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74 Cards in this Set

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Why were the first few years of Nero's reign "good?"
Seneca gave him advice on economics - lower taxes
What was Seneca?
A philosopher
Why did Nero's popularity plummet?
1)Agrippina his mother was clubbed to death.
2)Poppea died when he kicked her in the stomach and she was pregnant
3)Rome burned and he blamed it on the christians
4)Stole art from the entire empire
Why did Seneca quit?
Because Nero killed his mother and his wife
What did Nero do when Rome burned?
Why?
He sang, danced, and played the lyre.
Because then he could build his palace in the Forum, there had been no room before.
How many members were there in the Senate during Nero's reign and what did they do?
There were 900 members and they declared him an enemy of the state
What did Nero do when he was declared an enemy of the state?
He committed suicide (I'll show them)
Who became emperor after Nerva?
How?
Trajan.
He adopted him because he knew he could get the support of the military through him. He also had no heirs
#3 facts about Trajan
1)One of the most beloved emperors
2)1st non-Italian emperor (born in Hispania
3)Spent much of his life in the military
Who was the messanger that brough Trajan the news of his adoption and succession to the throne?
Hadrian. He eventually adopts Hadrian because he will have no heirs
Why was Trajan one of the most beloved emperors?
He was humble
What were the three reasons the people loved Trajan immediately?
1)He walked into the city
2)Walked and talked to normal people
3)Hugged Senators
Where were the 6 reasons people thought the empire would collapse?
1)Civil wars
2)Invasions
3)Plague
4)Inflation*
5)Economy*
6)Empire was too large to govern and defend
Why didn't the empire collapse?
Emperor Diocletian
What 3 things did Diocletian do to save the empire?
1)Agreed empire was too big, created a tetrarchy
2)Froze prices, jobs, and wages for the economy
3)Almost doubled the military
What was Diocletians tetrarchy?
How much "longer" did he help the empire last?
1)He split the empire into east and west, Augustus for each, with a Caesar for each.
2)200 years
What fraction of the empire was christian?
1/5
How many christians were executed?
100,000
Why did so many people convert to christianity?
1)Teaching resonated in them, it made sense
2)Gave life new meaning, you could have a relationship with God
3)Jesus DID EXIST
Who was the first christian emperor?
Constantine
Why did Constantine become a christian?
He has a vision/dream that he saw a cross that said "in this sign you will conuqer."
The next day he won a battle and converted.
What is the edict of Milan and who created it?
It legalized christianity and it was made by Constantine.
Where did Constantine move the capital to? What was it first called and what is it called today?
Constantinople.
Byzantium.
Istanbul.
What emperor made christianity the official religion of the empire? What was it called?
Theodosius.
Theodosian Code
Who was the last Roman Emperor and who overthrew him?
Romulus Augustus
A German leader Odoacer
Four reasons that Rome fell?
1)Too large to govern effectively. (Aristotle said:the empire should not be farther than the eye can see)
2)Make of of the army, half weren't even Italians
3)Moral decay
4)Invasion weakened them
Three reasons the Roman Empire was so significant?
1)Kept alive and spread Greek culture
2)Brought the Latin language to much of Europe - official language
3)Birth and spread of Christianity
Seven negative effects of the Roman Empire falling?
1)No centreal gov.
2)No strong military
3)^No protection as people travel
4)Economy falls
5)Capitalism dies
6)Books and art stopped
7)MANY smaller countries came up where one used to be
Define Middle Ages
Define Medieval
Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of Europes Modern Era
Of the middle ages
What religion was created in the Middle ages and what is someone that follows it called?
Islam
Muslim
Who was the creator of Islam?
Where was he born?
What was his occupation?
Muhammad
Mecca
A camel caravan dispatcher
Where people polytheistic or monotheistic in the Middle ages?
Polytheistic
How old was he when he recieved his "revelations" and what did they say?
40
One god, Allah, told him things and it was written down as the Koran
What are the five pillars of Islam?
1)One god:Allah
2)Pray 5 times a day
3)Must obstain from food, drink, and sex during the day for the holy month of Ramadan
4)Pilgrimage to Mecca
5)Alms to the poor
What happened when Muhammad told others of his revelations?
-Only a few family members converted
-He was ran out of Mecca
-He went to Yathrib (Medina, city of the prophet)and people converted
Define Islam
Define Muslim
"Submission to the will of Allah"
"One who submits to the will of Allah"
After eight years, what did Muhammad and his followers do?
They marched out of Yathrib to Mecca and forced them to convert
Three controversial things about Muhammad/Islam
a)Jihad:Holy War-is it killing or an innner struggle?
b)Wives of Muhammad-Aisha, his favorite was 6 when they married and 9 when they slept together
c)How should it be spread, words or the sword?
What is the biggest reason for the rise of the Roman Catholic Church? What brought it on?
Need for structure within Christianity.
Two heresies
What were the two heresies that brought the rise of the Roman Catholic Church?
1)Donatist created Donatism saying if someone was sinful, their sacrements are moot. But everyone is sinful.
2)Arius created Arianism saying Jesus was not as high as God, he was inferior
What was the Council of Nicaea?
