People thought it was a conspiracy to bring Roman Catholicism back
• Charles backed Arminism
Archbishop Laud
Armenian who persecuted puritans: assigned by Charles
• Minority party
• Depended on the king
• No support in the country
• Became advocates of the divine right theory of monarch (because need the king)
• Background of bad parliament in 1629
Petition of Right
1628 (probably most important since Magna carta)
Long preamble that cites historical precedent from Middle Ages for rights that are being claimed, including Magna Charta and laws passed under Edward III (1327-1377)
• John Elliot said that if the king wanted money from parliament that he had to agree to a document that guarantees the rights that he hasn’t been giving
• Quotes magna carta
• Nothing new: only asking him to abide by the law and constitution as they understand it
• Must promise four things
o Cant tax outside parliament
o Cant imprison people
o Cant put soldiers in peoples houses
o Cant put people under Marshall law
• Never say they want something new
• In the end, he needed the money so he signed the petition and didn’t pay attention to it
• Realized that he was a liar
George Role
Member of Parliament who wont pay tunnage and poundage (doesnt win)
Three resolutions
Anyone who advocated innovation in religion i.e. Popery or Arminianism or

Anyone who advocated levying Tunnage & Poundage without consent of Parliament or

Any merchant or person who paid tunnage & poundage that not levied in parliament a capital enemy of the kingdom
Personal Rule (Charles I)
• Ruled 11 years without calling parliament
• Archbiship Laud was more powerful
• Makes peace with france and spain
• By 1535 he is running out of ways to get money
• So levy’s ship money: money collected to build ships in times of war
• Charles says that everywhere in England they have to pay ship money
o If he had been sensible he would have not done it again but he does
o 1536 he tries again: country is at peace so it doesn’t make sense
John Hamden
rich member of parliament doesn’t pay
• Next year he is tried
• Oliver St. John is his defense: cites magna carta and other documents
• Claims that in times of emergency king doesn’t have to call parliament in royal courts: win
• 5 of the 12 refuse however
• People stop paying however
Attack on Puritanism
• Using court of star chamber: way to deal with powerful people
• Court to brings in puritan clergymen
• Punishing them in barbaric ways
• Three puritan clergymen were convicted: branded and their ears were cut off
o Were martyrs
o Immigration to America to Massacusetts by puritans was a sign of no hope of reform
o Want to found a City on the Hill
Scottish Presbyterianism
Calvinist)
• Biblical in strictest sense
• Calvinist prayer book
• Charles and Laud and his advisors ignore Parliament: decide to introduce English Prayer book and Enlgish church in Scotland
• In 1638: 1/3 of clergymen went to edinburough and took a covenat saying they would defend their church to the death
• Became committed to the idea that everywhere he governed had to have his church
• Thought that Presbyterian were a cover for anti-monarchy
1st Bishops War
• Charles calls parliament saying that they were in a state of war and that he needs money
o So the members of Parliametn were mostly Calvinist: said they would give no money until he corrected the issues in England
o Dissolved parliament (Short Parliament); lasted three weeks
• Scottish invaded north of Enlgand and settled
Long Parliament
(5 or six years): during revolution
• To many having the scots were ok because they were calvinist, hostile to the king (charles I)
o Could pass settlements with king
James I
1603-1625): Mary queen of Scots son
• Raised in Scotland by Calvinists when his mother was driven out
• Presbyterian: Calvinist in Scotland
• Wanted him to understand proper relationship between parliament and the crown
• Most people in England weren’t Calvinist or puritan
• Many on the right and left: who wanted reform but not pilgrams idea
• Was king of Scotland for 20 years
o Poor scotland
o Had the idea of the “promised land”: richness
o James was disliked: no public appeal because he didn’t look like a king
 He was sloppy: eating habbits
 Drank too much
 Not a good horseback rider: malnutrition causes bow legged so couldn’t ride well: need to for affluence
 Lazy and self indulgent
 Divine right
 Away from the center
 Extravagant: brought his own nobles giving them a place in court: lots of money for their families: all the English nobles money going to “foreigners”
 Always in debt
 Homosexual: married and had children however
• Gave his lovers a lot of power in court
 Passivist: didn’t believe in war: feminine
William Laud under James I
James chooses him as his bishop of London and this becomes archbishop of Canterbury: tries to bring Arminianism
• People are punished for being too protestant
• Crown is giving lots of power to him: putting elaborate things back into the church
• Causes an enormous amount of disobedience
• When people are jailed and fined: the parliament gets mad and says that they are supposed to chose the religion according to Henry VIII’s laws
james I around death
• James dies in 1625 with a huge religious struggle which only gets worse under his son
• Pro spainish foreign policy: never rescues his daughter and continual struggles with money
• Was lavish with those he liked
• Magna carta is coming back because they need to have proof as well as Confirmation of Charters
• Remind the king of the beheadings of the previous kings
Armanian
think that the Church of England has become too Protestant
o Should bring back rails and elaborate services
o Want churchs and services that look catholic
o Communion with gold and silver
o Crusifix’s
o Puritans feel that these people have a plot to bring England back to Catholicism and they are pretending to be Protestant
o King begins to choose Arminians as his bishops
Hampton Court Confrence
1604: James decided to solve the relgious problem: bring reformers into a debate to show how great the Church of England was
• Wants to keep authority of King to appoint archbishops who appoint bishops
• Someone mentions Scotlands version where they have no bishop appointing by the king (Puritan): he gets mad
• He feels that the things they are arguing about don’t matter
• They feel they do matter and if they don’t matter why wont he reform?
