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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the prefixes?
Milli-10^-3
Micro 10^-6
Nano 10^-9
Pico-10^(-12)
Femto 10^(-15)
Significant digits?
Multiplied-least decimals
Addition-least sig figs
What are exact numbers? Inexact?
Exact numbers-defined,definite quantities that do not effect scientific notation
Inexact numbers-obtained from measurements, need scientific notation
How can you determine moles?
Grams/molar mass
Percent Composition
find total mass, than mass of each substance
How do you find an empirical formula?-Assume 100g of sample, find weight of each substance than find the moles, divide by the one with the smallest, if comes out wrong multiply by some fractions
Combustion analysis
finding empirical formula-given amount of CO2 and H2O, find mass of C, find mass of H, O is still a mystery so set equal to number of grams given total, divide by smallest and do fraction thing again
Finding how much product can be produced
find moles of limiting reactant, find mole to mole ratio from balanced equation, find mass of product
What mass of X was consumed in rxn?
Find moles of limiting reactant, use mole to mole ratio
Percent yield
actual over theoretical *100
Unreacted Copper left over
actual grams of copper oxide, mole to mole ratio,
Net Ionic equation
dissociate all strong electrolytes, identify and cancel all ions hat do not participate in the reaction
Non-electrolyte
a substance which does not release ions when dissolved in aqueous solution
Electrolytes-
any substance that produces ions in an aqueous solution
Exchange reaction
cation pairs, write chemical formaulas of products as neutral species, balance the overall equation, add phase labels
Oxidation Rules
1. Elemental form (O2, H2, P4, etc) are always zero.2. monoatomic ion (Fe 2+, Fe 3+ . . . -ous or -ic?) have oxidation numbers that equal the charge. -Ic is 3+, -ous is 2+.3. Oxygen will be -2, unless it's in a peroxide. 4. Hydrogen is +1 with nonmetals and -1 with metals. Compare NaH with H20.5. The Halogens (column 7) are -1, except when bound to oxgen. Then they're positive.
N total
n1+n2+n3
P total
P1+P2+P3
Volume of gases
all have the same volume
Mole fraction=
moles/total moles
Water Vapor
whenever any gas is in contact with any liquid water, the water contribute some vapor pressure, depenedent on temp
Collecting gases over water
must take into account the fact that there is vapor pressure in the container too!
The kinetic molecular theory of gases
gases are made of molecules in motion, molecules are very small, molecules don’t attract or repel one another, molecules collide with each other and walls, collisions are elastic, average kinetic energy of molecules proportional to absolute temp, occupy no volume
Maxwell Boltzmann
speed varies with temp
Energy
1/2mv^2
Q=
deltaH
Mole of reaction
moles of time reaction takes place, so ie for every time the reaction takes place you might have use 2 moles of O2
Calorimetry
Qrxn=nrxndeltaHrxn

Qtotal=0=qsolution+qrxn
Qsol=MCAT
Qrxn=moles of reaction times deltaH
Bomb Calorimetry
Ccal=KJ/C so q=-CcalDeltaT
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
The change in enthalpy equals the heat gained or lost at onstant oressure
DeltaH=Hproducts-Hreactants
Specific Heat
the amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram 1 degree
N total
n1+n2+n3
P total
P1+P2+P3
Volume of gases
all have the same volume
Mole fraction=
moles/total moles
Water Vapor
whenever any gas is in contact with any liquid water, the water contribute some vapor pressure, depenedent on temp
Collecting gases over water
must take into account the fact that there is vapor pressure in the container too!
The kinetic molecular theory of gases
gases are made of molecules in motion, molecules are very small, molecules don’t attract or repel one another, molecules collide with each other and walls, collisions are elastic, average kinetic energy of molecules proportional to absolute temp, occupy no volume
Maxwell Boltzmann
speed varies with temp
Energy
1/2mv^2
Q=
deltaH
Mole of reaction
moles of time reaction takes place, so ie for every time the reaction takes place you might have use 2 moles of O2
Calorimetry
Qrxn=nrxndeltaHrxn

Qtotal=0=qsolution+qrxn
Qsol=MCAT
Qrxn=moles of reaction times deltaH
Bomb Calorimetry
Ccal=KJ/C so q=-CcalDeltaT
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
The change in enthalpy equals the heat gained or lost at onstant oressure
DeltaH=Hproducts-Hreactants
Specific Heat
the amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram 1 degree
What makes a bond-
electrons
Why can’t light always come ou
because electrons can only be certain places, have certain energies
The four equations
Light:wavelength*velocity=c
E=h*velocity
Electron:dibroglie’s=h/m*velocity
KE=1/2 mv^2
Wavelength
distance between crests and troughs
Amplitude
max height above and below center line
Freq
number of crests that pass through a given pt per unit time
C=
speed of light
Ephoton
=Ebinding+KEeletron
What determines the photoelectric effect the intensity of the light or its frequency?
The frequency, there is a threshold frequency to dislodge an electron
Rydberg Equation:
-RH(1/n^2), n=principle quaqntum number
For hydrogen only see: purple, aqua, and red
Higher frequencies
ave higher energies, waqves have a certain number of nodes and the more nodes the higher the energy
What is n?
The principle quantum number, represent size, the larger it is the more time the electron spends away from its nucleus
Quantum numbers?
What is l=Shape, 0-S,1-P,2-D, 3-F
Ml=magnetic quantum number, from –l to l
Represents orientation is space, where an electron can be found
Nodes?
Nodes-zones of no electrons, no electron density
Number of radial nodes=n-l-1