Bishops got together and decided against Arianism saying that Jesus is not inferior to God the Father
What was the Papacy first called? What other role does he fill?
Papa
Bishop of Rome (Peter was the first "Bishop" of Rome cuz he created the first church in Rome)
Four reasons the Pope was needed?
1)Need for structure
2)Rome was the most important city
3)Bishops were successors of Peter
4)Bishops of Rome began calling themselves "Papa" (Father)
Define Feudalism
Define Manorialism?
Political structure
Economic structure linked to feudalism
What lead to feudalism in the Middle ages?
Kings have two problems:
1)No army's of their own
2)No money
Explain feudalism
King gives land to someone, in return they must serve in the army and enforce his laws on their land. These men were called nobles
Explain manorialism (four things)
Land given to nobles/lords was called a manor.
1)Home of the lord was on the manor
2)Small homes of the farmers/peasants was on the manor
3)There was a Catholic church on the manor
4)The bakery, blacksmith, and mill was owned by the lord and everyone had to pay to use them
Six facts about peasants?
1)Required to work land of the lord at least 3 days a week
2)Other days they worked their own land (some had none, some had up to 1/2 an acre)
3)Barely had enough to make ends meet
4)Had to pay to fish and hunt
5)Had to use mill and bakery, and pay for it.
6)Traveled LITTLE
Name the two stages of the Kingdom of the Franks?
Germans:Marovingian and Carolingians
What are the Marovingians known as?
"Do nothing Kings"
What was the only king of the Marovingians who "did" anything and what did he do?
Clovis
1)Said monarchs rule b/c of divine right, it is inherited (until then, Germans had been elected)
2)Converted to Christianity
3)Divided kingdom into counties
How did Clovis convert to christianity?
His wife Glotilda told him to pray before battle. He prayed to the "God of Gloitilda" and won. He made his men convert on the spot.
Who overthrew the Marovingians?
Pepin the short, a Carolingian.
Who did Pepin the short ask about overthrowing the Marovingians?
What did he give him after that and what is it now called?
Pope Zacharias I. Gives him his blessing.
Land in Italy for him to govern, now called the Papal State(s)
What does Charlemagne mean?
Charles the Great
What happened when Pope Zacharias I was given land by Pepin the Short?
He was now not only a religious leader but also a political leader
Who were Charlemagnes parents?
Pepin the Short and Bertha Greatfoot
What created in Charlemagne a desire to learn?
His mom read to him every night as a child
Three changes that Charlemagne brought?
1)Education. Schools had died out after Rome, he funded and built schools. He did this and made monks copy books by the ancient Greeks
2)Conquered Europe
3)Crowned on Christmas day the first "Holy Roman Emperor." First of a 1000 years, means they are the leader of Germany
Who became emperor after Charlemagne?
After him?
His son, "Louis the Pious"
His oldest son, Lothair.
Who was jealous of Lothair inheriting the whole kingdom and what was created as a result of the years of fighting?
Charles the Bald and Louis the German, his brothers. The Treaty of Verdun was created.
What did the Treaty of Verdun do?
Split the kingdom into 3 parts. King of the Western Franks-Charles the Bald. Kingdom of Lothairingia-Lothair. Kingdom of the East Franks-Louis the German.
What were the opposing sides of the Crusades?
Muslims and Christians.
Who was the Byzantine Emperor that called for help from the pope because he was afraid the Muslims would attack him? What pope did he call on?
Alexius I.
Urban II
Three reasons Urban II helped Alexius I?
1)Conquer Muslims (that's always good)
2)Get the Holy Land back
3)Hoped people would look to him as their religious leader b/c people in Eastern Italy were looking at their Emperor as their religious leader b/c the pope was so far away.
What was the Council of Clermant?
Urban II gives a speech calling for Christians to go to war against the Muslims.
What was the appeal to the average person to go on the Crusades?
1)Garanteed to get into heaven (they got to heaven by good works)
2)Showing their loyalty to God
3)It was an adventure
4)Plunder and loot. Peasants who conquered land could maybe even establish a kingdom and become nobility.
What were the three results of the first Crusade?
1)Possibly 35,000 helped defeat Muslims.
2)Gained control of the Muslims/Holy Land
3)Byzantine Empire is saved
Did the Muslims retake the Holy Land after the first Crusade?
Yes
What was the Childrens Crusade and what happened?
They thought God would help innocent children in fighting. Some sick adults captured them when they gathered and sold them into slavery.
Did the Crusades eventually succeed?
No
Three reasons the Crusades were significant?
1)Long lasting hatred between Christians and Muslims
2)Beginning of Christian animosity and persecution of Jews
3)Started the end of the Middle Ages
Why were the Jews persecuted?
1)They killed Jesus
2)They did not believe Jesus was the Son of God/Messiah
Why were the Crusades the beginning of the end of the Middle Ages? (six reasons)
a)Crusades departed from Italy
b)Supplies were needed: weapons, food, wine etc. thus, demand was high.
c)Capitalism starts to rise
d)Italy becomes the center of commerce, economy rises.
e)Some people now have wealth
f)The Renaissance begins: rebirth of interest in art and literature.