True Law of Free Monarchies
1598 Published 1598: true law of free monarchies: divine right of kingship
o God appointed me king, and I am answerable only to God
o Everything I do is God’s doing
o Only power is to pray to God to change my mind
o Wants to make peace with Spain: bad with Englishmen (his mother was Catholic)
o Thought the Englishmen were ungrateful
o Past Speaks: James I’s speech (page331)
 Apology of the House of Commons
 Look at outline
 Parliament has complete free speech
 Two different ideas of government setting up disputes within parliament
Perogative
residual powers of crown; above common law
• Position of the lawyers and members of parliament: king couldn’t use them if he broke common law
• James I: Feels he can use them any way he wants to
• King of Scotland and England: wanted a union of the two countries and the English wouldn’t do it
o Felt that if his subjects were loyal they would have agreed but they didn’t
o Mostly because of the favoritism showed to the Scotsmen
o King that always runs out of money dealing with a parliament that don’t believe in his basic ideas: when he wants money they don’t want to levy taxes without conditions
o Serious of cases where the king tries to get money without going to parliament leads to constitutional crisis
Goodwins Case
1604: Goodwin was elected, king tries to put someone else in and eventually Goodwin gets seated: James never again tries to interfere
Bates' Case
Had to pay import and export duties: important source of revenue for the crown: (Customs duties): James I decides to raise the customs duties on basis of prerogative
• Parliament is where taxes originate usually
• Raises the current ones: when people get it they don’t pay it because its not from parliament: he puts them in the tower of London: parliament really angry: eventually goes to central court (court of Kings bench)
• The king wins: king can levy on his prerogative customs duty
Tunnage and Poundage
• Similar battle as Bates case
• Continual fighting about money
• Making House of Commons much more watchful of James
• Eventually a revolution in his sons reign
Thirty Years War
• Lasts for thirty years
• War between protestants and catholics
• People don’t want to be involved
• German prince who is married to kings daughter: very protestant
• People around Prague protestant too, invite him to rule
• James has daughter named Elizabeth who had all the charisma that her father lacked
• She and her husband go to Prague and are driven out
• Hapsburg empire comes in to drive them out
• Outcry to save Elizabeth and the “Winter King”
• James doesn’t want to go to war thinking its much better to negotiate with the Spanish and the Holy Roman Empire
• Real split in foreign policy
• Mad because they are willing to give him money to fight and he wont go but when they don’t want to give him money he gets mad
• Wants to negotiate a peace treaty between his son Charles and daughter of Spain: Spain doesn’t want to marry daughter into protestant country unless willing to convert
o Decides to send his son to court the daughter
o Utter failure: outrages parliament
o Charles is humiliated: Duke of Buckingham and Charles come back to England
o Leads to tensions between Charles and Spain
Anglican Church
Anglican Church; in North America became known as Episcopalian church after the
American Revolution
• Middle road (Anglican Church)
• Create a church which the maximum number of her subjects would want to go to
• Didn’t try to impose uniformity
Elizabeth's view of the Anglican Church
• Create a church which the maximum number of her subjects would want to go to
• Didn’t try to impose uniformity
• “I do not want to make windows into men’s souls”- Elizabeth
o Didn’t have to take sacraments but had to go to church
o Communion service/ mass: the doctrine was changed so that it was inconsistent so that protestants would read one part and be happy and catholics would read the other and be happy
Why was Catholiscm Dangerous under Eizabeth?
 Catholics more dangerous because of Mary Queen of Scots: who ran away to England who was Catholic saying she was Elizabeth’s hier and she would make the country catholic
• Mary had support of Spain (who was richest and most powerful in the time)
• Launched attacks against England in the Armada
o Wanted to Murder Elizabeth to have a catholic revolution (which failed because Armada was unsuccessful)
o Mary was never successful in getting together a rebellion
o Protestant Left: wanted a church that looked like Calvins church: Biblical based
 “Called the Godly” or the Puritans by their opposition which was a mean thing in this time
relationship between religion and defeat of Spanish Armada
o Assalt from Spain increased English nationalism (which boosts pride in Protestantism because their opposition was Catholic) “God is an Englishman”
o Government supported that the clergymen preach Anglican principals, 39 Articles, published canned sermans (must read the sermans at certain times of the year): about obedience, etc
o Very successful: by the time she died a lot of the citizens are used to the church of England and doesn’t remember the catholic church
 Large group in the middle: protestant in the Church of England sense (associated England with Protestantism)
Elizabeth's Parliament
• When Elizabeth puts a new church on English: the bishops resign: many who had left during Mary’s reign, came back to serve
o Large group of bishops who are Calvinist and are sympathetic to the Puritans
o Get rid of alters, bring in tables and eat bread and wine
o Took the position that anything that wasn’t called for in the Bible should be taken out (crusifix’s, alters, wall paintings, stained glass windows, kneeling, all of this is unholy)
o One of the huge fights: Protestants decided not to wear the robes that Catholics wore: became an incredibly hot issue: people lost their positions
o Anglican is organized like the old Catholic church: very different than church existing in Geneva: congregation would call a minister where the minister was interviewed? Instead of bishops being appointed by high ranking people
 Scotland also elects elders which meet in regional sense (presbyters)
 Some churches took out these things anyway
 From Elizabeths point of view: the whole point of view was bad because the bishops didn’t want to imprison some of these people