Radial nodes=n-l-1
Angular nodes=l
Total nodes=n-1
Spin
Each orbital can contain up to two electrons because of ms which means each has a different spin, first is positive, second is negative
Purines and Pyrimidines?
Purine-G,A
Pyrimidine-CT
DNA orientation
What is the 5 prime? Has PO4
What is the 3prime? Has sugar
What is a nucleotide composed of-
Sugar, Phosphate, Base
Forcings
any process that can change climate
Keq
H2CO3/PCO2\
Size of atoms
decrease across, increase down
What effects size?
Zeffective which is the amount of pull the outermost electrons experience, equal t atomic number minus shielding electrons
What happens with CO2 and Water dissolves
can also interact with calcium carbonate to make water basic
\
Some environmental stuff?
Visible and UV in Infared out
What absorbs infared? CH4.N2O, CFCs, CO2, H2O
O18 dissolves at higher temps
hypo,iso,hyper?
Isotonic-two solutions with identical osmotic pressure
Hypotonc-solution in lower osmotic pressure in relation to concentration
Hypertonic-solution of higher osmotic pressure in relation to less a conc one
Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure- is the pressure required to stop osmosis
Osmotic pressure=MRT
Pressure stuff in solution?
PA=XAPAo
PA=vapor pressure of the solution (solute+solvent) PAo=vp of pure solvent
XA=mole fraction, Can also be down with two things
i?
extent to which electrolytes dissociate in solution ide number of particles formed per molecules of solute dissolved
Colligative properties depend upon how many solute particles are in solution
Zeff?
Zeff increases across the periodic table, but does not change down
Isoelectronic series
all have same electrons, but different sizes,
Ionization energ
the energy required to remove the outermost electron from a neutral atom
First Ionization energy
increases across, and decreases down a group
Zeff increases across, and electron size decreases down
where are electrons removed from?
Always remove electrons from highest subshell
Electron Affinity
the energy change when a gaseous atom gains an electron to form a gaseous ion, want to Add, Increases across and up
Metallic Nature
decreases across, increases down
Electronegavity
the attraction hat an atom exerts on a shared pair of electrons, increases across, decreases down
Lattice energy
measure of the strength of ionic forces in a solid

Hf=Hsub+IE+Energy bondsbrroken+EA
Coordination number
how much stuff is stuck on there
temp changes?
Tf=Kfm (molality, t=change in temp)
Tb=Kbm
Parts per million
mass of component/total mass of soln*10^6
Mass percentage
mass of component/total mass of solution*100
Molality
moles of solute.kg solvent
Naming coordination compounds
name cation, then anion, name the ligans first in alphabetical order then the metal, anionic legans end in the letter o, neutral ligans are the name of he molecules, number is indicated by di,tri,tetra,penta, hexa, if ligand already has that go to bis,tris, teatrakis,pentakis,hexakis, if anionic complex should be termed with ate, write oxidation number
# of d
group number minus oxidation state
Isomers
same molecular formula, but somehow different
Structural-different bonds, coordination and linkage
Stereoisomers-same bonds different arrangements-geometrical,isomers
Coordination sphere-can have Cl out or HO out
Linkage-ie thiocyanate, different middle
Geometrical-rearranged, cis-next to trans-across from
Mer-on meridian, fac-on face
Something is achiral
if:pair of identical trans to one another, two identical cis ligands that are trans to another pair of identical cis ligands
Crystal field theory
energy splits, splitting determines what light is absorbed
Crystalline solid
has a regular repeating pattern, the smallest unit of this is called a unit cell
Simple Cubic-I atom, 1/8 atom at corner, 2r
Body centered-2 atoms, 4r=squared,
Face centered-4 atoms
crystalline solid density
Density of a solid (g/cm)=mass of I unit cell/volume of I unit cell
Mass=(number of formula units inside unit cell)(molar mass)(1 mole/6.02*10^23)
Volume=e^3
Shapes?
Linear
Trigonal planar, bent
Tetrahedral, trigoal pyramidal, bent
Trigonal bipyramidal, Seesaw,T-shaped, Linear
Octahedral, square pyramidal, square planar,T-shaped,linear
Cathode/Anode
Voltaic Cell-produce electricity from chemical rxn

Cathode-where redox occurs
Anode-where oxidation occurs
Polarity?
Can be polar if there is a difference in electronegativity between the atoms in the bonds
hybridization?
sp, sp2,sp3,sp3d,sp3d2
What can effect rate
surface area, concentration, tep
Salt Bridge-
provides way for the charge to flow
Voltaic Cell
produce electricity from chemical rxn
What is EMF
electromotive force-pushes electrons through the wire
Cell potentonal
=Cathode-Anode
Why are lead-acid batteries good?
Rechargeable, lots of current, but heavy and full of lead and sulfuric acid
Alkaline batter
small and not very toxic, not rechargeable
Coulombs?
1 mole electron per coulomb
Coulumb=A/sec
Saturation
unsaturated-less solute than needed for saturation
Supersaturated-more solute than needed for saturation
What does the tendency of a substance to dissolve depend on?
Nature or solute and solvent-like dissolves like, polar solids and polar or ionic
Pressure effects-increase pressure, increase solubility
Temp effects-increase temp, increase solubility gases are opposite ie soda