Elizabeth's Attack on Catholicsim
• In the 80’s: Elizabeth begins to counterattack: appoints Archbishop who is not puritan
• Politically: strong minority of puritans are elected several times to the house of commons: willing to cooperate with Elizabeth with the early part of the reign when they are worried: but had strong opinions about relgion and succession
o Wanted her to have a protestant husband, and protestant children
o She didn’t think it was their business to talk about her personal life
o Other issue was religion: wanted to reform book of Common prayer and the 39 articles, different church officals,
 More radical of them placed religion over loyalty of the crown
 When the queen heard these she used two things
• She dissolved parliament
• Sent an order to make them stop this issue from being debated
• If they didn’t stop she sent them to the Tower of London
• She felt that she was supposed to determine relgion as a monarch
• Once she began to do these things: other people became interested: felt that parliament had the right of free speech (under Henry VIII) which was true: lawyers are siding with puritan opposition
• Merge between religion and politics
• Elizabeth never loses her ability to move the commons
Elizabeth's use of Monopolies
• Rewards people with monopolies because she doesn’t have enough money to give it away
o Shes the only one in the country who can grant the monopolies
o 1601: huge outcry in parliament about granting monopolies because hurting people in lower levels: she doesn’t want people to infringe on her rights
Sabbatarianism
: strict observance of the Sabbath; people were not going to church, going to alehouses, playing football, etc.: Puritans want to close that all down: want strict observance of church service, go to church, come home and talk about it
• Many of the Godly feel that Elizabeth and her followers are wrong
• In the first 10-15 years: many clergy come out puritan instead of Anglican
• Elizabeth wants a comprehensive church where the whole country will all come because had certain aspects of each; eventually would become close
o Thought that they should be loyal and that the queen was supreme head of the church
o To be Godly would bring government jobs
o Fought about what they should wear
Presbyterianism
top down, but authority came from below: English really want this type of Church;
Congregationalism
Key Doctrines of Calvinism
1. Total sovereignty of God vs. total corruption of man: all powerful God against human begins who are all corrupted by original sin
2. Justification by Faith Alone (vs Catholic doctrine
of grace and good wks)
1) Sacraments not means to salvation
2) Charity lost importance as means to
Salvation (catholics think there are ways to earn your salvation)
• Protestants see heaven and hell only
Predestination (vs. Catholic doctrine o free will):
4. Authority of Bible (vs. authority of Pope & total tradition of church)
Individual interpretation of bible & importance of
sermon (vs. Catholic doctrine of priest & church
as interpreter)
6. Equality of all believers
Qualities that contribute to Elizabeth's Success
1. Qualities that contributed to Elizabeth’s success as ruler
• Traditional
• Cautious
• Photo: view paper
• Spends a lot of money to make a lavish court to project how much power she has
• Good speaker and communicator with her advisors and Parliament
• Uses the issue of virginity as dedication to God
• Picks good advisors and handles them well: they stay with her for long periods of time
• Francis Walsingham: CSI leader, lawyer, Cambridge training (religiously progressive): committed protestant like Dudley
• “There is nothing more dangerous than security”- Walsingham
• Learns the lessons of her sisters reign: not being pinned down (not making irrecoverable position like Mary marring Phillip II of Spain)
• Wants to choose her successor
• Thank you for not forcing her because its not their place: this is the beginning tone in the document: complimentary
• Cant argue against virginity, religion, providence, motherhood, uses her femininity
Issue of a female ruler
• Cant do same gaming with Queen Elizabeth as with her father
• Chivalry becomes important because the men can no longer play games with her to win her favor
a. Dudley
issue of succession
• Cant attach herself to Dudley because showing favoritism
• Elizabeth isn’t married: would give up power, or gets a foreign problem
• Mary Queen of Scots: she is legitimate, Elizabeth is illegitimate according to Roman Catholicism
• Mary Queen of Scots was a French Catholic princess and Scotish Prince
a. Kicked out
b. Elizabeth doesn’t kill Mary
c. Family and royalty
d. She would have to deal with France
• Mary involved in Babington Plot 1587: Elizabeth signs death warrent
Religious Settlement of 1559
• “English Church emerged out of the Reformation Catholic in ritual, Calbinist in doctrine, and royalist in government”
• Elizabeth did make herself seen by her subjects
• Instituted certain festival days
o her birthday
o her succession
o order of the garter (Edward III’s idea): Chivalric (kind of like religious holidays after she takes away some of the Catholic ones): puts in place some secular holidays
Robert Dudley
New aristocracy, still needs to win his position. Elizabeth encourages this type of manliness. When he marries again she banishes him from court to cut down his position in government
• Maybe killed his wife
• Made him available
• He gets involved in religious politics: trying to help the French protestants (Huguenots fight against the Catholics or the Calvinists): so are getting themselves involved in foreign enterprise
• Elizabeth must bring them back in
Supreme Governor of Church (rather than supreme head)
Thirty nine articles
Broad creed
Act of Uniformity
Introduces the prayer book
Acts of Supremacy
Made governor of the Church of England (because women not allowed to be the head): still invasive governor: not afraid to use her power
Puritan
Recusant
if you don’t participate in church you are a recusant: in first few years she doesn’t enforce the requirement to go to church, but then when Catholics try to cause problems then she becomes harsh with punishments, summoning them to court
Edward IV
1547-1553 (son of Jane Seymour; born 1537)
• Period of six years, always a regency
• Henry didn’t want one person to be in charge, the council
• Coup d’etat by Edward Seymour (1550) until John Dudley takes control (father of Elizabeth’s favorite)
• Young king dies of TB in 553 his half sister Mary becomes queen
• Height of Protestants reign
• When Henry died, Edward Seymour (Edward VI’s uncle) was Protestant – the person who rules during Edward VI’s reign
• Archbishop Cramner is the archbishop of Canterbury, and he actually takes a wife
• English Bibles are put in the churches
• Government issues 42 Articles (become 39 Articles during Elizabeth’s reign): statements of very specific things you have to believe
• Make a rule book about marriage (very vague)
• Allowed confession but didn’t require it
• Society is having major stress
• For the first time since the Black death, experiencing inflation
o Population increases
o Prices of bread and land go up
o Don’t have technology to increase productivity very much
o Wages go down
o Any laborer would get caught in this
• Government in state of distress
o Debasing the coinage
John Dudley
o Desperate attempt by Dudley to marry one of his sons to Lady Jane Grey (henry’s sister)
o When Edward dies he makes Coup d’etat to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, but its an utter failure (nine day queen)
o Not only do Catholics flock to Mary but also protestants
o Loyalty to Tudor dynasty that transcends religion
o Mary becomes Queen
o She is a disaster
o Mary is a very unfortunate queen, she makes situations that are bound for disaster
Mary I
(daughter of Katherine of Aragon; born 1516); 37 years old
• All association is with her extremely catholic mother
• Became disaster politically
• Elizabeth is the daughter of Anne Boleyn and Mary is always nervous
• Elizabeth is discreet, and worships in the Catholic church, though most of England feels that she would be a Protestant church
• Leads revolt against Mary and is put in Tower of London
• Loyalty to Tudor dynasty that transcends religion
• Mary becomes Queen
• She is a disaster
• Mary is a very unfortunate queen, she makes situations that are bound for disaster
Mary's marriage
• Mary Marries Phillip II of Spain (catholic)
o Its her right but huge opposition
o In parliament they try to say that her husband will not have legal powers in England
o Passed two laws
 Limits Phillips rights in England
• Makes Mary angry
 Pass law that gives Mary full power as her other anscestors
o Rebellion occurs and Mary believes Elizabeth may be a part of it
o Wants to kill Elizabeth
o But her husband tells her not to
o Didn’t prevent the marriage
• Marriage was a failure
o Didn’t accomplish producing an heir
o Allowed Phillip to drag her into wars on the continent that England had no intrest in
mary's political failure
o Lost a lot of money
o Lost last remaining city it had in France
o So she knew that her subjects would never forgive her
o When Mary died that she was in sorrow
o When Mary came back into power she brought back the Catholic church
o A lot of objection
o One of the compromiseds she had to make- although the Catholic church was coming back the lands of the monastaries couldn’t be taken away from the landholders
o Mary was a religious fanatic
o Couldn’t accept that her citizens didn’t accept Catholicism
o Burned them alive at the stake (over 300) burning for those who wouldn’t recant
 Including Archbishop Cramner
 Didn’t understand why they didn’t recant for their “false beliefs”
 Went to death singing praises (martyrs)
 John Fox wrote down what happened at all these burnings
Book of Common Prayer
• in English
• vague first edition
• the second one was more radical
o everything not explicit in the Bible should be eliminated
• More radical than Martin Luther
• Calvin takes a different approach saying that if it isn’t mentioned in the Bible you shouldn’t do it
• Calvin: Communion: you are just participating
• Crosses eliminated, any commemoration of the Virgin Mary and the saints
• Prayers for the dead are eliminated (probably most shocking)
o Idea of purgatory disappears
o No middle ground
o God chooses
o No purpose for prayers of the dead
• Eliminated extravagant robes (long black robes only)
• Encourage clerical marriage
thirty nine articles
Theological information (42 at first): Quite protestant during Edwards reign (and when Elizabeth takes over they become the basis for the Protestant religion)
• Becomes Episcopalian in US
Abolition of chantries
• Chantries was a payment made to the priest so that they would say mass for you and your family
• Very wealthy only
• Would provide prayers forever
• Those who are at the top sometimes taught in schools too
• Set up alms houses
• Paid with land so that the money coming in on the land would go to the programs
• Government took all of this back, including moveable goods and land
• Brought wealth to the central government
Enclosure
• Decide they want a coherent price of land that they put a hedge around to increase productivity
• Landlords decide to not farm the land at all and put in sheep instead
o Workers have no jobs
o Leads to de population of villages
o John Spencer: most famous enclosure: Lady Diane’s family line
 Rich enough to become a Sir John Spencer
 Eventually become Lord
 Then become Earl Spencer
• Still enclosing for deer parks
• Some land lords don’t try to get consent from there tenets
• Don’t just take their own
• Take the common pasture as well, which used to belong to the whole village
o Causes most fury
o People who have no where else to live
o No rights on the common land
o Creates increased poverty
o Leads to a belief that enclosure must be undone
o Something must be done for the growing number of poor people
o Government are recognizing the problem
Debasement of Coinage
• End of Henry VIII”s reign on
• Recalls coinage for minting, melts down coins
• Doesn’t put as much silver back
• Government has made more profit
• Everyone knows this, government makes a lot but the people begin to discount this coinage so people increase their prices
• Adds to inflationary pressures
• What this means depends on who you are
o Peasant: if you have enough land, so that at the end of the harvest season you have a surplus: this isn’t such a bad thing (peasants are making more money in this time period- prosperous)
o If you are a landowner, or if you had leased out land: you have a problem with long term leases (99 years): usually three generations of a family
 Set a rent now and cant change it for 99 years
 Begin to squeeze tenets in various ways: if the landlords lease ends, they could increase it extremely high because of long leases (rack- renting)
 Ask upfront for an entry fine (low rent): puts immediate cash in the hands of the landlord (entry fine)
o Agricultural Workers who own a little land: one way they make money is hiring themselves out (wages are too low, too many in villiage because of increased population)
 So they aren’t benefiting
Kets Rebellion
• Starts by pulling down hedges to unenclosed land
• Armies will camp outside of Norfulk
• Pray publicly in a Protestant type of way
• Government begins to behead people
• Real backlash against duke of somerset because he is in control when all this happens
• Shaky political position
• When people are revolting in eastern here
• Procatholic rising in the west:
Prayer book rebellion
• Rebellion in the west
• People want to throw out Cramner’s prayer book
• Eventually a siege, rebellion put down ruthlessly
• Leads to the fall of Somerset’s government and the coming power of John Dudley duke of Northumberland
John Foxe
Book of Martyrs
o Single best selling book in 16th century England
o All the martyrdom accounts
o Clergyman decided that the better descion was to leave England
o Some left voluntarily (800) going to Protestant areas of the Continent
o Geneva usually the area
o John Calvins area
o Think it’s the closest to heaven
o Translate everything in Enlgish
o So when Elizabeth takes the throne they bring it back
o Becomes Puritanism
o Huge influence when they return
o Most popular form of the Bible in England was the Geneva Bible which was Calvin’s translation which had marginal commentary until the translation of the King James Version
Henry VIII
Annuls marraiges
 Thomas Bolen brings his daughters in court
• Mary becomes kings mistress
o Becomes pregnant and he is sent away
• Anne was sent to court as well
o Determined to not go the way of her sister
o Decides to not be his mistress
o He makes her come to court giving her a room adjacent to his
o Decides that he should get his marriage annulled
 Says that marriage was wrong before it started
 Catherine wouldn’t admit that she had relations with Arthur
 Tries to make her a nun
 Hearing in which Henry is summoned, Catherine is called in to admit it
• She is Ferdinand and Isabella’s daughter
• She got up in court and fell at his feet asking him to tell the truth and he walks out
• Wolsey is now useless because as a cardinal he couldn’t help Henry
Cardinal Wolsey
was the dominate figure in governemtn after the king (helps Henry to go to war and bankruptcy; attends to kings great matter; interested in creating social justice- creating cheaper courts
o Wolsey tried to prevent landowners from enclosing land that they owned
 Not successful because landowners don’t want it
o Incredibly unpopular because made himself rich, many servants
o Little in common with the nobility
o Offensive in Christian point of view
o Entirely dependent on the king: when the king was done with him he was finished
o Henry in 1524-5 knew what he wanted to do
Edward IV
1547-1553 (son of Jane Seymour; born 1537)
• Period of six years, always a regency
• Henry didn’t want one person to be in charge, the council
• Coup d’etat by Edward Seymour (1550) until John Dudley takes control (father of Elizabeth’s favorite)
• Young king dies of TB in 553 his half sister Mary becomes queen
• Height of Protestants reign
• When Henry died, Edward Seymour (Edward VI’s uncle) was Protestant – the person who rules during Edward VI’s reign
• Archbishop Cramner is the archbishop of Canterbury, and he actually takes a wife
• English Bibles are put in the churches
• Government issues 42 Articles (become 39 Articles during Elizabeth’s reign): statements of very specific things you have to believe
• Make a rule book about marriage (very vague)
• Allowed confession but didn’t require it
• Society is having major stress
• For the first time since the Black death, experiencing inflation
o Population increases
o Prices of bread and land go up
o Don’t have technology to increase productivity very much
o Wages go down
o Any laborer would get caught in this
• Government in state of distress
o Debasing the coinage
John Dudley
o Desperate attempt by Dudley to marry one of his sons to Lady Jane Grey (henry’s sister)
o When Edward dies he makes Coup d’etat to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, but its an utter failure (nine day queen)
o Not only do Catholics flock to Mary but also protestants
o Loyalty to Tudor dynasty that transcends religion
o Mary becomes Queen
o She is a disaster
o Mary is a very unfortunate queen, she makes situations that are bound for disaster
Mary I
(daughter of Katherine of Aragon; born 1516); 37 years old
• All association is with her extremely catholic mother
• Became disaster politically
• Elizabeth is the daughter of Anne Boleyn and Mary is always nervous
• Elizabeth is discreet, and worships in the Catholic church, though most of England feels that she would be a Protestant church
• Leads revolt against Mary and is put in Tower of London
• Loyalty to Tudor dynasty that transcends religion
• Mary becomes Queen
• She is a disaster
• Mary is a very unfortunate queen, she makes situations that are bound for disaster
Mary's marriage
• Mary Marries Phillip II of Spain (catholic)
o Its her right but huge opposition
o In parliament they try to say that her husband will not have legal powers in England
o Passed two laws
 Limits Phillips rights in England
• Makes Mary angry
 Pass law that gives Mary full power as her other anscestors
o Rebellion occurs and Mary believes Elizabeth may be a part of it
o Wants to kill Elizabeth
o But her husband tells her not to
o Didn’t prevent the marriage
• Marriage was a failure
o Didn’t accomplish producing an heir
o Allowed Phillip to drag her into wars on the continent that England had no intrest in
mary's political failure
o Lost a lot of money
o Lost last remaining city it had in France
o So she knew that her subjects would never forgive her
o When Mary died that she was in sorrow
o When Mary came back into power she brought back the Catholic church
o A lot of objection
o One of the compromiseds she had to make- although the Catholic church was coming back the lands of the monastaries couldn’t be taken away from the landholders
o Mary was a religious fanatic
o Couldn’t accept that her citizens didn’t accept Catholicism
o Burned them alive at the stake (over 300) burning for those who wouldn’t recant
 Including Archbishop Cramner
 Didn’t understand why they didn’t recant for their “false beliefs”
 Went to death singing praises (martyrs)
 John Fox wrote down what happened at all these burnings
Book of Common Prayer
• in English
• vague first edition
• the second one was more radical
o everything not explicit in the Bible should be eliminated
• More radical than Martin Luther
• Calvin takes a different approach saying that if it isn’t mentioned in the Bible you shouldn’t do it
• Calvin: Communion: you are just participating
• Crosses eliminated, any commemoration of the Virgin Mary and the saints
• Prayers for the dead are eliminated (probably most shocking)
o Idea of purgatory disappears
o No middle ground
o God chooses
o No purpose for prayers of the dead
• Eliminated extravagant robes (long black robes only)
• Encourage clerical marriage
thirty nine articles
Theological information (42 at first): Quite protestant during Edwards reign (and when Elizabeth takes over they become the basis for the Protestant religion)
• Becomes Episcopalian in US
Abolition of chantries
• Chantries was a payment made to the priest so that they would say mass for you and your family
• Very wealthy only
• Would provide prayers forever
• Those who are at the top sometimes taught in schools too
• Set up alms houses
• Paid with land so that the money coming in on the land would go to the programs
• Government took all of this back, including moveable goods and land
• Brought wealth to the central government
Enclosure
• Decide they want a coherent price of land that they put a hedge around to increase productivity
• Landlords decide to not farm the land at all and put in sheep instead
o Workers have no jobs
o Leads to de population of villages
o John Spencer: most famous enclosure: Lady Diane’s family line
 Rich enough to become a Sir John Spencer
 Eventually become Lord
 Then become Earl Spencer
• Still enclosing for deer parks
• Some land lords don’t try to get consent from there tenets
• Don’t just take their own
• Take the common pasture as well, which used to belong to the whole village
o Causes most fury
o People who have no where else to live
o No rights on the common land
o Creates increased poverty
o Leads to a belief that enclosure must be undone
o Something must be done for the growing number of poor people
o Government are recognizing the problem
Debasement of Coinage
• End of Henry VIII”s reign on
• Recalls coinage for minting, melts down coins
• Doesn’t put as much silver back
• Government has made more profit
• Everyone knows this, government makes a lot but the people begin to discount this coinage so people increase their prices
• Adds to inflationary pressures
• What this means depends on who you are
o Peasant: if you have enough land, so that at the end of the harvest season you have a surplus: this isn’t such a bad thing (peasants are making more money in this time period- prosperous)
o If you are a landowner, or if you had leased out land: you have a problem with long term leases (99 years): usually three generations of a family
 Set a rent now and cant change it for 99 years
 Begin to squeeze tenets in various ways: if the landlords lease ends, they could increase it extremely high because of long leases (rack- renting)
 Ask upfront for an entry fine (low rent): puts immediate cash in the hands of the landlord (entry fine)
o Agricultural Workers who own a little land: one way they make money is hiring themselves out (wages are too low, too many in villiage because of increased population)
 So they aren’t benefiting
Kets Rebellion
• Starts by pulling down hedges to unenclosed land
• Armies will camp outside of Norfulk
• Pray publicly in a Protestant type of way
• Government begins to behead people
• Real backlash against duke of somerset because he is in control when all this happens
• Shaky political position
• When people are revolting in eastern here
• Procatholic rising in the west:
Prayer book rebellion
• Rebellion in the west
• People want to throw out Cramner’s prayer book
• Eventually a siege, rebellion put down ruthlessly
• Leads to the fall of Somerset’s government and the coming power of John Dudley duke of Northumberland
John Foxe
Book of Martyrs
o Single best selling book in 16th century England
o All the martyrdom accounts
o Clergyman decided that the better descion was to leave England
o Some left voluntarily (800) going to Protestant areas of the Continent
o Geneva usually the area
o John Calvins area
o Think it’s the closest to heaven
o Translate everything in Enlgish
o So when Elizabeth takes the throne they bring it back
o Becomes Puritanism
o Huge influence when they return
o Most popular form of the Bible in England was the Geneva Bible which was Calvin’s translation which had marginal commentary until the translation of the King James Version
Henry VIII
Annuls marraiges
 Thomas Bolen brings his daughters in court
• Mary becomes kings mistress
o Becomes pregnant and he is sent away
• Anne was sent to court as well
o Determined to not go the way of her sister
o Decides to not be his mistress
o He makes her come to court giving her a room adjacent to his
o Decides that he should get his marriage annulled
 Says that marriage was wrong before it started
 Catherine wouldn’t admit that she had relations with Arthur
 Tries to make her a nun
 Hearing in which Henry is summoned, Catherine is called in to admit it
• She is Ferdinand and Isabella’s daughter
• She got up in court and fell at his feet asking him to tell the truth and he walks out
• Wolsey is now useless because as a cardinal he couldn’t help Henry
Cardinal Wolsey
was the dominate figure in governemtn after the king (helps Henry to go to war and bankruptcy; attends to kings great matter; interested in creating social justice- creating cheaper courts
o Wolsey tried to prevent landowners from enclosing land that they owned
 Not successful because landowners don’t want it
o Incredibly unpopular because made himself rich, many servants
o Little in common with the nobility
o Offensive in Christian point of view
o Entirely dependent on the king: when the king was done with him he was finished
o Henry in 1524-5 knew what he wanted to do
Martin Luther
Martin Luther had posted his theses causing the Protestant Reformation
 People in England are being influenced
 Clergymen are meeting to discuss this new religious belief
 Low countries are fascinated
 1527 english translation by Tyndale brought to England
• Only things that matter are the gospel
• Strong commitment to not accumulating wealth
• Radical critique of the Roman Catholic Church
• Increasing sense that the Pope is a foreigner (14th Century)
• Parliament passes law that John had no right to give England to the pope and they take it back
Henry VIII and war
• Wolsey built many palaces and thought he could give Henry VIII Hampton court to keep himself around longer
• 1512: Henry wants to go to war
• Wolsey decides to raise the money so that Henry can go to war
• By the 1520’s he is worried he doesn’t have a male heir
Catherine of Aragon
• Married to Catherine of Aragon and gets permission from the pope
• By 1521: been pregnant several times and only had one daughter, she is 35 by this time
o Believes that he doesn’t have a son because he married his brothers widow
o Thinks that pope cant even pardon him
o Becomes clear that Henry wants to get rid of Catherine
o Problem is that Catherines nephew Charles V (holy roman empire): Charles invades the pope and pope follows Charles instead of helping Henry VIII
o 1529: Calls Reformation Parliament
Henry VIII
• Henry VIII was very popular
• Hunter
• Anxious to go to war
• Modern man learned in Greek and Latin, French and Spanish
• New art and music
• Great builder
• Real renaissance man
• Great builder of palaces
• Chose ministers and servants well
• Delegated power well, and his servants loved him
• Listened to his advisors most of the time
• Always saw the world from his own viewpoint and his interests even in that moment
• Ruthless and insisted on obedience
• Associated his will with the will of God
• Many died, including wives and Thomas Cromwell
• Wolsey dies before he can die
• Henry represented the crown and monarchy, nothing significant happened unless Henry wanted it to marry Anne Boleyn- she is keeping her door bolted
Anne Boylen
o Anne becomes pregenat
o Archbishop declares first marriage null
o A lot of anger in England
o Catherine was a popular queen
o Seen as evil women at expense of his devoted wife
o Anne is not popular so they have a small wedding
o She has a daughter having arrogantly said that she will give him a son
o Henry is still willing to work on it
 Gives birth to miscarriage
 Thought it could have been a boy
 Seals Anne’s fate
 With Cromwell they decide they will say she had incest with her brother and other men in court and is beheaded
 Her father leaves town
 1536: Henry is single again
Jane Seymore
o Marries Jane Seymore: gives birth to son Edward
 King is excited
 Has elaborate baptism
 Henry decides Jane must go to the baptism
 Hemorrhages a few days later, gets infection and dies
o Catherine is in royal household in bad conditions in hope that she will get disease and die and she does die
o Will slowly become protestant
Henry VIII's church
• Henry was not a protestant, he is burning lollards
• Wanted to create a national English Catholic Church
o Protestants would help him attack Rome
o So caught between those who helped him and his beliefs
o Thomas Cromwell and Thomas Cranmer (both were Protestants)
 Henry needed a Protestant sitting in Canterbury (Thomas Cranmer)
 Cromwell was committed with church and nationality
 Cromwell promised he would get him a divorce and make him the richest king in Christendom
William Tyndale
publishes English translation of New Testament- merchants are smuggling it into England: areas that are taking it up are those who accepted Lollardy years before (those Bibles gone): now printing press so picks up quickly
• Eventually translates most old Testament as well
• Transforms English language into what we know as the Elizabethan and Stuart England
Statue of Praemunire
1353: no one in England has the right to appeal anything over the head of the king to Rome, and if someone does this all of his property will be forfeited to the crown
• King accuses Wolsey of this
• Wolsey tries to bribe him by giving him a castle
• Turns to huge hate of Wolsey
Mortuary Dues
Payment to church for burial on the church grounds
Christian Humanism
Thomas More: highly educated, well aware that he church is too involved with things of this world
• Want to reform the church, not break it up
Thomas more
made the kings new chancellor when Wolsey was dethroned
• People who should have defended the church were not equipped to defend it
• Most were not saints
• Many were servants of the government
• Weren’t independent commitments to the church as it self and to theological beliefs
Reformation Parliament
: lasted for 7 years the same people come back as members of house of commons and others
• Group of men that come together
• Aware that Cromwell’s strategy was to get parliament to pass laws to make it legitimate
o Gave them sense of importance
o Developed their own precedures
o Had corporate sense
o Henry realized that by depending on parliament he could create a situation in which his whole country supported him
o 1543: Henry gives speech saying that the king and parliament are one body
Submission of the Clergy
• Passed a law in parliament that the clergy should submit to the king and the recognition that he is the supreme head of the church of England
• He threatens them with confiscating their land
• 1st time that the king is declared head of the church of England
• Henry begins to try to pressure the pope
Act in restraint of annates
• Passed law saying that it was right of king in intrest of the people to make them not pay annates (payment of income of clergy to pope for the first year)
• If they would say his marriage was null he would not do this
Act of supremacy
• Officially declares that the king is the head of the Church of England
• Basically Pope of England’s church
Tudor Dynasty
(inherited Lancastrian claim to throne)
• Came to the throne in 1485
• Henry VII was the first of the Tudor line
Henry VII
• Mother was Margaret Beaufort
Descended from John of Gaunt, Edward III’s,
third son through Beauforts
Heir to senior line Margaret Beaufort, mother of
Henry VII
• In third marriage she and her husband took vows of chastity
• Wouldn’t

Henry VII: John of Gaun had mistress in Beaufort castle, when his wife died
• If children born before marriage were considered illegitimate
• Henry VII claimed throne as Lancastrian even though he was from Beaufort
• Elizabeth of York married (Edward IV): Margret made this political descion for her son to end War of the Roses
• 1485: claimed throne against Richard III (younger brother of Edward IV): seized the throne pretty clear that he killed his two nephews: their mother was angry and supported Henry VII’s claim to the throne
• Was 30 when he came to the throne, spent most of his life in excile
• Not exact vision of medieval kings
• Shy and slow spoken but knew how to reestablish a monarchy in England
Henry VII and reestablishing soverignty
• Must reestablish crowns sovereignty
• Most of the reign he saw he needed courts, created a palace
• Wanted to appear rich
• Hated war and didn’t want to waste money on war
• Gaining back land
• Wanted to create belief that the tudors were a legitimate dynasty
Henry VII's marriage for his son
• Anxious to marry oldest son Arthur to a Spaniard because they were influential
o Shows that they have ally and that they are legitimate heirs
o Marriage occurs in 1501
o Named his first son Arthur (to show history) didn’t live very long
 Married at 15
 Sent to Wales and within a few months he died (maybe of TB)
 Did they consummate the marriage? (Catherine of Aragon)
• Henry marries Catherine of Aragon
o Catherine said it hadn’t been consummated
o So did Henry
o Henry decides 20 years later that it hadn’t because he didn’t want to marry her anymore
Court of Star Chamber
famous because had stars on the celing)
o Didn’t follow common law
o Had no idea why you were summoned
o Made you take oath to answer all questions on pain of endangering your soul
o Asked questions and then you figure out why your there
o Could fine people hugely but instead made nobility sign bonds in which they said if they did certain things then they would take the money
 Could be just appearing in court every few days
 Extremely popular outside of the nobility and religious knights
 Helped control feuds
 In the 17th century becomes hated because supports religious conformity
 Its because of star chamber that we have the 5th amendment: you don’t have to say anything that can incriminate yourself
Henry VII expanding nobility
• When Henry VII came to the throne 29 noblemen of the parliament were all that existed, only 18 came to the first parliament because of safety
• Henry created few new positions
• Called parliament and house of lords together instead of just the nobels when needed new laws, clergy is included in this group
o Members of council was always present
o Gentry sits across the street (house of commons)
o Gave titles to certain people (ambassadors for those he didn’t like, sent abroad and weren’t paid)
o Nobility were his peers (baptisims, marriages, etc)
o Socially nobility is important
• Tried to expand group that he turned to for advice
• Had a council
• Instead of entirely nobility and a few bishops, ¼ of nobility, ¼ clergy, ½ commoners (lawyers mostly)
o Lawyers important because helped him run Star Chamber
o When House of Commons met the council also met, and petitons were addressed by the clergy and the lawyers
o If it was petty they went to the commoners
o Henry attended the council meetings
o Knew what everyone was doing
Creating courts (Henry VII)
o Henry creates other courts called Prerogative courts
 Northern court: Council of the North
• Must follow Star Chamber rules
 Council of Wales: Prince would run the council
 Court of Requests: court that people could come to if people couldn’t afford common law
• Cheaper court to keep costs down
• Many of them weren’t poor at all to get their case heard (quicker than common law court)
• Doesn’t want to rely to heavily on parliament: king for 23 years
o Parliament rarely met (a years worth of time)
o King sat with the House of Lords to keep watch
o If parliament didn’t have right to tax, Henry VII probably wouldn’t have called parliament
Vagabonds and the tutors
• Tutors concerned with vagabonds (disorder, and petty crime): more severe crimes for vagabonds
o Able bodied men who should be working
o Assumption is that if you aren’t criminal that you can work
o This is not the economic reality, many who cant find work and move to London and are picked up on the way
o Doesn’t help vagabondage to beat them, and population will increase in 17th century so vagabondage increases
Henry VII and increasing crown revenue
o Effort to take over land taken by disorders of the 15th century
o All leases since 1455 are void and land must go back to crown
o Land given by Richard III are void and go back to crown
o Had people to check rent being payed
• Other major source of money was customs – import and export duties were taken
o Market was growing and Henry VII increased duties
o Getting more from import and export duties than from land taxes
o Managed to make money from war
Phony War
on france: begins Hundreds years war again- says he is king of Scotland, says he wants to be king of France
 Calls parliament and gets the money
 Leads expedition to France
 French leader gives him money and gets more money each year
 Never gives Parliament his taxes back
 Administers crown lands tightly, collects bonds from nobility
Pardons
• Revenue from pardoning people
• Manages to raise income to a huge level: had 9,000 pounds in cash
• Had 140,000 pounds in silver and gold
• Henry VIII inherits the money and goes through it quickly
• By the death of Henry VII he had a central government without warfare
• Controlled counties, very successful but wasn’t loved because he wasn’t glamorous
Perogative courts
based on kings right to do justice: couldn’t impose a penalty that was capital (or harm the human body) from Star Chamber; could in commons though or if got in fight in kings palace
• Were usually fined
Gentry
: Well-to-do, but untitled, nonhereditary class of land-owners; many descended from knights whose primary function was fighting in middle ages; knights formed the top echelon of the gentry. Tudors used this class to govern England through the office of the justice of the peace; distinguishing characteristic of the gentry was that they did not do manual labor; they were divided into two status groups, the lesser or parish gentry and the county elite, almost all of whom were knighted